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Amener  

(Fr.: ‘to lead’)

A 17th-century dance in moderate triple metre characterized by six-bar phrases usually grouped into either three-bar units or a four-bar and a two-bar unit. The amener is generally considered to have derived from the branle de Poitou à mener, in which one couple led the other dancers. Its characteristic phrasing is similar to that of the ...

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Stephen D. Winick

Government agency and archive. The American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress was created by the US Congress in 1976 to “preserve and present American Folklife,” the first time US federal law mandated the conservation of folk culture. The Center soon acquired the Archive of Folk Culture, which had been established by the Library of Congress’s music division in 1928. Through the efforts of such leaders as Robert W. Gordon, John Lomax, Alan Lomax, and Joe Hickerson, the archive had acquired thousands of hours of field recordings, and provided access to them in a public reading room as well as through books and record albums. By 1978, when it became part of AFC, it was already the largest ethnographic archive in the United States, as well as the source for many popular pieces of music, including Aaron Copland’s Hoedown, Johnny Cash’s “Rock Island Line,” and the Kingston Trio’s “Tom Dooley.”...

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Katherine Meizel

American television show. Developed by the music executive Simon Fuller of 19 Entertainment, American Idol is one of more than 40 “Idol” programs that have been televised around the world, each designed for a particular nation or region. The show was first broadcast on British television as Pop Idol in 2001, before airing in the United States on the Fox Network the following year. American Idol itself has been broadcast in more than half of all sovereign states.

Its format draws on forerunners including Major Bowes’ Amateur Hour, Star Search, Popstars, and The Eurovision Song Contest and invites viewers to vote, typically by telephone or text message, in the election of a new pop star. Candidates vying for a recording contract are chosen by producers through a series of open auditions. When the voting episodes begin, contestants’ live weekly performances are critiqued by a panel of judges. Simon Cowell, Randy Jackson, and Paula Abdul served as the initial panel of judges for ...

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Michael Tilmouth

(Gk.: ‘prelude’)

A term used in ancient Greece in the period of Pindar for the prelude or introduction to a song but subsequently associated with the melodically extravagant, chromatically inflected solo songs or monodies of which Timotheus of Miletus was the most significant exponent. Hans Kotter used the term (in Greek) in the early 16th century for a freely constructed keyboard prelude in a tablature (in CH-Bu ) assembled for the humanist Bonifacius Amerbach (ed. in SMd, vi, 1967; facs. in W. Apel: The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900–1600, Cambridge, MA, 1942, 5/1961, p.29; transcr. also in HAM, no.84g).

W. Merian: Der Tanz in den deutschen Tabulaturbüchern (Leipzig, 1927/R), 37–75 Y. Rokseth: ‘The Instrumental Music of the Middle Ages and Early Sixteenth Century’, NOHM , 3 (1960/R), 406–65 O. Tiby: ‘La composition anabolique’, Histoire de la musique, ed. Roland-Manuel, 1 (Paris, 1960), 419–22

See also...

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Meredith Ellis Little

[anglois, angloise] (Fr.: ‘English’)

18th-century term used on the Continent to refer to various types of English dance, primarily the ever-popular country dances, but occasionally also the hornpipe. Country dances were a recreational activity in the French court of Louis XIV as early as the 1680s, but they were soon altered to conform to French taste by the use of characteristic French steps such as the pas de bourrée and the contretemps de gavotte; the resulting hybrid was called Contredanse . In 1699 Ballard published a Suite de danses … qui se joüent ordinairement aux bals chez le Roy which contained 17 ‘contredanses anglaises’.

Pieces entitled ‘anglaise’ are generally in a style reminiscent of the music accompanying country dances: they may be in duple or triple metre or in 6/8, and they have an obvious accent on the first beat of the bar; the melodies are lively, often covering a wide range and with some disjunct motion. Examples of the stylized anglaise may be found in J.S. Bach’s French Suite no.3, J.C.F. Fischer’s ...

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Anthem  

John Harper, Peter Le Huray, Ralph T. Daniel and John Ogasapian

A choral setting of a religious or moral text in English, generally designed for liturgical performance. See also National anthems .

John Harper

In the Middle Ages the term derived from and was synonymous with Antiphon . After the Reformation the term denotes a polyphonic setting of a sacred English text, normally sung by the choir after the collects at Matins and Evensong; the text is freely chosen, most often from the Bible (especially the psalms) or from the Book of Common Prayer. The connection between Latin antiphon sung within the Office and English anthem sung as an appendage to Matins or Evensong is found in the Commemoration, Memoiral or Suffrage in which the antiphon was the most important musical element. In the medieval liturgy a Commemoration, Memorial or Suffrage was often appended to the main Office (e.g. Lauds or Vespers); this observance normally consisted of Benedictus or Magnificat antiphon, versicle and response, and collect – effectively a truncated Office commemorating an intention additional to the main Office (e.g. the saints, the dead, or a saint remembered on that day but not taking precedence in the main Office; see ...

