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(b Neila, Province of Burgos, Dec 11, 1939). Spanish musicologist and choral conductor. While an intern at the Benedictine monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos he was head boy chorister. From 1958 to 1962 he studied at the Solesmes abbey, where his teachers included Dom Joseph Gajard. On returning to Silos he was appointed director of the monastic choir, which had a triumphal début in Madrid in 1972. In 1973–4 he studied the Mozarabic codices in the British Library and translated Salinas’s epochal treatise into Spanish. He resumed secular status in 1975, and in the summer of 1978, after numerous teaching appointments, joined the faculty of the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música at Madrid and in 1983 rose to tenured professor of Gregorian chant. He became a member of the three-person editorial board of the Diccionario de la música española e hispanoamericana in 1988.

Elected president of the Spanish Musicological Society in ...


Séamas de Barra

(Georg) [Ó Rónáin, Muiris]

(b Munich, April 13, 1910; d Cork, July 21, 1992). Irish composer, conductor and musicologist of German birth. After completing the BMus (1931) and MA (1932) at University College, Cork, he studied composition and conducting at the Akademie für Tonkunst, Munich, and musicology at Munich University (1932–4). On returning to Cork in 1934, he was appointed professor of music at University College, where he remained until his retirement in 1980. Acutely aware of the obligation of his generation to create circumstances in which modern Irish music could flourish in a recently independent Ireland, his involvement in all aspects of musical life was deep and committed. He founded the Cork SO (1934), which he conducted for almost 60 years, and the Cork Music Teachers’ Association (1938), of which he remained chair for 50 years; he also co-founded the Cork Ballet Company (...


Paula Morgan

(b Cambridge, MA, Aug 30, 1917; d Cambridge, MA, Jan 9, 2006). American musicologist and choral conductor. He studied with Archibald T. Davison, A. Tillman Merritt and Walter Piston at Harvard University, where he received the BA in 1941 and the MA in 1947. He taught at Princeton from 1947 until 1958, when he was appointed Fanny Peabody Professor of Music at Harvard. There he devoted his attention to undergraduate education and until 1970 conducted the Harvard Glee Club and Radcliffe Choral Society, a major university choral group. He was made professor emeritus in 1984. His historical writings are mainly concerned with choral music, especially that of Beethoven, and with Beethoven biography. His revised edition of Thayer's Life of Beethoven is a substantial contribution to Beethoven scholarship in English. From 1959 Forbes was general editor of the Harvard-Radcliffe Choral Music Series.

‘The Music of Randall Thompson’, MQ, 35 (1949), 1–25...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Lanfranchinus][Gafori, Franchino]

(b Lodi, 14 Jan 1451; d Milan, 24 June 1522). Italian theorist, composer, and choirmaster. At home in both speculative and practical music, he was the first theorist to have a substantial number of his writings published, and his influence can be traced for more than a century, both in Italy and abroad.

Much of our knowledge stems from the contemporary biography by Pantaleone Malegolo, printed in the De harmonia: Gaffurius was born in Lodi to the soldier Bettino from Almenno in the territory of Bergamo and to Caterina Fissiraga of Lodi. He began theological studies early, at the Benedictine monastery of S. Pietro in Lodi Vecchio (where he was still present in September 1473) and was ordained priest in late 1473 or 1474. His first instructor in music was Johannes Bonadies (or Godendach); Malegolo implies that this was in Lodi, where he briefly returned to sing in the cathedral on Ascension Day, ...


Etienne Darbellay

revised by Dorothea Baumann

(b Veytaux-Chillon, Montreux, April 26, 1922; d Pully, April 28, 1992). Swiss musicologist, conductor and composer. After his schooling at Montreux, Lausanne and Winterthur, where he learnt the violin and viola with Ernst Wolters, he studied literature and theology at Lausanne and took a course in conducting at Geneva with Baud-Bovy and Franz von Hösslin. He studied the violin at the Zürich Conservatory with Willem de Boer (diploma 1946) and musicology, church history and philosophy at the university. His principal teachers were Hindemith, Willy Burkhard, Willi Schuh and Antoine Cherbuliez. In 1947 he obtained the doctorat ès lettres from Zürich University with a dissertation on the Huguenot Psalter. He taught music history in Lausanne at the Conservatory and the Université Populaire (1956–87) and at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale (1973–9). Throughout his life he was active as a choral and orchestral conductor. At the Bayreuth Festival he directed the Wagner Seminar (...


