Orchestral brass ensemble. Founded in 1985 by members of the St. Louis Brass Quintet, the original personnel included David Hickman, Allan Dean, Raymond Mase, and Anthony Plog (trumpet); Larry Strieby, Fred Rizner, Gail Williams, and Thomas Bacon (horn); Joseph Alessi, Ralph Sauer, Mark Lawrence, and Melvyn Jernigan (trombone); Daniel Perantoni and Eugene Pokorny (tuba); and Carl Topilow, conductor. The roster remained constant for the group’s first 17 years and has undergone some changes in the last decade. The ensemble’s first recording, Episodes (ProArte, 1986), featured trumpet soloist Doc Severinsen. Their other eight recordings have been produced through the ensemble’s own Summit label. The ensemble has toured extensively throughout the United States and visited Europe in 1998. Each summer the ensemble serves as the host of the Rafael Méndez Brass Institute, a young artists workshop designed as a career entry program for young professionals. Over 200 students annually participate in the institute with tuition provided by the Méndez Estate. Summit Brass has commissioned over 100 works by composers, including John Cheetham, David Sampson, Eric Ewazen, Manny Albam, Henri Lazarof, and Anthony Plog. The group performs a diverse repertoire, ranging from Renaissance works to 21st-century compositions....
Eric Lynn Harris
Stephanie Nohelani Teves
Hawaiian music group. The ensemble included six members: Palani Vaughan (b 1944), Albert “Baby” Kalima (1943–2003), Cyril Pahinui (b 1950), Peter Moon (b 1944), Robert Cazimero (b 1949), and Roland Cazimero (b 1950).
Active in Manoa, Hawai‘i in the late 1960s to mid-1970s, The Sunday Mänoa is considered one of the most influential groups of the Hawaiian renaissance. During this period Hawaiian music incorporated elements of American rock music, often sung in the Hawaiian language to set it apart from the tourist-inflected sounds of hapa-ha‘ole Hawaiian music. The Hawaiian renaissance also refers to Hawaiian activism of the time, the emergence of a cultural renaissance alongside efforts to stop US bombing practices on the island of Kaho‘olawe. As a result, Hawaiian musicians became increasingly overt in their critiques of US colonization.
In 1967, the group released their first album ...
Popular music group. An interesting regional parallel to the Eastside Sound era of Los Angeles was that of San Antonio–bred Sunny Ozuna and the Sunglows (later known as Sunny and the Sunliners), who in 1962–3 recorded a major R&B style ballad on Louisiana producer Huey Meaux’s Tear Drop Records which became a national hit, “Talk to me.” Ozuna, born in 1943, was educated in the urban San Antonio school system, during which he developed a keen interest in American popular music, particularly rock and roll. He began his musical career as a singer (also guitarist) in the 1950s when he and saxophonist Rudy Guerra formed the group Sunny and the Sunglows. Other members included Norwood Perry (bass), Al Condy (guitar), and George Strickland (drums). Other hits by Ozuna and his group included “Cariño nuevo,” a Spanish-language song that established Ozuna as a major figure in Tejano music. Other hits included “Rags to Riches,” “Not Even Judgement Day,” “Out of Sight—Out of Mind,” and “La cacahuata.” He would eventually return to contemporary Tejano music and become a major figure in ...
Aaron S. Allen and Laurence Libin
Term encompassing issues of respectful management of natural resources and corresponding ecologies so that they endure. Unsustainable depletion of resources through excessive use or misuse, habitat destruction, climate change, and associated cultural and ecological pressures increasingly concerns instrument makers, consumers, and preservationists, leading them to realign values and practices. Sustainability has become an existential problem for societies that rely on vanishing resources, and for plants and animals that interact in ecosystems, which in turn encompass humans. While cultural aspects of sustainability have been considered in many ethnographic and organological studies, ecological implications require further attention.
Many kinds of instruments have traditionally incorporated materials from now-endangered or threatened species. These animal and plant materials have been exploited for their tonal properties, durability, or other physical characteristics, and for decorative, symbolic, or economic reasons. The efficacy of instruments played in religious or magical rituals, displayed as regalia, or worshipped in their own right can depend on the use of these rare substances, and the value of collectible instruments is enhanced by their presence....
