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Article

Susan Badger Booth

The field of managing the business side of an arts organization. In today’s music world, most of these positions are with not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organizations. Professional arts administrators are responsible for facilitating an organization’s day-to-day operations as well as the strategic long-range planning necessary to fulfill the organization’s mission. Not-for-profit music organizations include but are not limited to: professional and community symphony orchestras and bands, choirs and chorales, chamber orchestras, music ensembles, opera companies, university music societies, presenters, music festivals and jazz bands and ensembles. General duties of an arts administrator can include human resource management, marketing, accounting and financial management, public relations, fundraising, program development and evaluation, strategic planning, and board development and relations.

The role of the arts administrator has grown organically from its original artist/manager model. ureli corelli Hill (1802–75), founder and president of the New York Philharmonic in 1842, is an excellent example of an early artist/manager combining the roles of volunteer, administrator, and artist. For American businessman henry lee Higginson (...

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

[music management]

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, max Maretzek , bernard Ullman , and maurice Strakosch . These men travelled the musicians’ routes, sometimes with the performers and sometimes a week or two ahead, and were responsible for renting a performance venue, arranging publicity, and engaging supporting musicians and needed instruments. Managers also made travel arrangements, secured lodging, and negotiated terms with the managers of local theaters or halls. Some of these managers were themselves performers; the pianist Strakosch frequently toured with singers, and Maretzek was the conductor for his opera companies. This style of management essentially replicated the modus operandi of itinerant theatrical stars. (...

Article

Stephen Holden

Soul duo and songwriting and production team. Nickolas Ashford (b Fairfield, Hilton Head Island, SC, 4 May 1942; d New York, NY, 22 Aug 2011) and Valerie Simpson (b Bronx, NY, 26 Aug 1946) met in 1963; their first successful songwriting collaboration was “Let’s go get stoned” which, in a recording by Ray Charles (ABC, 1966), reached no.31 on the pop chart. They became staff writers and producers for Motown, where they worked with such performers as Marvin Gaye and Tammi Terrell (“You’re all I need to get by,” Motown, 1968) and “Ain’t nothing like the real thing,” Motown, 1968) and Diana Ross (“Ain’t no mountain high enough, Motown, 1970). Ashford produced two albums that Simpson recorded under her own name (Exposed!, Motown, 1971, and Valerie Simpson, Motown, 1972). After leaving Motown, they released their first album together for Warner Bros., ...

Article

Loren Kajikawa

Record label based in San Francisco, California. Founded by Jon Jang and Francis Wong in 1987, it was inspired by African American musicians, including Charles Mingus, Max Roach, Sun Ra, and members of Chicago’s AACM, who turned to self-production as a way to maintain creative control of their work. With its name derived from the phrase “Asian American Improvised Music,” the label initially functioned as an outlet for recordings by Jang and pianist Glenn Horiuchi, two early leaders in ASIAN AMERICAN JAZZ. In 1988, Jang and Wong created Asian Improv Arts, a nonprofit organization promoting performances by Asian American artists, many of whom record with the label.

Early Asian Improv releases reflect the concerns of the Asian American consciousness movement, such as combating anti-Asian violence and gaining redress and reparations for Japanese Americans incarcerated during World War II. In the 1990s, however, the label began broadening its roster to reflect a greater diversity of artistic and ethnic viewpoints, including a greater engagement with music and musicians from Asian countries. Although primarily devoted to creating space in the recording industry for Asian American voices, the record label has fostered collaboration across racial lines. For example, African American musicians Fred Anderson, Joseph Jarmon, James Newton, Max Roach, and numerous others have released recordings with Asian Improv or appeared on recordings by its artists....