Ruth Pincoe

(b Norwich, April 11, 1912). Canadian composer, theorist and conductor of English origin. He moved to Canada in 1928, becoming a Canadian citizen in 1930. His composition teachers have included Alfred Whitehead in Montreal and Paul Hindemith at Yale University (1952–3). He also studied conducting with Willem van Otterloo in Utrecht (1956). From 1946 until his retirement in 1977, he taught at Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario. He also conducted the Queen’s SO (1946–54), and founded and conducted both the Kingston Choral Society (1953–7) and the New SO of Kingston (1954–7).

George’s music is in a 20th-century idiom characterized by traditional formal structures and modal harmonies, and influenced by his studies of ethnomusicology and the structural aspects of music. His operas are large-scale works based on historical events with librettos adapted from contemporary writing. He has also composed many choral pieces....


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Bydgoszcz, Feb 6, 1878; d Warsaw, Sept 27, 1943). Polish musicologist, conductor and composer. Ordained priest in 1902, he studied music at Regensburg with Haberl and Haller and musicology with Kinkeldey in Breslau (Wrocław) and with Wolf and Kretzschmar in Berlin. He took the doctorate at Breslau in 1913 with a dissertation on a 15th-century treatise. From 1925 to 1939 he was an assistant professor at the University of Poznań. He also taught at the Poznań Conservatory and at the theological seminary. From 1916 he was conductor of the Poznań Cathedral Choir and succeeded in making it one of the finest choirs in Poland between the wars. His main interest was church music, both early and contemporary. He was responsible for several editions and composed a number of church works himself.

Die ‘Musica Magistri Szydlovite’: ein polnischer Choraltraktat des XV. Jahrhunderts und seine Stellung in der Choraltheorie des Mittelalters...


Alfred Grant Goodman

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Stettin [now Szczecin], Nov 7, 1911; d Feldafing, June 6, 1990). German conductor and musicologist. After spending his early years in Vienna, he went to Berlin where he attended the university and the Musikhochschule, studying conducting with Walther Gmeindl, stage direction with Carl Hagemann and Richard Weichert, musicology with Schering, Schünemann, Sachs and Moser and physics with Walter Nernst and Arthur Wehnelt; he took the doctorate at the university in 1936 with a dissertation on the history of German Romantic opera. During this time he served as accompanist in the Lessing Museum Concerts, and in 1936 he became orchestral adviser to the Verband für Volksmusik of the Reichsmusikkammer and worked as a choir director. He was especially active as music consultant in the adult education division (Deutsches Volksbildungswerk) of the Nazi labour organization ‘Kraft durch Freude’. In 1945 he became head of the music department of Radio Weimar and department head in the Weimar Musikhochschule and subsequently (...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Bad Salzbrunn [now Szczawno-Zdrój], Silesia, Nov 20, 1925). German musicologist, choir director and composer. He studied singing with Hüsch, choir directing with Kurt Thomas, and musicology at the universities of Tübingen and Frankfurt, with sociology, Protestant theology and folklore as subsidiary subjects. In 1961 he received the doctorate at Frankfurt under Helmuth Osthoff with a dissertation proving through style criticism that Ghiselin and Verbonnet were the same person; he has also edited the complete works of that composer. He was Kantor at St Paul's in Stuttgart (1958–70) and in 1960 he founded the Stuttgart Schola Cantorum, which he led until it disbanded in 1990. He was adviser for new music for the South German Radio in Stuttgart (1969–88). In 1972 Pierre Boulez selected him to help in the planning of the Centre Beaubourg in Paris. His musicological estate is held by the Paul Sacher Stiftung....


