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(b Selevynzi (now Monastyrok), Podillya (now Vynnyt′sa) province, 1/Dec 13, 1877; d Markivka, near Tyl′chyn, Jan 25, 1921). Ukrainian composer, ethnomusicologist and conductor . After graduating from the theological seminary in Kamyanets-Podils′kyi in 1899, he worked as a teacher at various primary and middle schools and also as an organizer and director of amateur choirs and orchestras. He then attended, as an external student, classes at the St Petersburg court chapel choir (1903–04) and later, on the recommendation of Sergey Taneyev, had sporadic lessons with Boleslav Yavorsky in Kiev (1909–14). In spite of the early popularity of his compositions, Leontovych received general recognition when he was brought to Kiev in 1918 to teach at the conservatory and at the Lysenko Institute of Music and Drama; there, he was also one of the organizers of the First Ukrainian State Cappella. In 1919 he returned to Tyl′chyn. He died under tragic and mysterious circumstances. According to official accounts, he was shot by a criminal burgling his parents’ home. Unofficially, rumors persist that he was killed on orders of Cheka, the secret police. In ...


David Scott


(b Bermuda, March 2, 1915; d Haslemere, June 5, 1983). English musicologist, conductor, music administrator and composer. He went to Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1932. Dent guided his studies at Cambridge and a grant from his college enabled him to study with Nadia Boulanger in 1934. In 1935 he took the BA and the MusB and joined the BBC music department, where he organized the ‘Foundations of Music’ series and later became responsible for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946. Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music.

In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these performances are remembered for the high standards they established. During this time Lewis was also active in the recording studio and made the first English recordings of such works as Monteverdi's ...


J.M. Thomson

(b Werne, nr Dortmund, May 24, 1930). Swiss recorder player, flautist, conductor and composer of German birth. He studied the flute with Gustav Scheck and conducting with Konrad Lechner at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Freiburg (1947–51), then became solo flautist of the Cappella Coloniensis of WDR at Cologne. A chance meeting with August Wenzinger in Cologne led to his appointment to the Schola Cantorum at Basle in 1957 and his joining the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis. He directs the vocal ensemble and in 1971 became joint director of the concert group. His high international reputation as a recorder player and flautist (he plays modern and Baroque flutes), is founded on an impeccable virtuoso technique and a scholarly sense of style. Linde tours widely and his extensive and important recordings include flute concertos by Leclair, Mozart, Stamitz and Dittersdorf, and recorder concertos by Sammartini, Vivaldi and Naudot. With his own Linde-Consort, augmented as required, he has recorded works ranging from early English consort music to Baroque orchestral and choral works. He has appeared as a guest conductor with several orchestras in Europe and the USA, and has conducted a number of 18th-century operas, including Keiser’s ...


Vasilis Kallis

(bNicosia, Nov 12, 1905; dAthens, Sept 9, 1979). Cypriot composer, conductor, musicologist, and pedagogue. An iconic figure of art music in Cyprus. After studying in London (1927–30 at Trinity College of Music) and Paris (1930–34 at Ecole Normale, Schola Cantorum, and Institute de Pedagogie Musicale), Michaelides returned to Cyprus in 1934 to engage in activities that would be instrumental to the development of music on the island. Between 1934 and 1938 he formed various organizations such as the Limassol Conservatory, the Limassol Concert Association, a symphony orchestra, and a mixed choir, promoting the proliferation of musical life on the island.

In 1957, he relocated to Thessaloniki, Greece, following an invitation to take over the directorship of the Thessaloniki State Conservatory where he also taught advanced music theory, composition, and conducting. Two years later he founded the Symphony Orchestra of Northern Greece (1959), which he also conducted until his retirement in ...


Niall O’Loughlin


(b Negotin, Jan 9, 1856; d Skopje, Sept 28, 1914). Serbian composer, musicologist and conductor. From 1879 he studied at the Munich Conservatory with Sachs (harmony) and Rheinberger (composition); he also studied with Parisotti in Rome (1884–5) and with Reinecke, Jadassohn and Brodsky in Leipzig (1885–7). In 1887 he returned to Serbia to become conductor and lifelong director of the Belgrade Choral Society, for which he wrote many works. Two years later he founded a string quartet, in which he played second violin. He made numerous tours of Slav territories, notating folksongs as he heard them. In 1893 he visited Dubrovnik and Cetinje, in 1894 Skopje and Budapest; in 1896 he toured Macedonia extensively and in 1910–11 visited Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia and Croatia. He incorporated many of the folksongs he collected into his own compositions. In 1899, with K. Manojlović and S. Binički, he founded the Serbian School of Music in Belgrade (now the Mokranjac School of Music), remaining its director until his death....


