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Article

Janet Dickey Lein

(b Hermesgrün, Germany, Nov 9, 1862; d Markneukirchen, Germany, Dec 27, 1922). German maker of woodwind instruments. Franz Oscar Adler and his brother Robert Oswald (1865–1946) learned woodwind instrument making from their father, Johann Gottlob (1825–1900). Robert worked for Hermann Sauerhering (1841–1909) in Magdeburg before starting a company in his own name in 1891, producing woodwind instruments under the label ROA. In 1924 Robert’s son Johannes Adler (1863–1946) founded his own workshop in Markneukirchen, earning an excellent reputation for recorders.

Oscar began building a woodwind instrument factory in 1883 and founded Oscar Adler & Co. in 1885. His factory was soon enlarged and the lathes and other machinery were powered by a gasoline motor via belt drives. By 1900 it was considered the largest clarinet and flute factory in Germany. In 1901 the firm produced 21 bassoons, one contrabassoon, 54 oboes, and 10 English horns, as well as several thousand clarinets, flutes, piccolos, and the first German-made saxophones. By ...

Article

Adok  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Frame drum of the Saningbakar area of West Sumatra. The steeply tapering frame, up to 20 cm deep, is made of wood or coconut shell. The head, made of tiger skin laced with rattan cord, can be up to 40 cm in diameter and is struck by hand or with a stick to produce a deeply resonant sound. The ...

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Article

Laurence Libin

Term for an anthropo- or zoomorphic ceramic rattle of the pre-Contact Americas. In American archaeology ‘adorno’ (from Sp. adornar, ‘to decorate’) generally refers to a decoration attached to the rim (not the side) of a ceramic vessel. Many adornos have been broken off, perhaps intentionally, and are found separately. A significant number of these attached or detached effigies, typically about 6 cm tall or larger, are hollow and contain well-formed, loose pellets, also made of ceramic and fired together with the effigy and its vessel. In the USA adorno rattles have been found in pre-Mississippian and Mississippian-era sites, most examples dating from about 1200 to 1400 ce. Five examples (preserved by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History), recovered in the late 19th century from the Lake George mound site in the Yazoo-Mississippi River delta, have been studied; their quiet sound has been associated speculatively with the heartbeat of the clan entities represented by the effigies....

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Article

Adufe  

John M. Schecter

[pandeiro, quadrado]

Hand-beaten frame drum, of Muslim origin, played in Iberia, Latin America, and North Africa. Typically, a wooden frame about 30 to 45 cm square and 6 to 9 cm deep is covered with sheep or goat skin on one or both sides. Triangular and hexagonal shapes are occasionally found nowadays. The heads are normally tacked on and the tacks covered by ribbon, or in Morocco a single skin can be stitched over the frame. Rattling elements are sometimes enclosed. In Spain and Portugal it is played primarily by women (see illustration) often to accompany their singing. In Portugal it is prominently used with other instruments to accompany the charamba, a circle-dance performed by couples, and various Christian processions. In Guatemala string ensembles (zarabandas) incorporate adufe that have an interior rattle or bell. In Brazil it is called pandero or quadrado and is played (often in pairs) for the May ...

Article

Ae-be  

Raymond Ammann

[Drehu: itra pë; Iaaï: bwinj-bet]

Idiophone of the Loyalty Islands (off New Caledonia). It joins most of the choral singing that accompanies dances. The names of the instrument reflect ideas associated with unity or being struck. It is a disc-shaped parcel, 20 to 30 cm in diameter and 10 to 15 cm thick, typically of coconut fibres covered by leaves of the tree Macaranga vedeliana. Other plant materials can be used as well. A string is affixed firstly on top of the bundle to hold the parcel together. As more leaves are added, the string will be passed enough times around the parcel to hold all the leaves tightly. Lastly a separate string goes around the parcel’s sides. In the centre of the upper side a sling is formed of the string, so that the musician can pass a finger through it to hold the instrument while it is struck with the palm of the other hand. Sometimes it is also struck against the thigh. The instrument is played by men and women....

Article

Aelyau  

Laurence Libin

Frame drum of Alaska, reported at the end of the 19th century. One from Point Barrow (in US.W.si) had a shallow hoop shaped as an oval, 56 by 48 cm, with a handle attached at the side, and a seal peritonium as the head. Apparently the name denoted the typical frame drum encountered from Alaska to Greenland and Siberia....

