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Article

Mark Miller

[David Anthony ]

(b Winnipeg, Canada, Jan 29, 1940). Canadian double bass player. He worked with Lenny Breau in Winnipeg, then studied at the Berklee School of Music, Boston (1962), and the Royal Conservatory of Music, Toronto (1967–9). He later played in both jazz and classical music settings, the latter including symphony orchestras during the mid-1970s in Edmonton, Hamilton, and Winnipeg. Based in Toronto from 1975, Young has been a favored accompanist of several pianists; he toured intermittently with Oscar Peterson (from 1975) and Oliver Jones (1988–99) and enjoyed lengthy associations with Gene DiNovi and Wray Downes. He has worked in clubs in Toronto with visiting musicians and has led his own small bands both locally and on several tours of Canada. His duo recordings in 1995 with 11 Canadian and American pianists (including Peterson, Kenny Barron, and Tommy Flanagan) reveal his impeccable technique and measured sense of swing, as well as a deft and uncommonly accurate arco style....

Article

Howard Rye

[Dave ]

(b Nashville, Jan 14, 1912; d Dec 25, 1992). American tenor saxophonist. As a child he moved with his family to Chicago, where he studied music as a member of the Chicago Defender Newsboy Band under the direction of Major N. Clark-Smith. He played with various leaders from 1932, among them Frankie “Half Pint” Jaxon (1933), Carroll Dickerson (1936), and Roy Eldridge (1936–8). After working with Fletcher Henderson (c November 1938 – June 1939) he was a member of Horace Henderson’s band (June 1939 – August 1940). In the early 1940s he played with Walter Fuller and Eldridge and recorded with Lucky Millinder and Sammy Price (1942). In 1944–5 he was in a navy band, and after his military service he led his own band in Chicago; it recorded with Dinah Washington (1947) and accompanied her at the Ritz Lounge. Young then ceased full-time performing and became an advertising executive for ...

Article

Howard Rye and Barry Kernfeld

(b Chicago, Jan 7, 1936; d Thailand, February 12, 2007). American bass player and singer. He learned double bass at high school and later studied at the Chicago Conservatory. After working with King Kolax (1951) and with various blues singers, including Joe Turner (ii), T-Bone Walker, and Joe Williams (mid-1950s), from 1956 he played cello and double bass in Ramsey Lewis’s trio, which made many recordings for Argo. Young also recorded as a sideman with Lorez Alexandria (1957) and James Moody (Hey! It’s Moody, 1959, Argo 666) and as a leader (1961). In 1966 he and Redd Holt (Lewis’s drummer) left Lewis and formed the soul band Young–Holt Unlimited, with which Young played both double bass and electric bass guitar. In 1990 Young–Holt Unlimited was a trio with the pianist Jeremy Monteiro. Young and Holt also appeared together in April 1984...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(Merritt )

(b Little Rock, AR, March 16, 1922; d April 16, 2008). American pianist. He grew up in Chicago and studied piano from the age of nine. After working with Andy Kirk (1942–5, 1946–7), the rhythm-and-blues tenor saxophonist Dick Davis (1947–50), and Eddie Chamblee (1951–5) he led his own trio in Chicago (from 1955). In addition he accompanied many important visiting musicians and recorded with, among others, T-Bone Walker (1955), Lorez Alexandria (1962–3), and Gene Ammons and Dexter Gordon (1970). In 1969 he began a long association with Von Freeman, with whom he recorded (1972, 1975, 1977) and toured Europe (1977). Young continued to perform as a leader into the 1990s, and in 1992 he recorded with Freeman and Yusef Lateef. He should not be confused with the more prominent blues musician Johnny (John O.) Young (...

Article

Gary Theroux

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Aziz, Khalid Yasin Abdul ]

(b Newark, NJ, Oct 7, 1940; d New York, March 30, 1978). American organist. Although his father was an organist, Young never took formal organ instruction and instead studied piano. He began his career in 1957 in Elizabeth, New Jersey, as a member of rhythm-and-blues groups, and in 1960 he recorded with Jimmy Forrest and as a leader. After recording the album Groove Street (1962) he played hard bop with Grant Green (recording in 1964–5), Joe Henderson, Lee Morgan, Donald Byrd, and Tommy Turrentine, and in 1964 toured Europe; the following year he won critical recognition for his album Into Somethin’. He performed with John Coltrane, recorded as the leader of a group that included Woody Shaw and Elvin Jones (1965) and as a sideman with Shaw (1966) and Buddy Tate (1967), toured in a trio with Byard Lancaster (...

