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Maria Kostakeva

(b Plevnya, nr Drama, Jan 31, 1870; d Plovdiv, Jan 3, 1950). Bulgarian composer, conductor, pianist, and ethnomusicologist, one of the pioneers of professional music in Bulgaria. He received his musical education at the Prague Organ School, where he graduated in 1890. From 1894 he worked as a teacher in the King Alexander high school in Plovdiv. In 1896 he founded the Singing Society in Plovdiv, which he directed about 50 years. Between 1892 and 1898 he undertook folklore expeditions in Rodopi, Mittelforest, and Macedonia and recorded 2500 songs. In 1902 he became editor of the monthly Musicanthology. In 1921 he founded the first private music school, called Rodna pesen (‘Heimat song’), in Plovdiv and was its first director. He was among the first musicians to work professionally after Bulgaria's liberation from the Ottoman Empire in 1876. Like Dobri Khristov and other composers he collected previously unresearched folksongs from various regions of the country; 461 of these songs were published in the Bulgarian folklore anthology ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Berlin, Nov 26, 1838; d Berlin, Jan 18, 1900). German music theorist and conductor. His maternal grandfather was the famous tenor Karl Bader; his father, Robert Bussler, was a painter, author and privy counsellor. Ludwig studied music with A.E. Grell, Siegfried Dehn (theory) and W.F. Wieprecht (instrumentation). From 1865 he taught theory at the Ganz School of Music (later the Schwantzer Conservatory) in Berlin. In 1874 he was nominated professor at the Mohr Conservatory and in 1877 he resumed his post at the Schwantzer Conservatory. From 1879 he taught theory at the Stern Conservatory, receiving the title of royal professor in 1898. Bussler was also active as a conductor at various Berlin theatres. In 1883 he began contributing music criticism to the Nationalzeitung, and he also wrote for other Berlin journals.

Riemann noted that the wide acceptance of Bussler's theoretical works was due to their practical focus. Bussler's texts are full of examples from 18th- and 19th-century masters, and are punctuated by many exercises. Like Riemann, Bussler wrote about a large variety of musical subjects, including harmony, counterpoint, form, melodic construction, modulation and instrumentation. Contemporary appreciation of Bussler's work is indicated by the fact that Russian editions of five of his works were completed in the mid-1880s. S.I. Taneyev personally translated ...


Patrick Warfield

(b Buffalo, NY, Dec 5, 1930). American musicologist, conductor, and educator. Camus attended Queens College, CUNY (BA 1952), Columbia University (MA 1956), and New York University (PhD 1969, with a dissertation on military music in the US Army prior to 1834). Joining the 42d Infantry (Rainbow) Division Band in 1945 (New York National Guard), Camus was commissioned as an army reserve bandmaster (warrant officer) in 1957, a position from which he retired in 1974. Following several years working in music publishing and teaching in New York public schools, Camus joined the faculty at Queensborough Community College, CUNY in 1969. He retired as emeritus in 1995. While at Queensborough, Camus founded and directed the Queens Symphonic Band (1970–96).

Camus has long been a vigorous advocate for the study of American music in general, and bands in particular. One of the founding members of the Sonneck Society for American Music in ...


Howard Schott

(b Denver, June 28, 1906; d Uccle, Brussels, March 26, 1973). American conductor, musicologist and composer. After early piano and composition studies in Denver, he went to Belgium in 1925 to study composition with Moulaert and musicology with Van den Borren, whose daughter he later married. During the period 1928–32 he concentrated on composition, producing a piano trio, a string trio, piano solos and songs. In 1933, however, he gave up all other activity to devote his time to the authentic realization in performance of medieval and Renaissance music. He formed the Pro Musica Antiqua of Brussels, a performing ensemble of singers and instrumentalists specializing in 13th- to 16th-century music. Van den Borren served as the group’s musical adviser. As its conductor Cape toured throughout Europe and North and South America, and made many recordings for such distinguished series as L’Anthologie Sonore, directed by Curt Sachs, and the History of European Music in Sound. After World War II he resumed conducting the Pro Musica Antiqua both on concert tours and in recordings, including several of documentary historical interest. With the aid of the Belgian Ministry of Education he established a European Seminar on Early Music at Bruges. Cape set up a similar project in Lisbon at the Gulbenkian Foundation in ...


