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Paula Morgan

(b Swansea, MA, July 14, 1904; d Cannes, April 18, 1975). American musicologist and harpsichordist. After receiving the BA from Yale University in 1926, Aldrich went to Europe, where he studied the piano with Matthay in London and the harpsichord with Landowska in France. He returned to the USA to take the MA at Harvard in 1936 and the PhD there in 1942, working with Apel and Leichtentritt. From 1936 to 1944 he was director of the Boston Society of Ancient Instruments.

He began his teaching career in 1942 at the University of Texas, where he taught until 1944. He was on the staff of Western Reserve University (1946–8) and Mills College, Oakland, California (1948–50). In 1950 he was appointed professor of music at Stanford University, where he taught until his retirement in 1969.

Aldrich combined his scholarly interests with an active career as a harpsichordist. In particular he wrote on the performing practice of early music and the musical ornamentation of the 17th and 18th centuries. His study of the rhythm of 17th-century Italian monody examines notational problems encountered by present-day performers and editors of this music and furnishes provocative, sometimes controversial solutions....


José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....


(b Yakutsk, Dec 4, 1937). Russian ethnomusicologist. He studied musicology with Mazel′ at Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1956, and from 1961 to 1965 taught at the Yakutsk School of Music. Subsequently he was a postgraduate at the All-Union Research Institute for the Arts in Moscow, where he was taught by Viktor Belyayev. After completing his studies he remained at the institute as a research fellow (1966–96), and during this time was head of the section specializing in the general theory of musical folklores of the peoples of the USSR (1989–91). He was awarded the Kandidat degree in 1970 and the doctorate in 1996. A member of the Russian Federation Union of Composers, he led from 1972 to 1991 its associated folk music commission, organizing a number of conferences and concerts of authentic folk music. He is editor of a series From the Folklorist’s Collection, which contains songs from the Russian, Mordvinian, Gagauz and Tatar Mishar traditions, and was the scriptwriter for a film depicting the history of Yakut traditional music. In ...


(b c1435; d after 1504). Italian philosopher and biblical exegete. He wrote briefly on music in his Ḥesheq shelomoh (‘Solomon's desire’), a commentary on the Song of Solomon, written during the period 1488–92 at the request of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Music is discussed in relation to Hebrew poetics, then classified for its varieties and described for its powers. Under poetics, Alemanno notes that the word shir (‘song’) applies to poetry and music and, within music, to both vocal and instrumental types; he then discerns its usage in three species of poetry: metric and rhymed; non-metric and non-rhymed; and metaphorical. In accordance with the Latin music theorists Alemanno recognizes three kinds of music: natural, artificial and theoretical; the first two refer respectively to vocal and instrumental music and the third (nigun sikhli) to what other Hebrew theorists designate as ḥokhmat ha-musiqah (‘the science of music’). On the effect of music, Alemanno notes its power to awaken love on both earthly (or secular) and divine (or sacred) planes, which correspond to what he conceives as the two exegetical planes – the literal and the allegorical – for interpreting the ...


Thomas Christensen

(b Paris, Nov 16, 1717; d Paris, Oct 29, 1783). French philosopher, mathematician and music theorist. He was abandoned by his mother as a child, and raised in a modest household by an artisan’s wife. A precocious child, he received a good education at a Jansenist school, and went on to study medicine and law. His true passion, though, was mathematics, and he soon abandoned his legal studies in order to devote all his energies to the subject. His particular interest lay in the field of rational mechanics, an important discipline in the 18th century, in which physical problems and phenomena were analysed in the abstract, using mathematics and geometry. D’Alembert submitted his first paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1739, and published his important Traité de dynamique in 1743; his fame rose rapidly. One of his most important contributions lay in the development of partial differential equations, partly inspired by his study of the vibrating string in ...


Viorel Cosma

(b Ilimbav, Sibiu, May 14, 1914; d Bucharest, April 20, 1997). Romanian ethnomusicologist. He studied at the Bucharest Royal Academy of Music (1931–6) and became Brăiloiu's closest collaborator, working with him at the folklore archive of the Society of Romanian Composers (1935–49); he continued his research appointment there when the archive was incorporated in the Institute of Ethnography and Folklore (1949), undertaking several field studies and collecting numerous examples of Romanian folksong, some of which have been recorded. He was Brăiloiu's successor in the folklore department of the Royal Academy of Music (1943–8), where he held various posts before becoming professor (1954–9). In 1956 he did research in China and from 1965 to 1967 he was the folklore expert of the Ministry of Culture of the United Arab Republic in Cairo, where he made recordings of Egyptian and Nubian folksong. In ...