Article

Barry Kernfeld

[Leonidas Raymond ]

(b New Orleans, March 7, 1917; d Los Angeles, July 31, 2008). American drummer and leader, brother of Lester Young. With his older brother Lester and his sister Irma, he appeared with an orchestra led by his father, the pianist Willis Handy Young, performing for minstrel shows, at carnivals, and on the Theater Owners’ Booking Association circuit; even before he was old enough to play in the band he participated as its “conductor,” all the while studying soprano saxophone, trumpet, trombone, and piano. At some point (?1925) the family formed a short-lived band of seven saxophonists, comprising his father, his stepmother, his sister, himself and his brother, and two cousins. During this period of extensive touring, while Young was still a child, the family spent its winters in Memphis, in Warren, Arkansas (1923–4), and several times in Minneapolis, where he attended grammar school (mid-1920s). He became the drummer in his father’s band around ...

Article

Lewis Porter

[Pres, Prez]

(b Woodville, MS, Aug 27, 1909; d New York, March 15, 1959). American jazz tenor saxophonist .

Young grew up in the vicinity of New Orleans and later Minneapolis. His father, Willis Handy Young, taught all his children instruments and eventually formed a family band that toured with carnivals and other shows. Young learnt the violin, trumpet and drums, and settled on the alto saxophone by about the age of 13. After one of many disputes with his father, he left the family band at the end of 1927 and spent the following years performing with various groups, including Art Bronson’s Bostonians, with whom he took up the tenor saxophone, and Walter Page’s Blue Devils. Early in 1932 Young joined the Thirteen Original Blue Devils, and while on tour in Oklahoma City met Charlie Christian. He then made Kansas City his base, and played with the Bennie Moten–George E. Lee Band, Clarence Love, King Oliver and, on one night in ...

Article

David Brackett

(b Toronto, Nov 12, 1945). Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist. He emerged in the late 1960s as a member of the critically acclaimed, Los Angeles-based rock band Buffalo Springfield. He subsequently gained mass exposure in the ‘supergroup’ Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young. This widespread fame co-existed in the late 1960s and early 70s with his growing reputation as a singer-songwriter and collaborator with bands such as Crazy Horse and the Stray Gators. His early solo work with Crazy Horse – including the albums Everybody knows this is Nowhere (1969) and After the Gold Rush (1970) – has proved particularly enduring. On these albums his fragile, expressive tenor, and jagged, lyrical lead guitar grace an eclectic mixture of styles, including acoustic ballads, driving rock and lighter country-rock. He coupled these gifts with a melodic songwriting style and with pessimistic and occasionally enigmatic lyrics in such early songs as ...

Article

Barry Kernfeld

[Snookie; Eugene Edward]

(b Dayton, OH, Feb 3, 1919). American trumpeter. He first played zither, and after receiving lessons on trumpet (from around the age of six) he toured the South with his parents and four siblings as a member of a family band. While in high school he played with the Wilberforce Collegians band, and later he worked with the bandleader Chick Carter, whose group included Gerald Wilson. From 1939 to 1942 Young was lead trumpeter and soloist in Jimmie Lunceford’s orchestra, and he was featured with the band on the soundtrack for the short film Blues in the Night (1941). He deputized for Buck Clayton (who was ill) in Count Basie’s orchestra in Dayton and on tour (June 1942), then toured with Lionel Hampton (1942–3) and played in California with the bands of Les Hite and Benny Carter (in both of which Wilson was again among his fellow sidemen). From June to ...

Article

Alyn Shipton

[James Osborne ]

(b Savannah, GA, Jan 12, 1912; d San Jose, CA, Sept 10, 1984). Trombonist and singer. He first played trumpet but soon took up trombone; he made his professional début in Washington, DC, where he played from 1928 with the pianist Booker Coleman and his Hot Chocolates. He acquired his nickname while in a band led by the drummer Tommy Myles. In late 1933 he followed Myles’s arranger, Jimmy Mundy, into Earl Hines’s orchestra. Although he played on some 40 commercial recordings with Hines’s band, Young contributed solos to only a small number; his style was in the process of formulation at this period, and his work displays an indication of his relaxed and individual approach to timing as well as his formidable command of the trombone’s upper register. When Hines was not working, Young played with Albert Ammons, Roy Eldridge, and others. He finally left Hines in ...