Gerald R. Benjamin


(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...


Dieter Lehnhoff

(b Guatemala City, 1898; d Guatemala City, 1983). Guatemalan composer, conductor and theorist. After studying in Paris, he founded an orchestra in Guatemala City in the early 1930s. This group, initially called Ars Nova, was later designated by the president and dictator Jorge Ubico as the official state orchestra, taking the name Orquesta Progresista (1936). When it was later militarized, Castañeda resigned and once again settled in Europe. He later returned to Guatemala and served as director of the National Conservatory and in various other official capacities. He had a considerable influence on the younger generation through his long time spent teaching at the Conservatory. As a music theorist, he aroused international interest through a system of notation of music and choreography which he presented at numerous congresses in Europe and North America, and published in his book Las polaridades del ritmo y del sonido (Guatemala City, ...


Katy Romanou

(b Athens, Greece, May 5, 1969). Greek musicologist specialising in Byzantine music, university professor, cantor, and choir conductor. Chaldaeakes studied theology at the University of Athens. Due to his musical talent and vast knowledge of church music, he was employed in 1992 in the newly established music department of the same university, to assist professor Gregorios Stathis, the first teacher of Byzantine music in the department. In 1998 he earned the PhD in musicology there, and in 1999 he was elected a faculty member of the music department.

He is a diligent and ingenious researcher, with over 150 publications in Greek and other languages on Byzantine and post-Byzantine music and musicians. His scientific competence is well represented in the voluminous collection of Stathis’ writings that he edited in 2001. Aiming at closer communication between Greek and Western musicologists, he has collaborated with musicologists in the USA, England, Austria, Denmark, and Russia. As of ...


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Kristina Yapova

(b Varna, Dec 14, 1875; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1941). Eminent Bulgarian composer, music theorist, conductor, and pedagogue who left an immense creative heritage in music as well as in musicology. After completing his secondary education he became a primary school teacher in his native town Varna (1894). Co-founder and conductor of the Musical Society Gusla (1899), he was at the same time conductor of the choir at the church Sveto Uspenie Bogorodichno [The Assumption]. During the years 1900–03 he studied composition in the class of Antonin Dvořák at the Prague Conservatory. In 1907 he won a first prize in the contest dedicated to the opening of the National Theatre in Sofia, with the Festive Overture Ivailo. From that year on he set up in Sofia as a secondary school teacher, as a teacher in the Private Music School, a director of the State School of Music (...


Godelieve Spiessens

revised by Sylvie Janssens

(b Boom, June 8, 1891; d Brussels, Dec 10, 1989). Belgian musicologist, pianist and conductor. As a prizewinner of Mechelen Conservatory, he began to appear as a pianist in 1911. In 1919 he obtained the doctorate in natural sciences at Brussels and became a professor at the Mechelen Atheneum. He founded the Pro Arte concerts at Brussels in 1921, with the principal intention of promoting the performance and appreciation of contemporary music. As director of the Flemish music service of Belgian Radio (1937–53) he was able to champion new music all the more effectively, though at the same time he also contributed to the rediscovery of figures such as Cavalieri, Cesti and Monteverdi. During World War I he applied himself to ethnomusicology and from 1953 was instrumental in organizing the annual international Colloques de Wégimont. He was also president of the scientific council of the International Institute for Comparative Music Studies in Berlin and was successful in obtaining support from UNESCO for the creation of the Department of Ethnomusicology at the Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale in Tervuren, near Brussels....


Marvin E. Latimer

(b West Hartford, CT, Jan 12, 1926; d Hyannis, MA, June 30, 1997).

