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Article

John C.G. Waterhouse

[Ottavio Felice Gaspare Maria]

(b Montegiorgio, Ascoli Piceno, Nov 16, 1881; d Montegiorgio, Dec 28, 1928). Italian musicologist, conductor and composer. He studied the piano, organ and composition at the Liceo Musicale di S Cecilia, Rome, where he gained his diploma in 1906 and was from 1912 professor of aesthetics and music history. He also graduated in 1907 from Rome University with a thesis on the Italian oratorio, subsequently expanded into an important book. His scholarly writings – notably those on Italian laudi spirituali and on Carissimi – in general helped to lay the foundations of modern Italian musicology. As a conductor he specialized in choral music, and in 1926 he founded the Madrigalisti Romani. He also fought hard for the improvement of Italian music education. His most ambitious composition, the opera Mirra, is eclectic and uneven, but shows technical enterprise – not least in the brief use of a specially constructed ‘pentaphonic harmonium’, in which the octave was divided into five equal parts (cf Indonesian ...

Article

Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

Lawrence Koch

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Dominique, Albert]

(bNew Orleans, Aug 5, 1908; dSan Antonio, Jan 1980). Americantrumpeter and bandleader, nephew of Natty Dominique. His father was a singer and violinist with whom Albert began to take voice and violin lessons at the age of eight; his cornet studies got underway the following year and involved several teachers, including Papa Tio, A. J. Piron’s elder brother Milford Piron, and Manuel Perez, to whom he turned when Milford Piron disapproved of his having taken professional work in a Mardi Gras parade at the age of 14. He played with Perez’s band and on the steamer Susquehanna. From the age of 16 he became active in the Southwest and toured with one of Alphonso Trent’s bands (1925) and Troy Floyd (1926–9). While with Floyd he also recorded as a soloist, playing muted and open trumpet, in a small group accompanying the singer Hattie Burleson; among the results of this session was the pairing ...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Pesaro, Nov 30, 1748; d Warsaw, March 27, 1812). Italian composer and conductor, active in Poland. The earliest reference to his activities in Warsaw dates from 12 April 1773, when King Stanisław August Poniatowski paid him a fee for a concert. From the middle of 1782 for about two years he was the king’s maître de chapelle, during which time his main duty was to direct concerts at both the Royal Castle and the Orangerie Theatre in the gardens of Łazienki Palace (both in Warsaw). On 17 September 1784 he conducted J.D. Holland’s opera Agatka at the court of Karol Radziwiłł in Nieśwież, and in the autumn of the same year he tried to promote an opera of his own in Vienna, but without much success. In 1785 he presented his opera Circe und Ulisses in Hamburg, and from about the middle of 1785 until the beginning of ...

Article

Jiří Sehnal

(b c1660; d Olomouc, Oct 3, 1735). German composer. After 1690 he came to Olomouc from Vienna and entered the services of the Olomouc chapter; in 1691 he became musical director at the cathedral. In 1696 he married Magdalena Cecilie Zindel, daughter of the cathedral organist. Although his salary was raised from 100 to 300 florins by 1702, Albertini complained throughout his life of the low pay and engaged in continual battles with the chapter, which refused to meet his demands and blamed him for the decline of music in the cathedral. In 1708 Albertini requested special leave to perform his compositions before the Emperor Joseph I in Vienna; he overstayed his leave and the chapter gave him notice, which was revoked only after the emperor’s direct intervention. In spite of perpetually strained relations with the chapter Albertini remained in his post until his death. He was probably related to the Ignaz Albertini who applied for a musical post in Olomouc as early as ...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

revised by José A. Bowen

(b Beausoleil, Alpes Maritimes, Sept 30, 1920). French conductor and cellist. He studied the cello with Umberto Benedetti, and attended the Paris Conservatoire until the age of 15. He returned there after the war to follow courses in fugue with Noël Gallon, composition with Büsser and Milhaud and analysis and musical aesthetics with Messiaen. He also studied conducting with Roger Desormière, Carl Schuricht and Hans Rosbaud. He began his career as a cellist, touring and recording both as a soloist and with the pianist Claude Helffer from 1949 to 1957. His career as a conductor started at the Opéra-Comique, where he was chorus master for three years; he then went to Nancy (director of music at the theatre), Toulouse (Théâtre du Capitole) and finally Strasbourg, where he became conductor of the Strasbourg RSO (1966–75). He later joined the Orchestre Nationale de France as a cellist (...