Article

[AACM]

A nonprofit organization devoted to African American avant-garde music. It was founded in Chicago’s South Side on 8 May 1965 by members of Muhal Richard Abrams’ free-jazz ensemble the Experimental Band. As well as Abrams, who was its first president, the AACM’s original members were Fred Anderson, Roscoe Mitchell, Amina Claudine Myers, Malachi Favors, Thurman Barker, Joseph Jarman, and Maurice McIntyre. Its main objectives have been to organize concerts for the public and workshops for its members, and since the foundation of the AACM School of Music in 1969 to conduct free training programs for young musicians. In addition it has aimed “to set an example of high moral standards for musicians.” Its primary intention was to provide an alternative to the established art institutions in order to promote the music of young, independent, experimental African American musicians. With the postulate to move towards a multicultural and multi-ethnic outlook, each member created “original music”—notated, improvised, or both—by striving beyond the set boundaries of jazz to explore a stylistic hybridity. Its musicians broke new ground by making use of extended techniques, interactivity, experimental forms and notation, invented acoustic instruments, installations, and kinetic sculptures....

Article

Bill C. Malone

revised by Barry Mazor

[Chester Burton ]

(b nr Luttrell, TN, June 20, 1924, d Nashville, TN, June 30, 2001). American country-music guitarist and recording company executive. Although the first instrument he played professionally was the fiddle, he became internationally famous as a guitarist. Developed while he was in high school, his guitar style was influenced by Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt, and George Barnes and was characterized by the use of the thumb to establish a rhythm on the lower strings and multiple fingers to play melodic or improvisational passages on the higher strings, sometimes with complex voicings. In the early 1940s Atkins toured with Archie Campbell and Bill Carlisle playing both fiddle and guitar, and appeared with them on WNOX radio in Knoxville. He then toured with the second generation Carter Family as a sideman and in 1946 joined Red Foley. After beginning his association with the “Grand Ole Opry” he settled in Nashville in ...

Article

Craig Jennex

American boy band formed in Orlando, Florida, in 1993. Founded by the teen-pop aficionado Lou Pearlman, the group became part of a hugely successful teen-pop movement in the late 1990s. Its best-known line-up was Nick Carter (b Jamestown, NY, 28 Jan 1980), Howie Dorough (b Orlando, FL, 22 Aug 1973), Brian Littrell (b Lexington, KY, 20 Feb 1975), A(lexander) J(ames) McLean (b Palm Beach, FL, 9 Jan 1978), and, until 2006, Kevin Richardson (b Lexington, 3 Oct 1971). Their albums include Backstreet Boys (Jive Records, 1996), Backstreet’s Back (Jive Records, 1997), Millennium (Jive Records, 1999), Black & Blue (Jive Records, 2000), Never Gone (Jive Records, 2005), Unbreakable (Jive Records, 2007), and This is Us (Jive Records, 2009). The band was widely known and celebrated in Europe, Asia, and Canada before becoming popular in the United States. By the 2010s they had sold more than 130 million records worldwide and were considered the most successful boy band of all time. The Backstreet Boys have been recognized internationally with awards from MTV Europe (...

Article

Lukas Pearse

Hardcore punk rock group. Formed in Washington, DC in 1977, its classic lineup includes guitarist Dr. Know (Gary Miller), bassist Darryl Jenifer, drummer Earl Hudson, and vocalist H.R. (Earl’s brother, Paul D. Hudson). The group remained active into 2011, despite various breakups, departures, and reunions. Originally formed as a jazz fusion group, but inspired by punk rock and reggae, Bad Brains pioneered the extremely fast and loud style that became known as Hardcore, influencing bands such as Minor Threat and Black Flag. Integrating reggae songs, complex rhythms, heavy metal and jazz-influenced guitar solos, and unison riffs—all unusual in hardcore—Bad Brains remains highly distinctive. Its lyrics often explore themes of Rastafarianism and social-political consciousness.

Although one of the definitive 1980s hardcore bands, the group’s popularity was hampered by erratic touring and poor distribution of their recordings. Nevertheless, their influence has been acknowledged by subsequent groups such as the Beastie Boys, Rage Against The Machine, Red Hot Chili Peppers, and Living Colour....