American choral conductor and scholar. He attended the prominent Loomis Chaffee School in Windsor, Connecticut. A gifted student, Collins received a Bachelor’s degree (1948) and Master’s degree (1951) from Yale University and a second Master’s degree (1955) and the doctorate (1960) from the University of Michigan. At Yale, he sang in the famed Whiffenpoofs, which fostered his interest in American college singing groups and their music. His compilation of college songs, The Walter S. Collins Collection, is housed in the American Music Research Center at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he served as Professor and Associate Dean for Graduate Studies from 1971–88. Other research contributions include a chapter in Choral Conducting: a Symposium and a collection of anthems by Thomas Weelkes for Musica Brittanica. He edited the ...


David Tunley

(b Sydney, Feb 1, 1931). Australian musicologist, music critic and conductor. He graduated from the University of Queensland with the BA in 1964 and founded the department of music at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, in 1966 (the university first offered music as an interdisciplinary study before it established an institute of practical studies and music education). He took the doctorate at New South Wales in 1976 and was appointed Chair in 1984. His work covers a broad spectrum and includes writings on 17th-century Italian and 19th-century German and French opera, but his major contribution has been in Australian music. His Australia's Music: Themes of a New Society (1967) is regarded as the classic study on this topic, and his insights into the Australian repertory (and beyond) have been sharpened through his work as chief music critic at the Sydney Morning Herald (from 1960...


Aleš Nagode

(b Tupaliče nr Kranj, Slovenia, July 18, 1930). Slovenian choral conductor and musicologist. Studied theology in Ljubljana (ordained in 1954). In 1956 he went to Vienna and studied church music at the Akademie für Musik und darstellende Kunst and read musicology at the University of Vienna (doctoral degree in 1960). After his return to Ljubljana in 1960 he became assistant choirmaster of the cathedral, and choirmaster in 1969. He resigned his post in 1970 in protest against the degradation of the cathedral’s church music in the name of liturgical reform after the second Vatican Council. In 1968 he founded the singing society Consortium Musicum, which specialized in the performance of ancient and modern religious music, and regarded as undesirable by communist authorities. The society’s choir developed into one of the most prominent Slovenian vocal ensembles of the time. Between 1984 and 1991 he was music director of the Komorni zbor RTV Ljubljana (chamber choir of Ljubljana radio and television). He initiated the foundation of the Slovenski komorni zbor (Slovene Chamber Choir) in ...


Philip Brett


(b Mason, MI, Nov 17, 1934). American musicologist, harpsichordist and conductor. He took the BMus at Michigan State University in 1955, and the MMus at the University of Illinois the following year. From 1957 to 1959 he studied in Amsterdam under Gustav Leonhardt, returning to the University of Illinois for the PhD degree, which he gained in 1963 with a dissertation on Sweelinck’s keyboard works. In 1960 he joined the University of California at Berkeley as an instructor; he became an assistant professor in 1962, associate professor in 1966 and professor in 1970. His scholarly work has concentrated on keyboard music and opera and includes several editions (including one of Monteverdi’s L’incoronazione di Poppea) and a book on Sweelinck. In addition to his work as a scholar, he has built up a considerable reputation as a harpsichordist and conductor in the USA and Europe, specializing in the authentic interpretation of the music of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. He made his La Scala début conducting ...


Stanislav Tuksar

(b Dubravka near Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 16, 1934). Croatian musicologist, composer, organist, and choir conductor. He started his theological studies in Split and graduated in 1961 from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Zagreb, where he also attended courses in music at the Institute for Church Music. He gained the PhD in musicology in 1978 at the University of Cologne. From 1959 to 1961, and again from 1970 to 1975, he served in Dubrovnik as organist and choir conductor at the local cathedral. From 1965 until 1969 and from 1980 on he was regens chori at the Zagreb Cathedral. In 1969 he helped in resuming the publication of the oldest Croatian church music journal Sv. Cecilija in Zagreb, which had been interrupted in 1944. His most important scholarly contributions consist of several modern facsimile editions and commentaries on medieval neumatic codices and of musicological activities dealing mostly with Dubrovnik musical history. Among the facsimile editions the most interesting is ...


