(b Geneva, NY, Aug 20, 1944). American music promoter, manager, journalist, and exporter. The grandson of folklorist John Avery Lomax (see Lomax family), John Lomax III is a self-described “music catalyst” who has been a powerful advocate on behalf of American country and folk musicians for over 40 years. He earned degrees in American History (BA, 1967) and Library Science (MSLS, 1970) from the University of Texas at Austin. After a brief stint as a disc jockey, librarian, and music editor for Space City News in Houston, he moved to Nashville in 1973, initially working as a publicist. Since 1968, he has been active as a music journalist, writing for United Features, Variety, and Music Week, serving in editorial roles with Goldmine and Country Rhythms, and publishing the critically-acclaimed Nashville: Music City USA (New York, 1985). In 1976, Lomax founded Kinetic Management and subsequently managed Townes Van Zandt, Steve Earle, David Schnaufer, and Kasey Chambers. He has also played a vital role in promoting American vernacular musics in foreign markets, writing for publications in Australia and England, and, after establishing Roots Music Exporters in ...
Travis D. Stimeling
(b Vienna, July 13, 1902; d New York, Jan 7, 1987). American writer on music, of Austrian birth. He studied at the University of Vienna from 1918 to 1920, when he emigrated to the USA. Beginning his career as an advertising executive, he was later a vice-president and general manager for the record division of RCA Victor (1950–65), and he was music editor of Good Housekeeping (1941–57). He was particularly interested in popularizing music: he was responsible for the series of recordings Classical Music for People who Hate Classical Music, and wrote a number of popular biographies of composers and books on opera.How to Listen to Music over the Radio (New York, 1937) Bach on Records (New York, 1942) Beethoven on Records (New York, 1942) A Front Seat at the Opera (New York, 1948/R) The Good Housekeeping Guide to Musical Enjoyment...
(b Camborne, England, April 17, 1920; d London, Oct 3, 1987). English writer. He became interested in jazz in the mid-1930s and established contact with record collectors such as Max Jones, Charles Fox, and Leonard Hibbs. In 1942 McCarthy and Jones founded the Jazz Sociological Society and became the editors of its journal, Jazz Music; from 1944 to 1946, to circumvent wartime rationing of paper, the journal was temporarily discontinued and instead a series of separate booklets entitled Jazz Music Books was issued. McCarthy then edited the short-lived Jazz Forum: Quarterly Review of Jazz and Literature (1946–7), and, with Dave Carey, compiled six volumes of a discography of jazz. From 1955 to 1972 he was editor of the influential periodical Jazz Monthly, which, in addition to its catholic coverage of jazz and blues, also included items on related topics such as the record industry; in March 1971...
revised by Barry Kernfeld
(b Munich, Oct 24, 1929). American writer. He grew up in Vienna, but left in 1938 and spent the next nine years as a refugee in Denmark and Sweden. After moving to the USA in 1947 he studied history at Brandeis University (1953–6). From 1958 to 1961 he was the New York correspondent for Jazz Journal. He then served as editor of Metronome (1961), Jazz (1962–3), and Down Beat (New York editor, 1964–6, editor 1966–73) magazines; during the 1960s he also produced jazz concerts in New York and for television. In the mid-1970s he held appointments as visiting lecturer in jazz at Brooklyn College and the Peabody Institute, and in 1976 he became director of the Institute of Jazz Studies at Rutgers, in which capacity he has worked as an editor of the Journal of Jazz Studies (from 1982 the Annual Review of Jazz Studies...
(b Duluth, MN, July 13, 1904; d Santa Monica, CA, May 8, 1987). American music critic and arts administrator. He attended the University of Minnesota and began his music career as an organist for silent films. He moved to California in 1939 and worked as an orchestrator and composer, but he quickly became a notable critic and a well connected figure in the Los Angeles music scene. Morton wrote vividly and forthrightly about music in publications including Script, Frontier, Musical Quarterly, and Notes. He also distinguished himself for his close attention to film scores; he wrote regularly on the subject in Modern Music (1944–6) and Hollywood Quarterly (1945–51).
Morton’s advocacy of new music in his criticism extended to his career as a concert organizer. From the early 1950s until 1971, he supervised Los Angeles’ Evenings on the Roof (renamed Monday Evening Concerts in 1954...