Article

Aeolian  

Cynthia Adams Hoover

revised by Edwin M. Good and Barbara Owen

Name associated with a series of American piano, organ, and player piano manufacturers.

Founded by William B(urton) Tremaine (1840–1907), who had begun as a piano maker with Tremaine Brothers in New York City. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (1887; from 1895 the Aeolian Co.) to manufacture automatic organs that used perforated music rolls (see Player organ). Votey, Edwin Scott, inventor of the Pianola, the first practical piano player and the most famous name among automatic piano brands, joined the Aeolian Co. in 1897. Henry B. Tremaine (1866–1932), the founder’s son, tapped a larger market with an extensive advertising campaign for player pianos in the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1913 Aeolian introduced the Duo-Art reproducing piano, a mechanism (fitted in high-quality pianos) that made it possible to record on paper rolls the slightest nuances of dynamics, tempo and phrasing. Many leading pianists were recorded on Duo-Art machines....

Article

Laurence Libin

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American firm of player piano manufacturers. It was founded by William B. Tremaine, who had begun as a piano builder with Tremaine Brothers. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. in New York (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (by 1888) to manufacture automatic organs and perforated music rolls. His son Harry B. Tremaine sensed the possibility of a larger market and directed the company in an extensive advertising campaign that resulted in the sale of millions of player pianos during the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1913 the company introduced the Duo-Art Reproducing Piano, a sophisticated mechanism (fitted in high-quality pianos) that made it possible to record and reproduce through paper rolls the slightest nuances of dynamics, tempo, and phrasing; a number of leading pianists of that time were recorded in this way.

In 1903 (with a capital of 10 million dollars) Tremaine formed the Aeolian, Weber Piano & Pianola Co., of which the Aeolian Co. formed a significant part; the first successful American piano trust, the parent company eventually controlled such other firms as the Chilton Piano Co., Choralian Co. of Germany and Austria, Mason & Hamlin, Orchestrelle Co. of Great Britain, Pianola Company Proprietary Ltd of Australia, George Steck & Co., Stroud Piano Co., Stuyvesant Piano Co., Technola, Universal Music Co., Vocalian Organ Co., Votey Organ Co., Weber Piano Co., and Wheelock Piano Co. Noted for its development and aggressive marketing of various mechanical instruments, the Aeolian Co. manufactured the Aeriole, Aeolian Orchestrelle Pianola, Metrostyle Pianola, and Aeolian pipe organs. The firm’s offices were in New York where it maintained the Aeolian Concert Hall. In 1931 the company’s organ department merged with the Ernest M. Skinner Co. to form the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co. In 1932 the company merged with the American Piano Corporation (successor of the American Piano Co.) to form the Aeolian American Corporation....

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American piano manufacturer. It was formed as the result of two mergers, the first of which, on 1 Sept 1932, between the Aeolian Co. and the American Piano Corporation (formerly the American Piano Co.), created the Aeolian American Corporation. In May 1959 the assets of the corporation were purchased by Winter & Co. The parent company changed its name to the Aeolian Corporation on 12 June 1964; it retained the name Aeolian American Corporation for the East Rochester division until April 1971 when it was changed to the Aeolian American Division of the Aeolian Corporation.

The corporation acquired the assets (including trademarks, plans, and factories) of many formerly independent American piano companies. Its instruments were made in three cities under the following trade names: Mason & Risch (Toronto); Mason & Hamlin; Chickering; Wm. Knabe & Co. (East Rochester, New York); Cable; Winter; Hardman, Peck; Kranich & Bach; J. & C. Fischer; George Steck; Vose & Sons; Henry F. Miller; Ivers & Pond; Melodigrand; Duo-Art; Musette; and Pianola Player Piano (Memphis, Tennessee). In ...

Article

Stephen Bonner

(Fr. harpe d’Eole, harpe éolienne; Ger. Äolsharfe, Windharfe; It. arpa eolia, arpa d’Eolo)

A string instrument (chordophone) sounded by natural wind, interesting as much for its symbolic significance as for its musical importance.