Michael Steinberg

(b New York, April 9, 1919; d New York, Jan 9, 1966). American conductor and musicologist. He studied music privately; in early music, to which he devoted his professional life, he was essentially self-taught. After his return in 1949 from five years’ service in the US Merchant Marine he began to establish himself as a choral conductor in New York. The singers in his church choir at St Luke’s, Greenwich Village, provided the nucleus for the New York Pro Musica Antiqua, an ensemble for the performance of Renaissance and medieval music, which Greenberg founded in 1952. To avoid confusion with Safford Cape’s Brussels group, the word ‘antiqua’ was dropped, and the ensemble became known as the New York Pro Musica. It was primarily a performing ensemble of singers and instrumentalists, several of its musicians functioning in both capacities, and it was augmented at times by a motet choir; it was also a library, a research centre and small school....


Rudolf Lück

(Adolf Karl Willy)

(b Hamburg, Aug 29, 1903; d Stuttgart, Jan 10, 1977). German choral conductor and musicologist. He first studied natural science at Tübingen University, then musicology at the Musikhochschule in Stuttgart under K. Hasse, as well as the organ and piano, 1923–7. In 1924 he formed the Reutlingen Chorale, in 1931 the Swabian Chorale, and in 1936 the Grischkat Chorale in Stuttgart, all of which he continued to conduct. In 1938 he was appointed music director at the Bosch electrical works, conducting choirs and a symphony orchestra, and in 1945 he founded the Swabian SO at Reutlingen, which he conducted until 1950. From 1946 to 1968 he taught choral conducting at the Stuttgart Musikhochschule (from 1950 as professor), and from 1968 he taught orchestral conducting there. An outstanding choral conductor who helped to re-establish standards after the two world wars, Grischkat gained particular renown for his performances of Bach, including the complete cantatas at the collegiate church in Stuttgart between ...


Ulrich Konrad

(b Weimar, April 29, 1934). German musicologist and conductor. He studied at the Weimar Musikhochschule and the universities of Jena and Leipzig, taking the doctorate under Besseler at Leipzig in 1957 with a dissertation on the 15th-century Burgundian chanson. After teaching at Leipzig University (1957–9), he was a conductor at the Rudolstadt theatre (1959–64) and chief conductor at the Stendal, Potsdam and Stralsund theatres (1964–76); he was then conductor at the Dresden State Opera House (1976–81) and chief conductor at the Deutsches Nationaltheater, Weimar (1981–3), and the Wuppertal SO (1986–96). In 1996 he was appointed professor at the Musikhochschule, Freiburg. His interests are wide-ranging and he has published on music of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, and problems of performing practice; he has also written perceptively about Janáček and other 20th-century composers.

Liedprinzip und Polyphonie in der burgundischen Chanson des 15. Jahrhunderts...


Erkki Salmenhaara


(b Karvia, May 15, 1889; d Asikkala, July 22, 1950). Finnish musicologist and conductor. He studied the violin and music theory in Helsinki (1907–11), Berlin (1921) and Paris (1924) and musicology with Ilmari Krohn at the University of Helsinki (MA 1918), where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on the manuscripts in neumatic notation in the university library. After a period as a violinist, violist and conductor of various orchestras in Helsinki and Turku, he was head of the music department of the Finnish Broadcasting Company (1929–46) and chief conductor of the Finnish RO (1929–50). He was also a lecturer (1925–46) and professor extra ordinis of musicology (1946–50) at the University of Helsinki. As a conductor, broadcast programme planner, lecturer, administrator, music critic and writer he did much to promote Finnish music in Finland and abroad. His research was mainly concerned with early Finnish music history; his major work, ...


Hanspeter Krellmann

revised by Erik Levi

(b Dohna, nr Dresden, March 20, 1883; d Cologne, July 31, 1960). German composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied in Leipzig with Riemann and Kretzschmar at the university and with Straube, Ruthhardt and Nikisch at the conservatory. Subsequently he was a pupil of Reger and Mottl in Munich. From 1907 he assisted Wolfrum at Heidelberg University and in the Bachverein there. He was appointed organist and Kantor at the Johanniskirche, Chemnitz, in 1909, and music director in Osnabrück the next year. Having established a conservatory in that city, he took a post as music director and professor extraordinary at Tübingen University (1919), where he obtained his doctorate (1923) and founded both the music institute and the university music department. An enthusiastic proponent of the Third Reich, he was particularly active from 1933 onwards in furnishing musicological material to support the regime, and was rewarded for his loyalty in ...