( Antero Yrjönpoika )
(b Oulu, May 30, 1932; d Tampere, Aug 1, 1981). Finnish composer, critic and music administrator . He studied composition with Kilpinen (1949–54) and made several study trips abroad (e.g. to China, Italy, France and Germany). He was librarian of the Sibelius Academy, Helsinki (1956–61), music critic of the daily papers Kauppalehti and Uusi Suomi (1956–70), programme director of the Jyväskylä Arts Festival (1956–9 and 1962–8) and director of the Helsinki Festival (1969–77). He retired in 1977 and moved to Rome, where he devoted himself to composition. His belief in music as a social force was reflected in his many activities: he was founding member of the Finnish Music Library Association (1954) and the Finnish section of Jeunesses Musicales (1957), and he introduced the concept of the modern art festival to Finland. As a writer he had a special talent for exciting public debate. Before his involvement in music administration he occasionally performed as an accompanist of lieder. He was a conservative as a composer: he carried on the tradition of the German lied, citing Schumann, Wolf, Kilpinen and the Italian Renaissance madrigal as his main sources of inspiration. He wrote about 250 songs on ancient Chinese poetry (e.g. Li-Tai-Po, Jyan-Tsen and Tu-Fu) and on contemporary Finnish poetry. Other works included five madrigals (...
(b Little Rock, AR, June 19, 1945; d Valhalla, NY, Nov 20, 1997). American writer. As a youth he played reed instruments with rock, country, and soul bands, and later performed as a member of an eclectic group called the Insect Trust, with which he recorded two albums. He was a co-founder of the Memphis Blues Festival in 1966, and the following year graduated from the University of Arkansas. In New York thereafter he became a widely published freelance writer on jazz, rock, and the avant garde. From 1975 he was a regular reviewer for the New York Times and in 1981 he was appointed to its staff of jazz and pop critics. Palmer wrote four books, the most important of which was a study of the Delta blues (Deep Blues, New York and London, 1981). He held teaching positions at Bowdoin College, Memphis State University, Brooklyn College, CUNY, Yale University, Carnegie Mellon University, and the University of Mississippi, where he worked after leaving the ...
(b Paris, Feb 27, 1912; d Montauban, Dec 8, 1974). French writer on jazz. After studying the saxophone he first wrote about jazz at the age of 18. He was one of the founders (in 1932) and then president of the Hot Club de France, and from 1935 to 1946 he was the editor of the journal Jazz-hot. With his unrivalled enthusiasm for communication, Panassié wrote hundreds of articles for this and other periodicals and was the author of several books, notably Le jazz hot, an important study that was among the first to treat jazz seriously. In 1938 Count Basie dedicated to him and recorded a composition called Panassié Stomp. The same year, in New York, Panassié organized a series of small-group recording sessions with Mezz Mezzrow which also included (at various times) Tommy Ladnier and Sidney Bechet; these were highly influential and contributed considerably to the New Orleans revival movement. In ...
(b Budapest, Jan 1, 1892; d Budapest, Nov 4, 1935). Hungarian director, composer and critic . He studied composition with Koessler and Viktor Herzfeld at the Budapest Academy of Music (1906–11) and later taught at the Fodor Conservatory (1912–19) and at the Budapest College of Music (1919–25). He also wrote music criticism for various daily newspapers in the Hungarian capital from 1919 to 1925. From August 1925 until his early death he was artistic director of the Royal Hungarian Opera House in Budapest. His tenure brought consolidation and higher artistic standards to the institution between the two world wars. By engaging young artists (János Ferencsik as co-répétiteur, later conductor, and Kálmán Nádasdy and Gusztáv Oláh as directors), he ushered in a new phase in the history of the opera house. Radnai engaged the leading Italian conductor Sergio Failoni as chief conductor for the Wagner, Verdi, Bartók and Kodály repertory. He was as eager to produce the works of contemporary Hungarian composers (Jenő Ádám, Bartók, Ernő Dohnányi, Hubay, Kodály, Kósa, Albert Siklós, Tivadar Szántó, Leó Weiner) as those of earlier masters of Hungarian music (Erkel, Liszt, Mosonyi) and of his foreign contemporaries (Debussy, Falla, Hindemith, Malipiero, Milhaud, Ravel, Respighi, Richard Strauss, Stravinsky, Zandonai). In revitalizing the design and production side, establishing discipline during rehearsals and performances, and educating a young and gifted generation of singers, Radnai created one of the most successful chapters in the history of Hungarian opera. He also contributed knowledgeable studies of works by Gounod, Erkel, Poldini and Goldmark to the literature of operatic analysis....