Article

Clifford McCarty

(b Chicago, Aug 8, 1900; d Palm Springs, CA, Nov 10, 1956). American composer, conductor and violinist. He began to play the violin at the age of six, and four years later went to live with his grandfather in Warsaw, where he studied at the conservatory. He made his début as a soloist with the Warsaw PO in 1917. In 1920 he returned to the USA, and the following year made his American début at Orchestra Hall in Chicago. Between 1922 and 1929 he was a leader in movie theatres, a musical supervisor of vaudeville productions, a violinist and arranger for Ted Fiorito’s orchestra, and the assistant musical director of the Balaban and Katz theatre chain.

He first worked for radio in 1929, and in 1931 became musical director for Brunswick Records, where in 1932 he arranged and conducted several selections from Show Boat with soloists, chorus and orchestra; released on four discs, it was the first American album ever made from the score of a Broadway musical. In ...

Article

Roger Steffens

[Buchanan, Manley Augustus]

(b Kingston, April 19, 1949). Jamaican DJ and rapper. Born into poverty, his career began in the early 1970s as the resident toaster for the Emperor Lord Tippertone sound system in Kingston. However, it was through his alliance with the producer Keith Hudson that he achieved success. Between 1971 and 1973 in Jamaica he had seven songs in the charts, five of them in the top ten, including his sound-effect driven S.90 Skank, named after a Japanese motorcycle. In 1973 he appeared in New York at one of the first major reggae events in America, performing Every Nigger is a Star, co-written with the American actor Calvin Lockhart and recorded with Bob Marley’s female vocal backing trio, the I Three. In the mid-70s he caused controversy when he attacked Michael Manley’s socialist government in the song Green Killing Bay (1978).

Big Youth became one of the most influential and emulated DJs. His style was often alive with calls to consciousness and rebellion and was simultaneously humorous and intimidating. Over familiar roots rhythms and foreign pop tunes, his vocal style included shrieks, squeals, shouts and growls, as can be heard on the albums ...

Article

Howard Rye

[Robert; Clarence (Fitzroy)]

(b Belize, British Honduras [now Belize City, Belize], Feb 22, 1897; d New York, March 27, 1982). American double bass and tuba player. He began playing tuba at the age of 18, and after performing in a military band (1917–19) he moved to New Orleans, where he worked with Amos White (1922). He made a number of recordings as a tuba player with A. J. Piron’s orchestra in New York (1923–5), then was a member of Elmer Snowden’s band (1925–6) and the Plantation Orchestra, led by the violinist Alex Jackson (1926–9). In 1927 he recorded with Snowden’s band under the leadership of the trombonist Te Roy Williams. He also performed briefly with Fletcher Henderson (from September 1929 until about March 1930) and Horace Henderson (from late 1930 into 1931). In 1931 he began a long association with Don Redman, with whom he made many recordings on tuba and double bass; he may be seen with Redman’s band in the short film ...

Article

[Joseph William ]

(b New York, March 5, 1909; d Los Angeles, March 16, 1981). American trombonist and leader. He began on violin, taking lessons from his father, and concentrated on trombone only later, in the mid-1920s. After moving to New York (1927) he played with Red Nichols, worked as a staff musician for CBS, and recorded with the orchestra of Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey (1930). In the early 1930s he worked in Baltimore, then returned to New York to perform and record under the bandleader Joe Haymes (1934). In 1934–5 he performed and again recorded with the Dorseys, and in 1935 he went to the Los Angeles area with Jimmy Dorsey, in whose band he remained until January 1937. He also worked with Louis Armstrong (1936), made recordings with Bing Crosby (1935–7) and as a member of Ray McKinley’s sextet (...

Article

Mark Gilbert

[Nicolazzo, Rachel Carmel ]

(b New York, Dec 28, 1962). American pianist and keyboard player. She grew up in Manhattan, where she was directed by her mother towards a career in opera; she began singing lessons when she was two and learned piano from the age of seven. However, a visit to the Berklee College of Music in summer 1979 sparked her interest in jazz, and the following year she began studying at the New England Conservatory. After graduating in 1984 she worked in the Boston area with, among others, George Garzone, Miroslav Vitous, and Bob Moses. In September 1988 she returned to New York and in February 1989 she toured with the saxophonist Najee; she joined Mike Mainieri's group Steps Ahead that same year and played with it intermittently until 1996. In addition Z recorded and toured with Al Di Meola (1988, 1998), Wayne Shorter (1995), the jazz-influenced Italian singer Pino Daniele (...