Article

Ronnie Pugh

Country-music group. Its principal members were four brothers: Kyle (Otis) Bailes (b Enoch, WV, 7 May 1915; d 3 March 1996), Johnnie (John Jacob) Bailes (b St. Albans, WV, 24 June 1918; d 21 Dec 1989), Walter (Butler) Bailes (b North Charleston, WV, 17 Jan 1920; d Sevierville, TN, 27 Nov 2000), and Homer (Vernon) Bailes (b North Charleston, WV, 8 May 1922); at different times various combinations of the brothers and other musicians made up the group. Brought up by a widowed mother during the Depression, the brothers formed a group called the Hymn Singers to earn their living. Among the performers who influenced their style were Hank and Slim Newman and the Holden Brothers. The Bailes Brothers worked on various West Virginia radio stations, where their colleagues included Molly O’Day (then known as Dixie Lee) and Little Jimmy Dickens, billed by Johnnie as the Singing Midget. During World War II, while Homer was in military service, Johnnie and Walter performed as a duo on the “Grand Ole Opry,” having secured the booking through their friendship with Roy Acuff. In the mid- 1940s the group made its most successful recordings, mostly of songs written by Walter, for Columbia; at that time it was known as the West Virginia Home Folks. In ...

Article

Article

Raoul F. Camus

A musical ensemble consisting of the standard woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. Adjectives, such as circus, college, concert, military, parade, symphonic, or town denote specific functions, often implying instrumental combinations and usages; this article deals mainly with the history of such ensembles in the United States (See also Circus Music; Military music; and Wind Ensemble.) In its more general sense, the term “band” is used to describe other vernacular ensembles, such as banjo, dance, jazz, jug, mummers, rock, steel, string, and theater bands. For information on such groups see Country music; Folk music; Jazz ; Pop ; and Rock .

The terms “band” and “orchestra” were often used interchangeably in the past but have become increasingly distinct. Bands, descended from the medieval “high” (loud) instruments, the human Marsyas in Greek mythology, the waits, and Stadtpfeifer, generally performed outdoors, therefore requiring a predominance of the louder brass and percussion instruments. They were mobile, usually associated with a military organization and therefore uniformed, had a vernacular appeal, and generally gave free performances of lighter forms of music for the mass public. Orchestras, on the other hand, are descended from the medieval “low” (soft) instruments, the god Apollo, and the concept of chamber music. The musicians normally performed indoors using predominantly strings and the softer wind instruments; were stationary and usually associated with the church or nobility; and appealed to a sophisticated audience with more serious music for which audiences paid. Until the early 20th century professional musicians were expected to be “double-handed”: competent on both string and wind instruments. The function therefore determined the ensemble’s instrumentation, the performers forming a wind band for outdoor occasions or an orchestra for indoor concerts and entertainments....

Article

Chris McDonald

Canadian rock group. It comprised Robbie Robertson (b Toronto, ON, 5 July 1943; electric guitar and songwriting), Levon Helm (b Elaine, AR, 26 May 1940; d Woodstock, NY, 19 April 2012; drums), Richard Manuel (b Stratford, ON, 3 April 1943; d Winter Park, FL, 4 March 1986; piano and songwriting), Rick Danko (b Simcoe, ON, 29 Dec 1942; d Hurley, NY, 10 Dec 1999; bass guitar, fiddle, mandolin, and songwriting), and Garth Hudson (b Windsor, ON, 2 Aug 1937; organ, accordion, woodwind, and brass). All except Hudson also sang.

Following a move to Toronto in 1958, the Arkansas rockabilly performer Ronnie Hawkins hired a backing group that later became the Band. Helm was the original drummer, but other positions in the group changed for three years, until Robertson, Manuel, Danko, and Hudson were established as permanent members. In 1964 the group left Hawkins and performed first as the Levon Helm Sextet, then Levon Helm and the Hawks, and finally as the Band. The group was hired by Bob Dylan to back him on his first electric rock tour (...

Article

Banda  

Helena Simonett

[Banda Sinaloense]

Banda (band) is a generic Spanish term for a variety of ensembles consisting of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments found throughout Latin America. Introduced in the mid-1800s, brass bands were a fixture of Mexico’s musical life in the late 19th century and flourished in both rural and urban areas. With the revolutionary movement (1910–20) bandas populares (popular bands) developed pronounced regional characteristics, and the lineup in regional bands became increasingly more standardized.