(b Budapest, Nov 15, 1878; d Budapest, Oct 27, 1943). Hungarian composer, critic and administrator. In accordance with his parents' wishes he studied law in Kolozsvár and Budapest, taking his diploma in 1907. He never attended a music college, though he took piano lessons with Ödön Farkas in Kolozsvár and was a composition pupil of A. Siklós in Budapest. His careers as critic and composer began almost simultaneously: in 1908 he published his first criticism in the Budapest newspaper Népszava, and his first compositions were settings of Endre Ady's Vér és arany (‘Blood and Gold’), published in the same year. He worked for Népszava until 1914 and then for Világ (1917–19) and he was one of the first to recognize the value of the work of Bartók and Kodály. Nonetheless, his most important contribution was his own songs: he worked almost exclusively in that genre, producing more than 500. His songs were first heard at literary gatherings in cafés during the period ...
[Alexander] (Thomas Parke)
(b Southsea, June 3, 1892; d Midhurst, Jan 18, 1982). English writer on music. He was educated at Bradfield College and the RAM (1910–13), where he studied chiefly the organ, harmony and composition, and was organist and choirmaster at Frensham parish church and briefly at Farnham. During World War I he served in India, Egypt and Palestine. In 1919 he was appointed music lecturer to London County Council evening institutes. In 1920 he joined the Gramophone Company's educational staff, first as a lecturer and later as its head. In 1930 he entered the Collegio Beda, Rome; he was ordained priest in 1934 and held an appointment at Westminster Cathedral. Though he returned to professional life in 1938 his experiences of Catholic church music, particularly Gregorian plainchant, led him to write a number of books on the subject. In 1940 he joined the Gramophone Department of the BBC, and after the war was appointed chief producer of music talks on the Home and Third Programmes. He developed a highly individual manner as a broadcaster and gave many illustrated talks, which he continued even after his retirement from the BBC in ...
Patrick J. Smith and Maureen Buja
(b Washington DC, Sept 16, 1940). American music critic and arts administrator . He was educated at Harvard (BA 1962, in German history and literature) and the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1964, PhD 1972), where he studied cultural history under Carl Schorske and completed a dissertation on the Prussian Ministry of Culture and the Berlin State Opera, 1918–1931. He worked as music and dance critic for the Oakland Tribune (1969) and the Los Angeles Times (1970–72). In 1972 he became a member of the music staff of the New York Times, and from 1974 he broadened his areas of interest, serving as chief rock music critic until 1980. After 1980 his criticism also included reviews of contemporary music and opera and he served as classical music editor at the New York Times, 1980–91. In 1992 he moved to Paris as European cultural correspondent for the ...
(b Montréal, France, Sept 14, 1805; d Paris, April 24, 1870). French journalist and theatre director. After law studies, he joined the staff of Le Figaro as a theatre critic. He wrote for a number of other papers before taking up the directorship of the Théâtre des Variétés in 1841, a post he occupied until 1847 when he became co-director of the Opéra with Charles Duponchel. Duponchel withdrew from the association in 1849, leaving Roqueplan as sole director until 1854. The two most important premières during his tenure were Verdi’s Jérusalem (1847) and Meyerbeer’s Le prophète (1849), though the first of these was not very successful. In 1851 Roqueplan also oversaw Gounod’s début with Sapho. Later, as director of the Opéra-Comique from 1857 to 1860, he gave Meyerbeer’s Le pardon de Ploërmel; the success of that work did not rescue him from severe financial troubles and, abandoning opera production, he turned to music journalism in the last decade of his life, becoming a well-known figure in fashionable boulevard society during the Second Empire....
(b Normanville, Eure, April 10, 1716; d Paris, Aug 2, 1786). French writer. A nobleman, who served as an officer of the Gardes Françaises and as a commandeur in the Ordre de Malte, he also had a literary career. His first stage work, a comedy entitled Les effets du caractère (1752), was a failure. As an attaché to the French embassy in Vienna, he met Gluck and became his first and principal propagandist in Paris. Supported by Marie-Antoinette, he made imperious demands on the Opéra in 1774; later, he may have acted discreditably in Gluck’s interest by endeavouring to prevent improvements in the libretto of Sacchini’s Renaud. He started the fashion for adapting 17th-century tragedies for the Opéra with Iphigénie en Aulide (for Gluck) in 1774, apparently the only libretto for which he was wholly responsible. He also translated the prefaces to Gluck’s Alceste and Paride ed Elena...