(b Brunswick, MO, Feb 7, 1882; d New York, NY, March 9, 1961). American clarinetist, bandleader, composer, and music publisher. His first professional engagement (c1897–8) was with a “pickaninny” band led by Nathaniel Clark Smith. In 1902 he was assistant leader of P.G. Lowery’s band with Forepaugh and Sells Circus and later that year joined Mahara’s Minstrels band under the leadership of W.C. Handy. In 1903 he formed his own band in Minneapolis, where he made the first recordings by an African American band. Sweatman moved to Chicago in 1908, where he led trios at the Grand and Monogram theaters. In 1911 he made his first vaudeville appearance, and in late 1916 made the first records recognizable as jazz performances. In 1918 Sweatman’s band was signed to an exclusive recording contract with Columbia, their records rivalling those by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. He continued to work through the 1920s and early 1930s in vaudeville, and in ...
Vocal group. It evolved from the Drinkard Singers, a gospel choir based at New Hope Baptist Church, where the Drinkards’ father was pastor. Principal members included Cissy Houston (b Emily Drinkard, Newark, NJ, 30 Sept 1933), her nieces dionne Warwick (b East Orange, NJ, 12 Dec 1940) and Dee Dee Warwick (b Newark, NJ, 25 Sept 1945; d Essex County, NJ, 18 Oct 2008), Doris Troy (b Bronx, NY, 6 Jan 1937; d Las Vegas, NV, 16 Feb 2007), and Myrna Smith (b 28 May 1941; d 24 Dec 2010). Their distinctive sound augmented many influential R&B singles of the 1960s, providing backing for Gil Hamilton, Kenni Woods, Garnet Mimms, and the Drifters. They signed to Atlantic Records in 1967, and had professional success touring as Elvis Presley’s back-up singers. They also worked with Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, and Van Morrison. The group was inducted into the Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in ...
Electronic percussion instrument invented in Los Angeles by Joe Pollard, a professional drummer. In 1976 he met Mark Barton of the Tycobrahe Sound Company in Hermosa Beach, California, who made some well-received prototypes. Along with Donald Stone, they patented the design and formed Pollard Industries of South El Monte, California. The Syndrum is played like a drum, but has a piezo-electric sensor mounted in the centre of a mesh-covered ‘head’. Syndrums were initially made in two forms: the 477, a drum (also in sets of two and four) connected to a separate electronic console, and the 177, a single-drum unit with built-in controls governing electronically generated sounds. The two-head 277 followed. While the Syndrum was very popular with rock bands and for disco in the late 1970s and early 80s, Pollard Industries failed and in 1978 was sold to Research Development Systems, Inc., which added the Syndrum CM, a single-head drum with controls on the sides. All the drums offered multiple sound effects including the ‘laser’, bird calls, clave, anvil, several types of toms, bass drum, and snare drum. Used Syndrums remain popular, and many keyboard synthesizers and sample libraries offer Syndrum sounds. In ...
Anne Beetem Acker
Monophonic analogue synthesizer produced between 1982 and 1984 by Synton Electronics, a Dutch firm founded in 1973 by Felix Visser. The device was created by Visser along with the product specialist Marc Paping and product developer Bert Vermeulen. Synton originally built vocoders, but soon began importing and distributing Fairlight, E-mu, and Linn products in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. The Syrinx 1, created about 1975, was never produced commercially. Only 300 Syrinx 2 synthesizers were built. First priced under £400, but prized by collectors, originals sold for more than £1200 in the early 2000s. The device is not MIDI-compatible and has no presets, but includes two voltage control oscillators, a voltage divider, a noise generator, two ADSRs (attack decay sustain release envelope generators), two low-frequency oscillators, a pulse-width modulator, a ring modulator, and three voltage control filters. It features a mixer and a touch pad that can control pitch-bending and other parameters. All but the last series (which were mounted in a flight case), had a 44-note keyboard. The Syrinx 2 was distributed in the USA by Robert Moog. Synton went bankrupt in ...
J. Richard Haefer
Collective name for the duct flute and drum used by the Yoeme Yaqui Indians of Arizona and northern Mexico. It is played when both the maso (deer dancer) and pahko’ola (pascola) dancers are dancing at the same time. The flute, called kusia or cuzia, has two fingerholes and a thumbhole. It is made from cane that grows in the Yaqui river basin. Two sections of cane, each 20 to 25 cm long, are joined at a node by carving one end so it can slide inside the other tube; the V-shaped toneholes are in the lower section. A mouthpiece is formed by undercutting the proximal end of the cane and inserting a smaller piece of cane beneath, held in place by a peg to make an internal duct to direct the airflow against a V-shaped lip cut in the upper surface of the top section.