Normally four to 12 (but sometimes 24 or 48) strings ‘of catgut or brass wire, equal in length, unequal in thickness’ (Magasin pittoresque, 1845) are stretched over one or two hardwood bridges of triangular cross-section, mounted on a thin pine, maple or mahogany box of variable shape – measuring 75–200 cm (normally 85–110 cm) long, 11–35 cm (normally 12–26 cm) wide and 5–17 cm (normally 5–9 cm) deep. The ends of this soundbox may be of beech, for insertion of iron hitch-pins or wooden tuning-pegs. Most instruments have some device such as a slit draught for concentrating the wind on the strings.

Six variants of this structure exist: (1) A rectangular soundbox with a single horizontal row of strings, the most popular model in England, and, until 1803, in Germany; also the simplest type....

Article

Barbara Owen

American organ building firm. It was formed in 1931 when the firm of Ernest M(artin) Skinner & Co. acquired the organ department of the Aeolian Co., which had made its reputation building organs with self-playing mechanisms for private houses, changing its name to Aeolian-Skinner. In 1933 there was a reorganization in which G(eorge) Donald Harrison, who had joined Skinner in 1927, became technical director and Skinner’s activities were curtailed. In the same year Skinner, after increasing disagreement with Harrison over tonal matters, began a new company in Methuen, Massachusetts, with his son, Richmond, who had purchased the former Methuen Organ Co. factory and Serlo Hall the previous year.

During the 1930s the Aeolian-Skinner Co. continued to rise in popularity, and in 1940 Harrison became president, succeeding Arthur Hudson Marks (1874–1939), a wealthy businessman who had become its owner and president in 1919. Under Harrison the firm became a leader in the trend away from orchestral tonal practices and towards a more classical sound. It was Harrison who coined the term ‘American Classic’ to refer to this more eclectic type of tonal design. On his death, Joseph S. Whiteford (...

Article

Term applied generically to instruments activated by the wind. Examples include several types of instrument with the prefix Aeolian, notably the Aeolian harp. The term may also denote an instrument whose sound imitates that of the wind, for example the Wind machine.

See also Aeolian ; Aeolian harp ; Wind chime ; Wind machine ...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Frances Palmer

General term for musical instruments that produce their sound by setting up vibrations in a body of air. Aerophones form one of the original four classes of instruments (along with idiophones, membranophones and chordophones) in the hierarchical classification devised by E.M. von Hornbostel and C. Sachs and published by them in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914 (Eng. trans. in GSJ, xiv, 1961, pp.3–29, repro. in Ethnomusicology: an Introduction, ed. H. Myers, London, 1992, pp.444–61). Their system, which draws on that devised by Victor-Charles Mahillon for the Royal Conservatory in Brussels and is widely used today, divides instruments into groups which employ air, strings, membranes or sonorous materials to produce sounds. Various scholars, including Galpin (Textbook of European Instruments, London, 1937) and Sachs (History of Musical Instruments, New York, 1940), have suggested adding electrophones to the system, but it has not yet been formally extended.

Aerophones are subdivided into ‘free aerophones’ (e.g. the bullroarer), in which vibrations are set up in a body of air unconfined by the structure of the instrument, and wind instruments where the air is enclosed inside a tube or vessel. The latter group includes those instruments where sound is produced by directing a stream of air against an edge (flutes and duct flutes), by the vibration of a reed, or by the vibration of the player’s lips. Each category is further subdivided according to the more detailed characteristics of an instrument. A numeric code, similar to the class marks of the Dewey decimal library classification system, indicates the structure and physical function of the instrument. The Hornbostel-Sachs classification (from the ...

Article

[Aerophon]

A device invented by the German flautist Bernhard Samuels in 1911. By means of a tube with a mouthpiece, it provides players of wind instruments with air from bellows operated by the foot and thus enables them to sustain notes indefinitely as on the organ. Although Richard Strauss called for it in his ...

Article

Afiw  

José Maceda

Idioglot Jew’s harp of the northern Philippines. Most are made of bamboo, but some are of brass or bronze with a slender triangular tongue cut through a small sheet of metal, the tongue remaining fully enclosed but attached only at the base of the triangle. Among the Bontok people it is known as the ...

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Article

Howard Schott and Martin Elste

In