Article

Adam Cegielski and Barry Kernfeld

[His]

(b Pabianice, Poland, April 5, 1934; d Warsaw, March 17, 2001). Polish clarinetist, alto and tenor saxophonist, and leader. His nickname, “His,” may seem odd to English speakers; it derives from the appearance of this word in the album title Janusz Zabiegliński and his Swingtet (1966). Self-taught in music, Zabiegliński led a dixieland band (1956–68), performed in the Stodoła Big-Band (1968–71), and then worked in Orkiestra Rozrywkowa Polskiego Radia (the Light Music Orchestra of Polish Radio; 1971–3). He also played with Krzysztof Komeda, Henryk Majewski, and Andrzej Jagodziński. His Swingtet (formed in 1958) and the dixieland group the Old Timers, led by Henryk Majewski (which he joined in 1982), both remained active into the new century. From the 1950s until his retirement in the 1990s Zabiegliński maintained a separate career as a civil engineer, in which his speciality was bridge-building....

Article

Wolfram Knauer

(b Berlin, Jan 27, 1920; d Ascona, Switzerland, Feb 28, 2002). German violinist. He grew up in a musical family and received his first lessons from his father, a concert violinist; at the age of six he performed professionally, playing classical music for radio and in concert. In the 1930s he joined the Berlin Chamber Orchestra, and at the same time he discovered jazz. He recorded with his own group from 1941, playing in a style modeled after that of the Quintette du Hot Club de France. Zacharias was important for having made, in 1948, some of the first German bop recordings (Be-bop nr.2, Amiga 1150; Be-bop nr.1, Amiga 1151). His playing style was fluent and he often used German hit songs as a basis for his arrangements; however, in the so-called bop recordings he sounds mannered and ill at ease. In the 1950s Zacharias became involved in popular dance music....

Article

Wolfram Knauer

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Kraków, Poland, April 1, 1945). Polish tenor and soprano saxophonist, clarinetist, and flutist. He first played clarinet in local bands, then, after winning a scholarship in a competition in Vienna, moved to Austria to study at the Hochschule für Musik in Graz (1966). During his three years there he played with Eje Thelin, and in 1970 he joined the newly formed big band of Österreichischer Rundfunk, led from 1972 by Erich Kleinschuster. Later he played with Kleinschuster’s sextet, and from around 1970 he led his own groups. In 1974 he moved to Munich. He performed with the European Jazz Quintet (1977–82) and recorded with Michael Naura and the poet Peter Rühmkorff (1978, 1987) and with the group Springtime, led by Günter Lenz (1979). In the 1980s he toured with George Russell and Elvin Jones and recorded with Bireli Lagrene (...

Article

Max Paddison

(Vincent)

(b Baltimore, Dec 21, 1940; d Laurel Canyon, Los Angeles, Dec 4, 1993). American composer, rock musician and guitarist. His family moved to California in 1950, where Zappa played the drums and guitar in high-school bands with, among others, Don Van Vliet (later to become Captain Beefheart). He studied briefly at Chaffey College, Alta Loma, but left to write music for B-movies. In 1964 he formed his band the Mothers of Invention (originally the Soul Giants); the personnel changed frequently and Zappa disbanded the group in the 1970s to work with musicians selected for particular projects, including Ian Underwood (keyboards, saxophones, brass, guitar etc.), Ruth Underwood (percussion), George Duke (keyboards and trombone), Aynsley Dunbar (drums), Sugar Cane Harris (organ, electric violin and vocals) and Jean-Luc Ponty (violin).

The Mothers of Invention’s first release was Freak Out! (Verve, 1966), which savagely parodied both corporate America and hippy counter-culture in such songs as ‘Hungry Freaks, Daddy’ and ‘Who are the Brain Police?’, culminating in ‘The Return of the Son of Monster Magnet’, an extended improvisation using avant-garde techniques. It was followed by ...

Article

Barry Kernfeld

[Rubin ]

(b New York, June 12, 1915; d Irvine, CA, April 11, 2009). American trumpeter. After recording under the bandleader Joe Haymes (1935–6) he toured and recorded with Benny Goodman (1936) and Artie Shaw (1936–7), by turns with Bob Crosby and Red Norvo (1937–9), and with Tommy Dorsey (1939–40) and Glenn Miller (1940); he continued to play in Miller’s bands while working as a staff musician at NBC (recording in 1941 and 1942) and while serving in the US Army (touring and recording from October 1942 to 1945). Having settled in Los Angeles, he worked in studios and as a freelance; he made recordings with Boyd Raeburn (1945), Goodman and Woody Herman (1947), Crosby (1950–51), Jerry Gray (1950, c1959), Sarah Vaughan (1951), Ray Anthony (...