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Beseda  

John Tyrrell

(Cz.: ‘friendly conversation’; pl. besedy)

Several subsidary meanings developed in the 19th century; those connected with music are listed below.

(1) A type of social entertainment (often with instructive aims) or concert. This meaning developed in the 1840s during the Czech National Revival as a manifestation of middle-class cultural activity and could include declamation, music or dance.

(2) An organization, especially a club or society. The name beseda then became conferred on institutions which organized meetings, cultural events, lending libraries etc. The Měšťanská Beseda (‘Townspeople’s Club’) was formed in Prague 1846 as an important centre of national life and provided a model for other similar institutions such as the Beseda Brněnská (‘Brno Club’, 1860), which was particularly orientated towards music and which met in the purpose-built Besední Dům (‘Meeting House’). The first Czech organization which brought together writers, artists and musicians was the Umělecká Beseda (‘Artistic Society’, 1863); the Czech publishing firm Hudební Matice...

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Noël Goodwin

The first event described as a festival in this seaside resort on the English south coast was in 1870, when a series of oratorio concerts at the Dome was organized on a subscription basis by Wilhelm Kuhe, a pupil of Tomášek and Thalberg, who came to England in 1847 and settled in Brighton as conductor, pianist and teacher. He organized annual choral festivals from 1871 until 1882, when mounting financial deficits caused them to be abandoned. A similar festival idea was briefly resumed in 1911 by Joseph Stainton, who engaged Elgar, Edward German and Coleridge Taylor as guest conductors, but this failed to take root.

Festivals under the artistic direction of Ian Hunter began in 1967 with a concert by the City of Warsaw PO. In the following year the range was extended by the formation of the Brighton Festival Chorus of 150 voices under László Heltay. An association was established with Alexander Goehr; new orchestral works of his were given in ...

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Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

International festival of orchestral and chamber music, solo recitals, and staged works, established in 1963 in Aptos, California. It was founded by Lou Harrison, the bassoonist Robert Hughes, and Ted Toews, an instructor at Cabrillo College. Held for two weeks in August in the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium and at various other locations, such as the Mission San Juan Bautista, the festival is noted for its innovative programming and emphasis on the works of living composers: it has staged at least 120 world premieres and over 60 US premieres. The first music director, Gerhard Samuel, was succeeded by Richard Williams in 1969, Carlos Chávez in 1970, Dennis Russell Davies in 1974, John Adams in 1991, and Marin Alsop in 1992. The directors have stressed making the artists accessible to their audiences through workshops and “Meet the Composer” sessions, open rehearsals, and a composer-in-residence program, in which John Adams, William Bolcom, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Carlos Chávez, Aaron Copland, John Corigliano, Michael Daugherty, Philip Glass, Osvaldo Golijov, Lou Harrison, Jennifer Higdon, Keith Jarrett, Aaron Jay Kernis, Libby Larsen, Tania León, Pauline Oliveros, Arvo Pärt, Christopher Rouse, Joseph Schwantner, Virgil Thomson, and Joan Tower have participated. The festival orchestra consists of about 65 musicians from leading orchestras in the United States and Canada....

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Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

Annual summer concert series established in Katonah, New York, in 1946. Caramoor was once the elaborate Mediterranean-style country estate of Walter and Lucie Rosen, who began arranging musicales for invited audiences in the 1930s. Still held on those grounds, the festival today includes operas, orchestral concerts, chamber-music and solo recitals, dance, lectures, and special events for children, held in two open-air sites on the estate: the Venetian Theater (capacity 1500) and the Spanish Courtyard (capacity 500). In addition, concerts are staged year-round in the villa’s Music Room. While Caramoor hosts musical performances from classical, opera, and jazz, to Latin American dance and global fusion, the core of the festival’s activities center on performances by members of the St. Luke’s Chamber Ensemble. Internationally renowned soloists and ensembles as Beverly Sills, Jessye Norman, Alicia de Larrocha, Garrick Ohlsson, the Beaux Arts Trio, the Tokyo String Quartet, and the Waverly Consort have appeared as guest artists. The festival added the Bel Canto at Caramoor opera series in ...

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Casinos  

Janis L. McKay

[hotel casinos]

The word casino originally referred to small garden houses that were used for music and table games in Europe; over time, it came to mean any building in which gambling took place. Historically, hotel casino owners have used musical entertainment to draw tourists to their locations, in the hope that before and after the performance guests will spend time gambling. Casinos vary greatly in size and design, from small ones located on remote Native American reservations to large mega-resorts found in Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and on reservations located near major cities.

The largest number of casinos in the United States is in Las Vegas, often called the “entertainment capital of the world,” and their music is generally typical of what larger casinos in the United States offer. The first casino opened in 1906; the “Arizona Club” was one of the first to offer music, employing three pianists. The Arizona Club was located on notorious “Block 16,” an area originally designated for drinking, prostitution, and gambling. When Nevada banned gambling in ...

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W.H. Husk

Festivals held to commemorate St Cecilia's Day (22 November). The custom of celebrating the day by musical performances long existed in various countries, and many associations were formed for the purpose. The earliest recorded association was established in 1570 at Evreux, Normandy, under the title of ‘Le Puy de musique’; various liturgical performances were followed by a banquet after mass on the feast day and prizes were awarded for the best motets, partsongs, airs and sonnets.

Not until a century later was any similar association established in England. In 1683 a body known as the Musical Society initiated a series of annual celebrations in London; their practice was to hold a service (usually at St Bride's church), at which a choral service and anthem with orchestral accompaniment were performed by a large number of musicians, and a sermon, usually in defence of cathedral music, was preached. They then moved to another place (often Stationers' Hall), where an ode in praise of music, composed for the occasion, was performed. Such odes were written by Dryden (...

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An annual series of orchestral, chamber and solo concerts, with occasional operas, held in June or July and lasting one to two weeks. It was instituted in 1945 by the Borough of Cheltenham as the Cheltenham Festival, and since 1947 has been additionally supported by the Arts Council of Great Britain, devolved to South West Arts from 1992. Until 1962 it was announced as a ‘Festival of British Contemporary Music’, and primarily featured new works by British composers in a context of more general programmes. In the first 25 festivals a total of 291 works by 142 British composers received their first public performances.

The decision to organize such a festival was taken during wartime, in 1944, on the proposal of G.A.M. Wilkinson, the borough entertainments manager, who advocated the inclusion of one new work by a British composer in each programme as a means of giving the festival a distinctive musical character. He served as festival organizer for 25 years, until ...

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Linda Whitesitt

Voluntary associations of professional and amateur musicians. Music clubs have had a profound impact on the modern institutions and practices of American musical life that arose in the decades spanning the turn of the 20th century. Emerging after the Civil War and as part of the long tradition of 19th-century women’s organizations, most of these music clubs were founded by women to offer women musicians the opportunity to study music and perform for each other. By 1893, when the first gathering of women’s music clubs convened at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, many clubs had broadened their mission to include what they described as the advancement of public taste and the promotion of high-quality music. A rapidly expanding body of members (men would eventually join the ranks of club members) in individual music clubs, as well as the National Federation of Music Clubs (chartered in 1898), would accomplish these goals by sponsoring concert series of European and American artists, chamber ensembles, orchestras, and opera companies in their communities....

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