John C. Francis


(b Edgeworth, PA, April 27, 1871; d Sewickley, PA, July 10, 1943). American composer, conductor and ethnomusicologist, brother of Ethelbert Nevin. After early musical instruction from his father, an amateur composer and biographer of Stephen Foster, he studied at the New England Conservatory (1889–93). In 1893 he travelled to Europe, where his teachers included Karl Klindworth (piano), and O.B. Boise and Engelbert Humperdinck (composition). Upon his return to the USA in 1897 he taught, composed (often using the pseudonym Arthur Dale) and conducted concerts of his own works.

During the summers of 1902 and 1903 Nevin lived among the Blackfoot Indians of Montana, documenting folklore and transcribing music. His study of Amerindian culture resulted in the composition of the opera Poia. In 1907, on an invitation from President Theodore Roosevelt, he presented an illustrated lecture on the work at the White House. Although an American production was not staged, ...


Teresa Chylińska

(b Kraków, Jan 13, 1870; d Morges, nr Lausanne, Jan 21, 1942). Polish composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied in Kraków with Żeleński and in Prague with Lachner for the violin. In Paris he was a pupil of Paderewski (piano) and of d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum. He took lessons with Heinrich Urban in Berlin and completed his education in Leipzig (1904–6) with Nikisch (conducting) and Riemann (musicology). In 1908 he was appointed conductor of the Warsaw Opera and in 1911 he founded the first Polish musicological periodical, Kwartalnik muzyczny. He lived in Switzerland between 1914 and 1919, organizing concerts, lecturing on Polish music and founding in Lausanne the vocal ensemble Motet et Madrigal. From 1920 to 1926 he directed the Poznań Academy of Music, and in 1923 he became editor of the Przegląd muzyczny. Returning to Switzerland in 1926 to settle in Morges, he was chairman of the Société Vaudoise de Musique (...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Berlin, May 17, 1912; d Lund, March 10, 1974). Icelandic musicologist, conductor and composer of German birth . The son of the musicologist Otto Abraham, he studied in Berlin at the Hochschule für Musik (1932–4) and privately with Sachs. After leaving Germany in 1934, he continued his studies with Scherchen in Paris and then moved to Iceland in 1935, becoming an Icelandic citizen in 1947. He gained the doctorate from the University of Iceland in 1959 with a dissertation on a 14th-century rhymed office for St Thorlakur, the patron saint of Iceland. He taught musicology, theory and conducting at the Reykjavík College of Music, and was appointed docent at the theological faculty of the University of Iceland in 1966. He served as music director of the Icelandic Lutheran church (1961–74) and prepared a thoroughly revised edition of the Lutheran hymnal (first ed. 1972)....


Anastasia Siopsi

(b Piraeus, 1897; d Piraeus, 1981). Greek composer, music teacher, conductor, music manager, and historian.

He studied music theory with Geōrgios Lampelet and Armando Marsik at Athens Conservatory, and continued his studies in Leipzig with Fritz Benesevic and Max Steinizer. From 1914, and for several years, he was a teacher of vocal training in several schools and a professor in the Academy of Film Studies, of the Higher School of Cinema. He was a member of the board of the organization ‘Ellēnikon Melodrama’ [Greek Melodrama] and directing advisor; founder and conductor of the choir in the church of the Greek community in Leipzig; and founding member of the board of the Union of the Critics of the Theatre and Music, the organization ‘Arxaion Drama’ [Ancient Drama], the Greek Society of composers, writers, and publishers, among others. He was the director of the journal Mousika Chronika [Musical Chronicles] (...