Article

Ivan Zivanović

(Felix)

(b Županja, Dec 10, 1869; d Zagreb, April 18, 1933). Croatian composer, conductor and publisher. In Graz he studied music, where, in keeping with the family tradition, he was also required to finish business college. From 1893 to 1895 he was conductor at the joint theatres of the Graz municipality. He then conducted opera at the new theatre in Zagreb (the Croatian National Theatre) until 1903, when the company’s activities were suspended, and returned to the opera as both director and conductor in 1909 having spent the interim years composing in Vienna; this was the only period when Albini was actively engaged in composition. He remained at the opera until 1919, and thereafter founded and directed the Croatian Copyright Centre as well as his own publishing house. Consequently, he laid fthe oundations for modern music publishing in Croatia.

Albini's composition focussed almost entirely on music for the stage, particularly operetta. Combining Croatian folk motifs, his exuberant melodic invention and skilful sense of drama, he transcended the musical and dramatic limitations characteristic of operetta of his time. He achieved greatest success and international reputation with ...

Article

Astrid Rajterová

(b Arad, Romania, Aug 12, 1885; d Bratislava, Aug 30, 1958). Slovak composer, conductor and teacher. He acquired his early musical education from various teachers, including Karol Forstner, organist of the cathedral of St Martin, Bratislava. From 1895 to 1903 he studied at the Royal Catholic Gymnasium in Poszony (now Bratislava), becoming friends with Bartók and Ernő Dohnányi, with whom he took an active part in the musical life of the school and of the town. From 1904 to 1908 he attended the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, studying composition with Koessler, the piano with Thomán and then Bartók, conducting with Ferenc Szandtner and chamber music performance with Popper. During his studies Albrecht enjoyed considerable success as a pianist, though he later decided to devote his time fully to composition. From 1908 he was organist at the cathedral in Bratislava and a teacher at the municipal music school. In ...

Article

Rudolf Lück

(b Essen, July 19, 1935; d Berlin, Germany, February 2, 2014). German conductor, son of Hans Albrecht. He studied conducting under Brückner-Rüggeberg at the Hamburg Musikhochschule (1955–8), and musicology at the universities of Kiel and Hamburg. He won the international conductors’ competitions at Besançon (1957) and Hilversum (1958) and was principal conductor at the Mainz Stadttheater (1961–3). Albrecht was Generalmusikdirektor at Lübeck (1963–6) and Kassel (1966–72), and principal conductor at the Deutsche Oper, Berlin (1972–9). He was director of the Zürich Tonhalle from 1975 to 1980, and was appointed Generalmusikdirektor in Hamburg in 1988 and music director of the Czech PO in 1994. He has also appeared as a guest conductor with most leading European orchestras, including the Berlin PO and the Orchestre de Paris, and as an operatic conductor in Vienna, Munich, Edinburgh (where he made his début in ...

Article

Howard Serwer

(b Görmar, nr Mühlhausen, Jan 8, 1732; d Mühlhausen, 1773). German writer on music and composer. He was a magister of philosophy, an honorary member of the German Society of Altdorf University, and an imperial poet laureate. His writings include an original work on theory, contributions to the current discussions of Rameau's theories which he favoured, and translations and editions of works of others. In addition, he published an important article on the state of music in Mühlhausen, two in defence of music in the church, and one on the German language. His compositions, consisting largely of sacred vocal works to his own texts, were mostly written for the Marienkirche in Mühlhausen, where he was Kantor and music director. They include a setting of the Passion and a yearly cycle of cantatas (texts published in 1764), as well as two published collections of keyboard and vocal pieces intended for students. Only a sacred song ...