(b Brighton, Oct 31, 1917; d Nashville, TN, Oct 8, 1982). English writer on church music. He read classics at Magdalen College, Oxford (1936–40, BA 1940), and theology at Mansfield College, Oxford (1940–43), and in 1943 became a minister in the Congregational Church of England and Wales. He took the Oxford BD in 1946 with a thesis on church music and theology (published as The Church and Music) and in 1948 joined the staff of Mansfield College as director of music; he took the Oxford DPhil in 1952 with a dissertation on the music of Christian hymnody. He served as a minister in Edinburgh (1959) and Newcastle upon Tyne (1967) before becoming professor of church music at Westminster Choir College, Princeton, New Jersey (1975).
In addition to his pastoral work and writing Routley was active as an organist. He was the first president of the Guild of Congregational Organists (...
revised by Barry Kernfeld
[Robert (D.) ]
(b New York, c1945). American writer. He studied clarinet and drums and played drums in workshops with Jaki Byard (1968–71) and Cedar Walton (1972). In the 1960s and 1970s he wrote for American and European periodicals, including Down Beat, Jazz Journal, and Jazz Forum, and in 1975 he began publishing the monthly magazine Cadence, which in the following years printed many wide-ranging interviews with jazz and blues musicians and reviews of recordings. Later he formed Cadence Jazz Records (1980), which by the late 1990s had issued more than 100 recordings; North Country Record Distribution (1983), which distributes the jazz and blues recordings of more than 900 small independent labels; Cadence Jazz Books (1992), which publishes reference books, histories, and discographies; and CIMP (1996), for which he had produced about 100 recordings by the turn of the century. He donated his extensive indexed collection of books and journals, covering jazz and blues literature in the English language, to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture of the New York Public Library (...
Alec Hyatt King
revised by Malcolm Miller
(b Schwiegershausen, Nov 3, 1805; d Crete, Nebraska, March 1880). German writer on music. Like others of his generation, Schilling, the son of a pastor, received his education in both music and theology, in the former partly from his father, in the latter from teachers at Göttingen and Halle. From 1830 to 1836 he was director of a music school in Stuttgart founded by Franz Stöpel, but gave it up to become a freelance writer in theology and politics as well as in music. He was founder and secretary of the Deutsche National-Verein für Musik und ihre Wissenschaft and edited its yearbook from 1839 to 1843.
Between 1839 and 1850 Schilling published over a score of books on musical subjects including aesthetics, harmony, pianism and composers (among these an account of Liszt, 1842), which are generally superficial; they are, however, significant in their development of both performance theory and the history of music theory. His career in Germany came to an end in ...
(b Durham, Nov 10, 1735; d London, July 6, 1813). English philanthropist and amateur musician . Best known for his fight to abolish slavery, he was also a keen amateur musician who played the flute, clarinet, oboe, flageolet and kettledrums. He had a good bass voice and his Short Introduction to Vocal Musick was published in 1767. Together with his brothers, William (1729–1810), surgeon to George III, and James (d 1783), an engineer, from 1775 until 1783 he held concerts on two barges on the Thames, attended by ‘not only men of the most eminent talents and skill, but also those of the highest and most distinguished rank’ (Hoare). This activity was recorded in a famous painting by Johan Zoffany which shows 15 music-makers, many of them members of the family, on their barge. The brothers also hosted fortnightly concerts of sacred music on Sunday nights in London....
(b New York, Dec 11, 1932). American writer . He studied at Princeton University (BA 1955) and worked as an independent writer on music, founding in 1970 the Musical Newsletter, an adventurous periodical that produced many worthwhile articles during its seven years’ life. Smith served as president of the Music Critics Association, ...
George J. Buelow
(b Muggendorf, Upper Franconia, bap. Dec 5, 1721; d Burgbernheim, Middle Franconia, Jan 10, 1788). German writer on music. He attended the Gymnasium Casimirianum Academicum in Coburg (but not until 1741–4), and studied philosophy, theology and oriental languages at Erlangen University until 1746. In 1747 he was appointed an adiutor at the Gymnasium in Bayreuth and received in 1748 the position of preacher in the suburb of St Georgen. On 22 January 1753 he was made an honorary member of the Lateinische Gesellschaft in Jena, and in April of that year became pastor in Lenkersheim. Finally in 1766 he moved to Burgbernheim as pastor and church superintendent. Among many publications, largely concerning church matters, his only musical work is Orgelhistorie (Nuremberg, 1771/R), a modest publication of 167 pages which originated as the sermon given for the dedication of the rebuilt organ in his church. In it Sponsel attempted to trace the history of the organ from ancient times, though he disclaimed any goal of completeness. His history is faulty and undependable, and heavily indebted to books on the organ by Praetorius, Printz, Werckmeister and Adlung. Most significant, however, and of continuing value, is a fairly detailed description of 26 important Franconian and Regensburg organs, with data compiled through correspondence....