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Michel Huglo and Joan Halmo

In Latin Christian chant generally, a liturgical chant with a prose text, sung in association with a psalm. In Gregorian psalmody, for example, psalms and canticles are usually preceded and followed by a single antiphon, and the psalm tone used for the recitation of the psalm itself is often musically incomplete without the antiphon. Antiphons of this kind may be regarded as typical and are represented above all by the Gregorian antiphons to the psalms of Matins, Lauds and Vespers in the Divine Office. There are also other categories of antiphon, some of which may lack psalmody or have versified texts.

The antiphon and responsory are the two musical genres with Latin prose texts that occur in all the Western liturgies and are the most abundant within the chant repertory. A given medieval Office source might have as many as 1500 antiphons, and even up to 2000; such a large number could occur in a monastic usage, whereas the secular (or canons') repertory would generally have fewer (see §4 below)....

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Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[antiphonal, antiphonary] (from Lat. antiphona; antiphonarius [liber], antiphonarium, antiphonale)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the antiphons and other choir chants sung at the services of the Divine Office .

Although the word antiphona as a term for a liturgical chant can be traced back to the 3rd century, the term antiphonarius (rarely also antiphonale – see below) for a book of chants first appears in the 8th century. In his Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis Archbishop Egbert of York (d 766) refers to an ‘antiphonarium’ and even ‘antiphonaria’ of Gregory the Great (d 604), which he had seen in Rome in the 730s ( PL , lxxxix, 440–42). The term was also used in Carolingian library catalogues from the end of the 8th century:Catalogue from St Wandrille de Fontenelle in Normandy, compiled between 787 and 806 (‘antiphonarii romanae ecclesiae’; G. Becker: Catalogi bibliothecarum antiqui, Bonn, 1885/R, §4, no.21);Catalogue from St Riquier in Picardy, in 831 (‘antiphonarii sex’: ibid., §11, no.238);Catalogue from Cologne, in the 9th century (ibid., §16, nos.7, 18, 33);Catalogue from St Gallen in the mid-9th century (‘antiphonarii III et veteres II’; ...

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Davitt Moroney

revised by Julie Anne Sadie

(Fr.)

An instrumental musical form whose programmatic element honoured a dead musician, usually Lully. In an apothéose the favoured dead are welcomed by Apollo (representing Louis XIV) on to Mount Parnassus.

Surviving apothéoses are few, and the earliest survive as satirical scenarios. The anonymous Le triomphe de Lulli aux Champs Elysées ( F-Pn 6542, no.173, f.260) dates from 1687, the year of Lully’s death. In it Lully, defended by Polyhymnia, is subjected to a trial – examining musical and moral charges brought against him by French musicians – before being honoured by Apollo and the heroes of his operas. The following year François de Callières included an account of Lully’s reception on Parnassus in his Histoire poétique de la guerre nouvellement déclamée entre les anciens et les modernes (1688), in which an Italian musician tries to thwart Lully’s arrival by reporting Lully’s sharp practices in the theatre to Orpheus (who can also be taken as representing the king); the ever-confident Lully brushes aside the charges and invites Orpheus to join him in creating ‘an opera that will be worth money to us’, a proposal Orpheus firmly rejects....

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Robert N. Freeman

(Lat.)

A genre of 18th-century Austrian cloister theatre: a compact, Latin operetta or semi-dramatic cantata in one act or part, of a congratulatory character. It consisted of a series of solo ariosos or arias alternating with recitative, with at least one ensemble number (duet, trio or quartet), as well as a final chorus that usually functioned as an encomiastic licenza (see Licenza). The arias, ensembles and choruses were cast predominantly in da capo form, and the whole was introduced by an orchestral overture (‘intrada’, ‘introduzione’, ‘sinfonia’) that typically followed the Italian three-movement pattern. The weight of the concluding chorus and the elaborate scoring (a feature possibly derived from the Italian serenata) were characteristic. Joseph Haydn’s Applausus hXXIVa:6, composed in 1768 for the Cistercian monastery at Zwettl, is in many respects representative.

The applausus was often performed scenically on a stage with costumes. It may have evolved out of the musical prologue and epilogue encasing the acts of the old Baroque cloister drama (...

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Michael Ethen

A genre of recorded music and performance that peaked in the 1970s. After a decade of the music’s development, the label stabilized in critical discourse around 1977. It describes a subset of rock music either designed for, or to evoke, performance in large venues, delivered chiefly by American groups backed by powerful conglomerate record companies. As a marker of its wide popularity, the genre drew the scorn of rockist critics but the adoration of unabashed entertainment seekers. Typical songs are either anthemic, encouraging the vocal and visceral participation of audiences, or of a ballad type, providing moments of repose. Instrumental solo features also figure prominently, showcasing drummer proficiency and reinforcing the ideals of guitar-hero culture. Designed for live performance, these songs also succeed as sonic artifacts, since recordings that include pre-recorded audience noise and rhythmic hand claps frequently give the illusion of concerts. Although recordings are equally deserving of the term, more illumination derives from an examination of its performance history....