Article

César Arróspide de la Flor

(b Lima, Aug 20, 1788; d Lima, Dec 28, 1878). Peruvian composer. He received his musical education in the convents of S Agustín and S Domingo of Lima, as was customary during the vice-regal period. Thus from the beginning of his career he inclined towards sacred music. In 1821 he took part in a contest for the composition of a national march. Thanks to General San Martín’s enthusiasm his work was selected and it soon became the Peruvian national anthem. As a result Alcedo has not suffered the oblivion of some of his contemporaries. A strong supporter of the independence movement, he served in the army as músico mayor (1823–8) and was stationed in Chile. There he remained, providing music for Santiago Cathedral (1829–41) and becoming maestro de capilla at the cathedral in 1846. On his return to Peru in 1864 he was appointed general director of the army bands....

Article

Alcman  

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

[Alkman]

(fl c. 630 bce). Greek lyric poet. He was possibly a native of Sardis in Lydia. Alcman spent his entire professional life in Sparta. This city was then startlingly different from the grim barracks state that it had been and would again become: its citizens cultivated art, poetry, music, and dance with intensity and brilliance. The poet himself commented on this: ‘To play well upon the lyre weighs evenly with the steel’, that is, military valour (Edmonds, frag.62).

As the trainer of a choir of girls who sang and danced at Spartan religious festivals, Alcman wrote maiden-songs (see Partheneia), which brought him particular fame. Extensive portions of one of these have survived (PLouvre E3320); the lines recreate with great immediacy the half-humorous, half-impassioned rivalry of his young choristers. For solo performance he composed proöimia, preludes to the recitation of Homeric poetry (see Terpander...

Article

Isabel Pope

revised by Tess Knighton

[Pere Joan]

(fl 1506–9). Iberian composer. A native of Barcelona, he became maestro de capilla at the cathedral there on 19 January 1506. By 1 March 1508 he was appointed singer in the Aragonese royal chapel of Ferdinand V. He appears to have stayed there less than six months and in summer 1509 he succeeded the theorist Juan de Espinosa as ‘master of music’ at Toledo Cathedral; he held this position for only about a year, after which his name disappears from the records. Three villancicos by him appear in the Cancionero Musical de Palacio. It is interesting that these songs are copied in close proximity to two pieces by Pedro de Lagarto, another composer active at Toledo Cathedral. At least one of Aldomar's songs, ¡Ha Pelayo, qué desmayo!, enjoyed considerable popularity: a four-voice version is found in a collection printed in Venice in 1556. His song style is typical of that of the villancico in about ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....

Article

Galina Grigor′yeva

(b St Petersburg, April 1, 1883; d Berlin, July 8, 1946). Russian composer and conductor. He studied with Glazunov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory and with Vasilenko at the Moscow Conservatory. From 1918 he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he was made head of the choral conducting department in 1925. Choral music gradually became the centre of his attention; most of it was composed for the Soviet Army Song and Dance Ensemble, which he founded in 1928 and which he led to great success in the USSR and abroad. After his death the ensemble was named after him.

Aleksandrov’s choral songs are of various types: rousing, heroic, lyrical and comic. They are simple in style, always linked with Russian folksong and sometimes show delicate polyphonic writing. Svyashchennaya voyna (‘A Holy War’, text by Lebedev-Kumach) was written in the first few days of fighting against German invasion in ...