Among the many regional bands, banda sinaloense (Sinaloan banda) stands out, as this type gained a reputation in the international popular music market at the close of the twentieth century. The ensemble dates back to the military bands of European colonists and to the brass music of German immigrants to Mexico’s northern Pacific coast in the mid-19th century. After its consolidation in the early 20th century, band membership in Sinaloa averaged from nine to 12 musicians playing clarinets, cornets or trumpets, trombones with valves, saxhorns, tubas, snare drums (...

Article

Helena Simonett

[de Cruz Lizárraga]

Internationally renowned Mexican banda, originally from the village of El Recodo, some 30 miles from Mazatlán, Sinaloa. Clarinetist Cruz Lizárraga (b El Recodo, 1918; d Mazatlán, 1995), who led the band starting in 1938, secured a recording session with RCA-Victor in Mexico City in 1954 which helped to establish the band’s name beyond its regional confines. Its key to success was the musicians’ ability to accommodate their ranchera (country) music to an urban audience of the upper social strata by adopting international popular dance styles from fox trot and Cuban danzón to mambo and cumbia. Due to the band’s professional accomplishments, Lizárraga was always able to recruit the best performers out of a large pool of regional musicians. Although Banda El Recodo recorded with famous ranchera singers such as José Alfredo Jiménez in 1968, it was not until the early 1990s, when Sinaloan banda entered a new phase of international commercialization, that it began to integrate vocalists into the hitherto purely instrumental makeup. After Lizárraga’s death, his sons resumed leadership of the band. Nowadays, Banda El Recodo is one of Sinaloa’s commercially oriented, high-profile touring bands that perform styles increasingly defined by the transnational music market....

Article

John M. Schechter

revised by J. Richard Haefer

(Sp.: mocha, ‘to cut’)

An ensemble of gourd (puro) trumpets of various sizes, used in the Chota river valley of Imbabura and Carchi provinces of Ecuador. Formed in the late 19th century by Afro-Ecuadorians without access to Western military band instruments, the ensemble includes several puros (calabazas) and pencos (cabuyos) along with other instruments. Puros, about 30 to 60 cm long, are made by cutting a rectangular blowhole near the stem end of a dried gourd and opening the distal end to form a sort of bell. Various sizes provide lead, alto, and tenor ranges. Pencos are made of hollow agave stems about 30 cm long and 7 cm in diameter, with a blowhole cut near one end on a side. The similar chile frito, an ensemble of central Guerrero, Mexico, consists of imitation band instruments made of assembled sections of gourds.

C.A. Coba Andrade: ‘Instrumentos musicales ecuatorianos’, ...

Article

Bandiri  

Set of two or more single-headed frame drums, with or without circular metal jingles, and a kettledrum used by members of the k’adiriyya Islamic sect of northern Nigeria. It accompanies the zikiri (creed formula by which a person acknowledges that he is a Muslim). The frame drum is held in the left hand and beaten with the fingers of the right....

Article

Chris McDonald

Canadian rock group. Steven Page (b Toronto, ON, 22 June 1970; vocals) and Ed Robertson (b Toronto, 25 Oct 1970; guitar) began performing as a duo in 1988, developing a folk-rock style based on satirical songs and droll stage banter. After adopting the name Barenaked Ladies, they performed on the college circuit and built up a fan base. They added further backup musicians in 1991, including Jim Creegan (b Toronto, 12 Feb 1970; bass guitar), Andy Creegan (b Toronto, 4 July 1971; keyboards), and Tyler Stewart (b 21 Sept 1967; drums). The group sold independently produced cassettes at live shows. As their notoriety grew, one of these, The Yellow Tape (1991), became a runaway hit, achieving platinum-level sales in Canada, leading to a deal with Reprise Records. The band’s first album, Gordon (Rep., 1992) achieved high sales and acclaim in Canada. “If I had $1,000,000” and “Be my Yoko Ono” became signature hits. Creegan was replaced by Kevin Hearn (b Grimsby, ON, ...