The drum, called ...
revised by Andrew C. McGraw
Ensemble of Jakarta, Indonesia. It is an acculturated band whose music was heard formerly at festive occasions and processions in the streets of Jakarta, but by the 1970s only in the outskirts to the south and in the adjacent regions of Krawang (where it is also called orkes kompeni), Bekasi, and Tangerang. Similar ensembles have appeared in Palembang (South Sumatra) and Pontianak (West Kalimantan). The instruments of the tanjidor band are the Western clarinet, trumpet, cornet, euphonium (or tuba), trombone, bass and side drum (both called tambur), a small hand cymbal (kecrek) and large crash cymbal, both struck with metal beaters, and sometimes a small gong (kenong). The drums are typically struck with sticks, or by the hands when imitating Sundanese kendang. A helicon, tenor horns, saxophones, and violin may be added. The horns sometimes include locally constructed mouthpiece extensions that lower the fundamental pitches of the instruments. A singer may join when performing adapted ...
Chamber music ensemble. Founded in 1972, the ensemble was built around the instrumentation for Olivier Messiaen’s Quatuor pour la fin du temps, the work with which Tashi made its much acclaimed debut in New York in 1973. The founding members were richard Stoltzman (clarinet), ida Kavafian (violin), fred Sherry (cello), and peter Serkin (piano). Other members have included violinist Theodore Arm, violist Ik-Hwan Bae, and Toby Appel. Since individual members established separate careers, the ensemble’s activities were initially limited to several annual concert tours (which have included the first classical performances at the Bottom Line, a nightclub in New York, 1976) and recording sessions. In the 1980s the group stopped performing live altogether until the centenary of Messiaen’s birth prompted them to stage a brief and highly successful tour in 2008. Tashi has offered spontaneous and imaginative interpretations of an unconventional mix of repertory; traditional works by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Franz Schubert, and Ludwig van Beethoven as well as modern works by Igor Stravinsky, Messiaen, Toru Takemitsu, and Bill Douglas are represented in their recitals and on a number of recordings. Tashi is Tibetan for “good fortune.”...
Ronald W. Rodman
A term for all music that is broadcast on television. It has functioned in several different ways, reflecting the array of genres and modes of broadcasting. In American television, music has been heard as entertainment through the performances of songs and instrumental works by classical, jazz, country, pop, rock, and other performers, in other words, music presented as music. It has also been heard as ‘production music’, to underscore dramatic programmes, enhance mood and narrative structure and meaning (similar to music’s function in films), and as a way to mark transitions within a television programme and between programmes. Music has functioned in these ways in both programmes and in commercials. During the early years of television, these modes of television music were discrete, but from the 1980s the distinctions in the form that music takes have been blurred.
The functions of television music listed above may be generalized in three categories, using terminology for narrative agency. First, it can be ‘extradiegetic’ – used to navigate and transition through the many programmes and advertisements of a broadcasting schedule, often called the ‘flow’ of television: from programme to station break and vice versa, and between station breaks, public service announcements, programme promotions, and commercials. Second, television music can be ‘intradiegetic’, used as background or mood music within narrative programmes, such as situation comedies, dramas, and documentaries. Intradiegetic music is usually ‘acousmatic’, meaning the source of the music is not seen on the screen. Finally, television music can be ‘diegetic’, that is, music whose source appears on screen and is heard as part of the action or the mise-en-scène of a programme. Diegetic music is often performed by musicians shown on the screen in genres such as musical variety shows, late-night talk shows, and music videos, but may also be featured in a narrative programme....
From the 1920s to 1940s, towns and cities of any substantial size in the Midwest and Southwest were used as a home base by ensembles known as “territory bands.” These dance orchestras defended their turf from visiting bands through pitched musical battles, while also touring in a region that ran deep into Texas, through the Great Plains, and into the Dakotas. Kansas City was the easternmost part of this range.
The territory bands provided music for the expanding business of ballroom dancing. Many of the bands were influenced by the new innovations in jazz, and spread first Dixieland, and then Swing styles throughout the region. There were dozens of bands, and only the most famous and accomplished recorded. They include the Alphonso Trent Orchestra from Dallas, the Troy Floyd Orchestra from San Antonio, the Walter Page Orchestra from Oklahoma City, and the Bennie Moten Orchestra from Kansas City.