Article

(b Bologoye, 22 July/Aug 4, 1905; d Moscow, June 17, 1994). Russian composer and conductor, son of Aleksandr Vasil′yevich Aleksandrov. He studied at the Moscow Conservatory with Glier, graduating in 1929, and worked as a music director in Moscow clubs (1923–9), music director of the Red Army Theatre (1930–37), lecturer at the Moscow Conservatory (1933–41) and leader of the Soviet Radio Song Ensemble (1942–7). From 1937 to 1946 he was deputy director of the Aleksandrov Red Army Song and Dance Ensemble, which was founded by his father and, after the latter's death, came under his direction. He received the State Prize (1950) and the title People's Artist of the USSR (1958). In Dva p′yesï (‘Two Pieces’) op.1 (1928) for piano he developed a compositional system synthesizing the principle of the 12-note series (with inversions and permutations) with a harmonic set technique and mirror symmetry. Later works, such as the well-known musical comedy ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Bucharest, 2/Aug 14, 1893; d Bucharest, Feb 18, 1959). Romanian composer, pianist, conductor, teacher, music critic, and director of music programmes. A leading figure of the first half of the 20th century, he laid the foundation of the Romanian school in music, concert life, and musical journalism. He studied with A. Castaldi, D. Dinicu, D.G. Kiriac, and E. Saegiu at the Bucharest Conservatory (1903–11), completing his education with two periods of study in Paris (1913–14, 1923–4), where he studied with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum and with Paul Vidal at the Conservatoire. A remarkable accompanist, he worked with Enescu, Thibaud, Mainardi, Moodie, and others during the period 1919–45. As a conductor he always achieved a soberly balanced performance; he conducted more than 1500 performances at the Romanian Opera in Bucharest (1921–59), where he specialized in the French repertory (Bizet, Massenet, and Gounod). In his capacities as conductor of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, and as conductor and artistic manager of the Romanian RSO, he did much to encourage Romanian composers. He was also active as a music critic for Romanian and French reviews. Much of his compositional work was done during his youth, including ...

Article

Richard Wigmore

( b Rome, Jan 25, 1960). Italian harpsichordist, organist and conductor . Largely self-taught, he conducted his first major concert, of Cavalli's Calisto, in Rome in 1985, with a group of singers that were to form the nucleus of a permanent ensemble, Concerto Italiano. The ensemble's first recording, of Monteverdi's fourth book of madrigals, was widely acclaimed for its passion and colour, winning a Gramophone award in 1994; subsequent recordings have included madrigals by Monteverdi, Marenzio and Frescobaldi, and vocal works by Lassus. In 1995 Alessandrini founded the complementary Concerto Italiano instrumental ensemble, with whom he has performed and recorded concertos by Bach and Vivaldi, and made an imaginative recording of Bach's Art of Fugue. His other recordings include Bach's sonatas for violin and harpsichord, vocal works by Vivaldi, Alessandro Scarlatti and Pergolesi, and Handel's Roman oratorio Il trionfo del Tempo e del Disinganno. With Concerto Italiano he has appeared at major concert halls and festivals throughout Europe. In ...

Article

Geoffrey Self

[Ricketts, Frederic Joseph]

(b London, Feb 21, 1881; d Reigate, May 15, 1945). English composer and bandmaster. As a cornet-player with the Royal Irish Regiment, he served in India. Subsequently he studied at Kneller Hall (1904–8), qualifying as a bandmaster, and in 1908 was appointed to the 2nd Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In 1912, under the pseudonym Alford (his mother's name), he published the marches The Vedette and Holyrood, the first of a long series of marches. Two of the most famous, written during World War I, illustrate differing approaches to march-style. Colonel Bogey (1913) is in simple time; the golfing allusion of the title reflects the work's origin on the green, where Alford's partner would whistle the notes C and A instead of shouting ‘fore’. On the Quarter Deck (1917) is in the compound time made popular by the American John Philip Sousa. Alford is unlikely to have missed Sousa's concert on ...

Article

Rolf Haglund

(Emil)

(b Stockholm, May 1, 1872; d Falun, May 8, 1960). Swedish composer, conductor and violinist. He attended the Stockholm Conservatory (1887–91) and then took private lessons with Lindegren (composition) and Zetterquist (violin); from 1887 he also studied painting. A violinist in the Hovkapellet (the opera orchestra, 1890–92), he decided in 1892 to make his career in music. From 1904 to 1957 he conducted the Siljan Choir – a group of five church choirs and regional choirs in Dalarna – and he was the director of other choruses, including the Orphei Drängar (1910–47), with whom he made 22 tours throughout most of Europe. In addition he was Director Musices of Uppsala University (1910–39). A Hugo Alfvén Foundation has been established in Stockholm.

Alfvén's music is distinguished by orchestral subtlety and by a painterly exploitation of harmony and timbre. His output was almost entirely of programme music, often suggested by the Swedish archipelago; he commented that ‘my best ideas have come during my sea-voyages at night, and, in particular, the wild autumns have been my most wonderful times for composition’. A few pieces, often performed, have maintained his reputation: ...