Rudolf Klein

(b Vienna, Nov 14, 1887; d Salzburg, July 27, 1971). Austrian musicologist, conductor and composer . His father, Hans Paumgartner, was a writer on music and a friend of Bruckner, and his mother was Rosa Papier, a singer at the Court Opera. At an early age Paumgartner came into contact with the giants of Viennese music, including Bruckner, Wolf and Mahler. After a secondary education in the humanities he first studied law, in which he took the doctorate in 1911. He had already been an active musician (as conductor, horn-player, violinist and pianist) at school, and now studied musicology privately with Adler and was particularly influenced by Mandyczewski. His first professional appointment was as répétiteur at the Vienna Opera (1911–12). During World War I he was able to realize a project of his own: based in a military department called ‘Musikhistorische Zentrale’, he collected the songs of soldiers in the imperial multilingual army. In the course of this work, the results of which are lost, Paumgartner came into contact with Bartók and Kodály....


Paula Morgan

(b New York, April 22, 1944). American musicologist, pianist, conductor and composer. He studied with Persichetti at the Juilliard School of Music (BS 1964), with Reese at New York University (1964–6), at the University of Göttingen (1966–7) and with Lockwood, Mendel, Babbitt and Oster at Princeton University (MFA, 1969); he also worked with Stockhausen at the Darmstadt summer courses of 1961 and 1965. He held various positions with Nonesuch Records in New York (1964–75) and from 1970 to 1982 he was on the faculty of Brandeis University. He has also been a visiting faculty member at Harvard, New York University, Yale, Rutgers and Bard College. His principal areas of musicological research are Renaissance and Baroque music. He has advanced controversial theories about the performance of Bach’s vocal music, particularly the B minor Mass, and has presented these theories in both scholarly settings (notably in a long-running debate between Andrew Parrott, Ton Koopman and Christoph Wolff and Rifkin in ...


Faruk Yener

revised by Münir Nurettin Beken

(b Izmir, Sept 7, 1907; d Istanbul, Jan 6, 1991). Turkish composer, conductor and ethnomusicologist. He began his musical career by singing in the chorus of his elementary school and he took piano lessons from the age of 13. In 1925 he became a music teacher in elementary schools, and from the next year he taught in high schools. Having won a contest organized by the Ministry of Education, he left for Paris in 1928 to study music.

Saygun’s first teacher at the Paris Conservatoire was Eugène Borrel; later he attended Vincent d’Indy’s composition classes at the Schola Cantorum. In 1931 Saygun returned to Turkey and began to teach counterpoint at the Music Teachers School. In 1934 he became conductor of the Ankara Presidential SO, but he had to resign because of his failing hearing. From 1936 to 1939 he taught at the Istanbul Municipal Conservatory. In 1939...


Andrew Lamb

(b Marburg an der Drau [now Maribor], Nov 23, 1903; d Vienna, Dec 12, 1984). Austrian conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied with Hermann Frisch in Marburg and Roderich von Mojsisovics (composition) at the Graz Conservatory. From 1924 to 1928 he was double bass player, répétiteur and conductor at the Stadttheater in Graz and then successively conductor of a touring opera company (1928–9), at the Theater an der Wien and Vienna Stadttheater (1929–33) and at the Vienna Volksoper (1933–8). From 1931 to 1968 he conducted for Vienna Radio, giving many concerts with the Vienna SO during the 1930s and founding a radio orchestra in Vienna in 1945; he also made guest appearances on foreign radio stations. He came to specialize in light music, and his radio performances of Viennese operetta and dance music displayed a rare sense of Viennese style. He received the title of professor in ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Friedberg [now Frimburk], Bohemia, Oct 11, 1788; d Vienna, Sept 10, 1867). Austrian theorist, composer, conductor and organist. Sechter went to Vienna in 1804 and soon became known as a harmony and counterpoint teacher. In 1810 he began teaching the piano and singing at the Educational Institute for the Blind. He was appointed assistant court organist in 1824, and principal court organist in 1825. Schubert, shortly before his death (1828), took one counterpoint lesson with Sechter. In 1851, Sechter was appointed professor of thoroughbass and counterpoint at the Vienna Conservatory. Bruckner studied with Sechter, 1855–61, eventually succeeding him at the conservatory and passing on his methods. Other pupils were Marxsen (Brahms's teacher), Nottebohm, C.F. Pohl, Thalberg, Carl Umlauf and Henry Vieuxtemps.

A prolific composer, Sechter was said to have written a fugue every day. He apparently wrote more than 8000 pieces, of which the masses and oratorios written after ...


Israel J. Katz


(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...