Svetlana Kujumdzieva

(b Kumanichevo, Macedonia, July 14, 1889; d Sofia, July 2, 1980). Bulgarian composer, teacher, conductor, and musicologist. He was born in the village of Kumanichevo (now in Greece). He graduated from the Theological Seminary in Istanbul and later from the Conservatory in St. Petersburg, where he studied composition and Eastern Orthodox music. Dinev also graduated from the University of St. Petersburg with a degree in Law. In 1919 he was appointed as a teacher of Eastern Orthodox music at the Conservatory of Kazan. In 1922 Dinev returned to Bulgaria and taught music in different high schools until 1924. From 1925 to 1934 he taught church music at the Sofia State Academy of Music. From 1926 to 1944, Dinev also taught church music at the Sofia Theological Academy. During this time he conducted the choir of the Theological Faculty and the choir at the church of Sts. Cyril and Methodios. After ...


Mark E. Perry

(b San Juan, PR, March 26, 1854; d San Juan, PR, April 4, 1934). Puerto Rican composer, flutist, scholar, and conductor. His earliest achievements came as a flutist; he studied flute with Italian-born Rosario Aruti. Chiefly self-taught as a composer, he was influenced musically by his father, a cellist and double bass player, and Felipe Gutiérrez Espinosa, an established Puerto Rican composer of sacred music. In 1877 Dueño Colón received the gold medal from the Ateneo Puertorriqueño for the symphonic work La amistad (1877). In 1880 he formed a municipal band in Bayamón and shortly afterwards served as the flutist for the chapel of San Juan Cathedral. Awards for his compositions continued, including a silver medal at the Pan American Exposition, held in Buffalo in 1901, for Canciones escolares, a collection of original songs as well as arrangements for Puerto Rican school children. In addition to showing substantial interest in European masterworks, he embarked on the scholarly study of the Puerto Rican ...


Zsuzsanna Domokos

(b Budapest, Sept 26, 1943). Hungarian music historian and choir director. She trained as a secondary school music teacher and choir director at the Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest (1961–6), where her teachers were Zoltán Vásárhelyi, István Párkai, György Kroó and Zoltán Gárdonyi. She was librarian and associate scholar of the music section of the National Széchéniy Library (1966–73) and continued to be director of the library’s choir. She was a member of the Hungarian music history department at the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1973–87), her field of speciality being 19th-century Hungarian music. In 1986 she became director of the Liszt Memorial Museum and Research Centre. In this capacity she co-ordinates Liszt research within Hungary and maintains contact with Liszt research abroad, being a member of the American and British Liszt Societies, and on the board of directors of the Weimar Liszt Society. In ...


Katherine K. Preston

revised by Lincoln Ballard

(b New York, NY, Oct 3, 1930; d Concord, MA, Jan 15, 2002).

American conductor, composer, and theorist. After graduating from Antioch College (BA 1951), Epstein studied with Francis Judd Cooke, Carl McKinley, and Felix Wolfes at New England Conservatory (MM 1953), with irving Fine and arthur Berger at Brandeis (MFA 1954), and with Roger Sessions, Milton Babbitt, and Edward T. Cone at Princeton (MFA 1956, PhD 1968). He also studied composition with Darius Milhaud at Aspen (1955–6), and conducting with George Szell, Max Rudolf, and Izler Solomon. Epstein returned to Antioch to teach (1957–62) before joining the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965 as an associate music professor and orchestra director. He became a full professor in 1971 and also served as Department Chair at MIT (1982–3; 1988–9).

Epstein made his national (1960) and international (...


Israel J. Katz

(b Birr, Ireland, Jan 17, 1882; d Law, Scotland, Dec 30, 1965). British musicologist, orientalist and conductor. He studied the violin, the clarinet, the piano and harmony, the last two with Vincent Sykes, organist of St Brendan's Church, Birr, where Farmer was a chorister. In London he studied with H.C. Tonking, Mark Andrews and F.A. Borsdorf and in 1895, while on holiday there with his father, he heard the Royal Artillery Orchestra conducted by Ladislao Zavertal; impressed by its performance, he joined as a violinist and clarinettist and after years of private study he served as its principal horn player, 1902–10. Forced by ill-health to abandon the horn, he began a conducting career at the Broadway Theatre, London (1910–13), while teaching music at various county council schools; he also founded the Irish Orchestra in London, which performed at the National Sunday League Concerts under his direction (...