The territory bands of the 1920s and 1930s failed to survive into the 1940s. The Great Depression devastated the dance business in the region, as live music was replaced by radio. But extant recordings reveal ensembles that could execute highly sophisticated arrangements with great precision, such as those of Trent and Floyd, and bands like those led by Page and Moten that based their sound on the dynamic energy of top-flight soloists....
Donald A. Henriques
American popular dance orchestra. The Texas-Mexican Orchestra (Orquesta), a musical ensemble with a distinctive repertory and musical style, was popular with urban Mexican American audiences especially during the post-World War II period of the 1940s and 1950s. In the late 1960s orquesta became linked with the Chicano movement (La Onda Chicana) and the ensemble’s renewed popularity extended the tradition into the 1970s.
In the 1940s and 1950s, the ensemble featured American-style big band music along with dance genres associated with rural, ranch-style music (música ranchera) such as the polka and waltz. The first bandleader to blend these elements of big band and accordion conjunto was Beto Villa, recognized as the “father” of the modern Texas Mexican Orchestra. Other important bandleaders from this period included Balde González and Isidro López.
In the late 1960s, the Chicano movement re-energized the Texas-Mexican orchestra tradition. Electric instruments (guitar, bass, and keyboard) were added to the ensemble and popular groups such as Sunny Ozuna and the Sunliners and Little Joe y la Familia reflected blues, rock, and jazz influences. As a result, the Texas-Mexican Orchestra tradition remained viable through the mid-1970s; however, the ensemble and its repertory gradually declined in popularity and effectively ended in the early 1980s....
Rock band. It is best known for the music it produced between 1968 and 1976; the group released 21 songs that hit the Billboard Top 40 chart, one of the most successful runs of any group in US popular music history. The idea for the band was started in 1967 by vocalists Danny Hutton and Cory Wells (a backup singer for Sonny and Cher), who first put together a group called Redwood, playing with Brian Wilson. The following year, the duo brought in singer Chuck Negron, keyboardist Jimmy Greenspoon, guitarist Michael Allsup, drummer Floyd Sneed, and bass player Joe Shermie. Their first album, Three Dog Night (1968), incorporates blues and rock influences but created a unique sound with the different vocal qualities and harmonies created by the three main vocalists. It included their first hit single, “One,” which reached number five on the Billboard Hot 100. The group rocketed to fame through a phenomenal run of hit singles on albums such as ...
Female R&B trio. It comprised Lisa “Left Eye” Lopes (b Philadelphia, PA, 27 May 1971; d La Ceiba, Atlántida, Honduras, 25 April 2002), Rozonda “Chilli” Thomas (b Atlanta, GA, 27 Feb 1971), and Tionne “T-Box” Watkins (b Des Moines, IA, 26 April 1970). TLC redefined the image of girl groups by projecting street smarts and producing musical messages of female empowerment, sexual liberation, and self-protection. It remains one of the best-selling female singing groups in the history of popular music.
The group’s founder, Crystal Jones, was replaced by Thomas before the group released its debut album Ooooooohhh … on the TLC Tip (1992, LaFace), which included the group’s first number one R&B hit, “Baby-Baby-Baby.” The album combined hip hop attitude and street beats with the swagger of the New Jack Swing sound and made the group an instant sensation. Their next album, CrazySexyCool...
Anne Beetem Acker
Electronic instruments that respond to the location and sometimes the degree of pressure of the user’s fingers. Touch instruments, or touch instrument applications, are based upon software implemented on electronic visual displays, also known as touchscreens. Touchscreens detect the position of finger or stylus contact with the display area. Examples include Bebot, a touch synthesizer first released in 2008 by Russell Black for Normalware that features four-finger multi-touch polyphony and user-definable behaviour including sound-generation methods, delays, and either continuous pitch changes or various discrete scales. Pitch is determined by the horizontal position of the finger on the screen, while timbre or loudness is controlled by the vertical position. The touch instrument applications Pianist and Guitarist introduced by MooCowMusic Ltd in 2008, function as wireless MIDI digital instrument simulators, with keyboards, guitar necks, or tablature displayed on touchscreens that are played with the fingers.
Some touchscreens can also detect the degree of pressure, such as a screen made by Touchco Inc. used for the Linnstrument introduced in ...