Wolfgang Maria Hoffmann

(Alcantara) [Josef Anton]

(b Häselgehr, July 18, 1810; d Salzburg, Jan 25, 1882). Austrian composer, music theorist, organist, choirmaster and instrument maker. He was musically mainly self-taught; at the age or 9 he learnt to play the piano and organ, as well as the violin, harp, flute, clarinet and horn. When he was 11 he took lessons in harmony and basso continuo from P. Mauritius Gasteiger in Reutte. He attended the Gymnasium in Hall (1824–30), and took some organ and piano lessons from the organist Ignaz Heinz. He entered the Franciscan monastery of Salzburg in 1830 under the name of Peter von Alcantara, and was ordained in 1834. From 1837 to 1840 he was organist and choirmaster in Bolzano and Innsbruck, and he spent the rest of his life in the Franciscan monastery in Salzburg.

Singer became famous for the building of his ‘Pansymphonikon’ in 1845; this was a keyboard instrument with sets of reeds, two manuals and 42 registers which imitated an entire orchestra. He wrote contemplative works, a treatise on choral singing entitled ...


Henri Vanhulst

(b Marchienne-au-Pont, Hainaut, July 10, 1899; d Paris, Feb 12, 1970). Belgian composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied at the Brussels Conservatory (1911–18), where he won first prizes in music history (1915), harmony (1916), counterpoint and fugue (1917, under Du Bois) and the violin (1918); he later studied composition and orchestration with Gilson. In 1927 he won the Rubens Prize, which enabled him to stay in Paris for a time and make contact with the leaders of the avant garde. Scherchen gave him conducting lessons in 1935, and from 1937 to 1946 Souris was conductor for Belgian radio. As director of the music department of the Brussels Séminaire des Arts (1944–9) he introduced and arranged performances of works unknown in Brussels, especially serial music. He directed the Belgian section of the ISCM (1946–52) and was the editor of the journal ...


Asta-Rose Alcaide

revised by Alexandre Delgado

(b Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, Feb 15, 1927). Portuguese composer, musicologist and conductor. He took a degree in classical philology at Lisbon University and studied the piano (diploma 1947) with Abreu Mota and composition (diploma 1952) with Jorge Croner de Vasconcelos at the Lisbon Conservatory; he also studied conducting with Fritz Lehmann in Munich (1954–5), Hans Swarowsky in Vienna (1957) and Albert Wolff in Hilversum (1957). He was one of the founders of the Portuguese section of the Jeunesse Musicale and, during his ten years as director of the Portuguese television music department (1959–69), he also taught composition at Lisbon Conservatory (1963–7). Besides some activity as a conductor he has carried out much research, discovering several 18th- and 19th-century Portuguese manuscripts which he has reconstructed and revised. These include As variedades de Proteu (1737) and ...


Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Spatarius, Joannes]

(b Bologna, ?Oct 26, 1458; d Bologna, Jan 17, 1541). Italian theorist, composer and choirmaster. His name comes from his family's occupation: his grandfather was a merchant who dealt in swords. He mentions his age in two letters, which yield a birth year of 1458 or 1459; since he is not listed in the baptismal records, which go back to 1 January 1459, the year is probably 1458, and the day possibly 26 October, the date of two of his wills. Spataro never attended university and did not take holy orders; he may have continued his family's profession until late in his life (he bequeathed a forge to his ‘compare’).

During the 1490s Spataro was on friendly terms with younger members of the Bentivoglio family: Antongaleazzo received the dedication of his Honesta defensio, one of his lost treatises was written for Hermes, as well as two masses on pears (a pear appears on Hermes's arms). Only in ...


Sergio Lattes

(b Brescia, Sept 7, 1864; d S Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno, May 11, 1952). Italian scholar, composer and conductor. He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Panzini and Ponchielli (1883–5) and with Haller and Haberl at the Kirchenmusikschule, Regensburg (1888). He was maestro of the Schola Cantorum of S Marco, Venice (1889–93), maestro di cappella of the basilica of S Antonio, Padua (from 1894), director of the Parma Conservatory (1897–1902) and music director at the Santa Casa of Loreto (1902–24). In 1925 he took charge of the courses in Palestrina interpretation at the Naples Conservatory and in 1931 became director of the Ateneo Musicale, Genoa.

Although Tebaldini was active as a historian, conductor and composer (most notably of sacred works, but also of much orchestral and chamber music), he was most important for his long and devoted scholarly research and his promotion of the Cecilian movement for the reform of church music. (He was probably among those who inspired the ...