Árni Heimir Ingólfsson

(b Eyrarbakki, Nov 3, 1914; d Sept 18, 1994). Icelandic musicologist, composer, teacher and conductor. He attended the Reykjavík College of Music (1931–3) and subsequently studied at the Copenhagen Conservatory (1935), the Leipzig Conservatory (1936–9) and Leipzig University (musicology with Schultz, Husmann and Prufer). He continued his violin and composition studies at the Zürich Conservatory, graduating in 1949. He also took the doctorate in musicology at the University of Zürich in 1954.

His many appointments include roles as secretary of the newly founded Society of Musicians (1940–46) and of the Composers' Society (1945–7). In addition, he was a board member of STEF, the Icelandic performing rights society (1946–8), and was president of the State Cultural Fund's music committee (1962–6). He was assistant head of music at the Icelandic State Broadcasting Service (1959–66), professor at the University of Saskatchewan (...


Ramona H. Matthews

(Franz Richard)

(b Vienna, Sept 22, 1883; d Detroit, Sept 3, 1951). American composer, conductor and musicologist of Austrian birth. He studied at the Vienna Conservatory under Heuberger, Fuchs and Mandyczewski, and at the University of Vienna. Between 1908 and 1914 he conducted opera in various provincial theatres in Austria and Germany, wrote two operas (one later performed), and published the first of his many articles. After World War I he taught in Mannheim (1919–22) and Erfurt (1924–6) before being invited to Berlin as editor and administrator for the Reichsverbandes Deutscher Orchester und Orchestermusiker. He taught at the Stern Conservatory (1926–8) and at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik (1927–34); concurrently he carried on research and editing, published several books and numerous articles and reviews, and composed a great deal of music.

Deprived of his position by the Nazis in 1934, Hernried went to Vienna, and in ...


Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...


George Pratt

(Jarvis Haley)

(b Nottingham, Sept 10, 1941; d Cambridge, September 24, 2014). English conductor, scholar and harpsichordist. He read classics and music at Pembroke College, Cambridge, one of many students influenced by Thurston Dart. He studied harpsichord with Rafael Puyana and Gustav Leonhardt, and spent a postgraduate year in Prague on a British Council scholarship. He was a founder member with David Munrow in 1967 of the Early Music Consort, an ensemble whose influence is still felt in Britain. He contributed substantially to the group through his admired recordings as solo harpsichordist and radio talks (starting with ‘The Young Idea’ in 1970).

In 1973 Hogwood founded the Academy of Ancient Music to play Baroque music on period instruments. Since then it has achieved worldwide renown in concerts, and in an impressive tally of recordings. These initially explored Baroque repertory (for much of which Hogwood prepared performing editions) and have later moved on to embrace the complete symphonies of Mozart and Beethoven, many of Haydn's symphonies and the complete Mozart piano concertos (with Robert Levin). Hogwood also recorded a number of operas with the Academy of Ancient Music, ranging from Purcell's ...


George Pratt


( b London, Oct 19, 1946). English conductor and musicologist . He studied at King’s College, London, with Thurston Dart, and has subsequently taught at the RAM, Colchester Institute and, as Reader in Musicology, at the University of Leeds. He is the author of many scholarly articles and editions, largely in the field of English Restoration music. His book Four and Twenty Fiddlers: the Violin at the English Court 1540–1690 (Oxford, 1993) was awarded a British Academy prize and Henry Purcell (Oxford, 1994) met with comparable acclaim. He has also contributed to a number of anthologies.

Holman founded The Parley of Instruments with Roy Goodman in 1979. This ensemble has been the core of a pioneering series of over 50 recordings from Hyperion entitled The English Orpheus, exploring the neglected repertory of English music before, and in the shadow of, Purcell. Holman became director of Opera Restor’d in ...