Article

Roxanne R. Reed

[Delois Barrett and the Barrett Sisters]

Gospel trio. Its members were Delores [Delois] (soprano), Billie (alto), and Rhodessa (high soprano) Barrett. Hailing from the Southside of Chicago, they grew up with seven other siblings and were members of the Morning Star Baptist Church where they sang in a choir directed by their aunt. As the Barrett–Hudson Singers, Delores and Billie had performed in a group with a cousin, whom Rhodessa later replaced to form the Barrett Sisters. Delores, the eldest and the group’s leader, started singing at the age of six. Her professional career began in earnest after graduating from Englewood High School, when she became the first female to join the Roberta Martin Singers (1944; see martin, Roberta ). Billie and Rhodessa received some formal training, but it was through the Roberta Martin Singers that Delores learned technique and honed her individual style, along with the unique ensemble quality known as the Roberta Martin sound. Delores continued to sing with Martin from time to time, even as the Barrett Sisters took shape. Getting their start as an African American gospel trio, the Barrett Sisters first recorded with the label Savoy (...

Article

Walter Everett

English pop group. George Harrison (b Liverpool, England, Feb 25, 1943; d Los Angeles, Nov 29, 2001), John Lennon (John Winston (Ono) Lennon; b Liverpool, Oct 9, 1940; d New York, Dec 8, 1980), Paul McCartney (James Paul McCartney; b Liverpool, June 18, 1942), and Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey; b July 7, 1940). They were the world’s most popular musical force from 1964 through their 1970 break-up, and their legacy has continued to be highly influential for subsequent artists, the entertainment industry, baby-boom culture and beyond. This article outlines the inspiration taken by the Beatles from American sources, and the group’s appearances and reception in America; for a general introduction to their career and extensive bibliography, see Grove7.

Whereas the Beatles’ early sound was partly based on British folk and popular forms—including skiffle and music-hall styles—American rock ’n’ roll was by far their dominant resource. The group began by covering, and then borrowing stylistic traits from American performers, principally Elvis Presley (particularly his expressive vocal embellishments), Chuck Berry (reciting-tone vocals with witty rhymes, extended guitar sonorities, rhythm chording, melodic blues riffs, and bass ostinati), Little Richard (vocal falsetto and bluesy pentatonicism), Bo Diddley (mixolydian chords, direct simplicity), Carl Perkins (rockabilly picking), Jerry Lee Lewis (keyboard pounding, raw energy), Buddy Holly (major-mode melody), and the Everly Brothers (descant vocal arrangements). In the few years surrounding the late-1962 launch of their recording career, the group drew variously from American male R&B figures (the Isley Brothers, the Coasters, the Drifters, Larry Williams, Arthur Alexander, Barrett Strong, the Miracles), female vocal groups (the Teddy Bears, the Shirelles, the Marvelettes, the Cookies) and pop singers (Del Shannon, Roy Orbison). Many traits taken from these sources remained at the musicians’ core even as they continued to borrow American ideas: the group used Caribbean models for their first two B-sides, and based their fourth single, “She Loves You”/“I’ll Get You,” (...

Article

Jonas Westover

Australian pop group formed by Barry (b Douglas, Isle of Man, 1 Sept 1946), Robin (b Douglas, Isle of Man, 22 Dec 1949; d London, England, 20 May 2012), and Maurice Gibb (b Douglas, Isle of Man, 22 Dec 1949; d Miami Beach, FL, 12 Jan 2003). They were raised in Manchester, England, until 1958, when the family moved to Brisbane, Australia, where the brothers formed a trio called the Rattlesnakes. They soon began writing their own music, often composed by Barry, and attracting media attention. In 1963 the group signed a deal to record singles as the Bee Gees with Festival Records and two years later released their first album. After moving to Polydor Records, they released two songs, “New York Mining Disaster 1941” and “To Love Somebody,” which became hit singles. Both were included on the album Bee Gees 1st (Polydor, ...