George Vlastos

(b Athens, Feb 17, 1960). Greek composer, musicologist, and keyboard player. Born into an artistic family, he took up jazz and free improvised music. During the period 1977–84 he took his first lessons in composition with Yannis Ioannidis while he also studied law at the University of Athens. Thereafter he continued his studies in composition at the Robert Schumann Musikhochschule (now Robert Schumann University, Düsseldorf) with Guenther Becker until 1986. Having a background both in jazz and electronic music, he showed an interest in the echo effect. Thus, in his early works (dating from the mid-1980s) he developed a heterophonic technique, which he called the ‘technique of linear heterophonic modulations’. In his music he makes extensive use of ancient Greek tetrachords, melodic ramifications, and modal structures deriving from the Greek and other non-Western traditions. Until 1994 his writing was abstract and rhythmically complex, while his later works are more conventionally structured and use consonant sonorities. His output includes operas, vocal music, works for orchestra, works for solo instruments, chamber music, incidental music, electronic music, ballet music, and music for films. Among his major works are the opera ...


Dennis Libby

revised by Emanuele Senici

(b Rome, June 29, 1801; d Rome, June 12, 1863). Italian musicologist and composer. Ordained a Roman priest in 1823, his life was entirely directed towards the deliverance of liturgical music from what he saw as the debased theatrical style of contemporary composers and the neglect and incompetence of singers and organists in regard to Gregorian chant and Renaissance music. He contributed most importantly to this goal through his editions, particularly the Raccolta di musica sacra (Rome, 1841–6), the seven volumes of which provided the first large modern collection of Palestrina's music. Palestrina was Alfieri's ideal for new church music, which, according to his Ristabilimento, should be grave, succinct and suited in expression to the words, which were to be presented clearly and with few repetitions. His own compositions, many of them published at Rome, exemplified these principles.

Alfieri was also a pioneer in Italy in the historical study of Gregorian chant, which he sought to restore to its original purity, although along lines that now appear somewhat arbitrary and subjective. His early ...


Patrick Boyde

(b Florence, May or June 1265; d Ravenna, Sept 14, 1321). Italian poet and theorist. Italy’s greatest poet became prominent in the 1280s as a leading member of a group of young poets who were transforming the style and content of the fashionable, elevated love-lyric; later he characterized the achievement of those years as the ‘dolce stil novo’. He included the best of his early poems in his short prose work La vita nuova (c1292–3), the record of his love for Beatrice and his grief at her early death in June 1290. In the mid-1290s he fell in love with Philosophy, personified in his poems as a noble lady, and devoted himself wholeheartedly to the study of logic, ethics, physics, metaphysics and theology – indeed, to almost every branch of medieval science. Simultaneously he began to be active in the political life of the turbulent Florentine republic. He rose to be one of the six Priors in ...


Jocelyne Aubé

(b Barcelona, March 27, 1862; d Barcelona, March 31, 1908). Spanish composer, folklorist and music critic. He studied composition with Antonio Nicolau and Anselmo Barba and piano with C.G. Vidiella in Barcelona and was music critic for various journals there, including La renaixensa, L'avenç and, from 1905 to 1908, El poble català. He published his Collecció de 6 melodies per a cant i piano and five Cansons per cant i piano (both Barcelona, 1887), which are settings of poems by Angel Guimerá, Francisco Matheu y Fornells, Apeles Mestres and Jacinto Verdaguer. He illustrated the latter volume himself, and some of his work was displayed at an exhibition of the Sociedad de Acuarelistas in Barcelona. A distinguished folklorist as well as a sensitive composer and skilful melodist, he collected Catalan folksongs and published arrangements of 23 of these in Cansons populars catalanas (Barcelona, 1891). He used native rhythms and melodies in his songs and piano pieces (among them ...


[Lione, Leo, Leon]

(b Chios, 1588; d Rome, Jan 19, 1669). Italian theologian and scholar of Greek origin. He went to Italy as a child and studied philosophy, theology, and classics in Rome at the Greek Catholic Collegio di S Atanasio from 1599 to 1610. After a period in Chios he studied medicine in Rome until 1616. Thereafter he was employed in the Vatican Library and was responsible for moving the Biblioteca Palatina from Heidelberg to Rome in 1622–3. In 1661 he succeeded Luca Holstenio as chief curator of the Vatican Library. He wrote extensively on a wide range of subjects including theology, Byzantine studies, classical antiquity, and Italian letters. He was a member of the Accademia degli Incogniti, which played an important role in early Venetian opera. He is significant for the history of music by virtue of his Drammaturgia … divisa in sette indici (Rome, 1666), a compendious and surprisingly accurate list of dramatic works of all kinds, including opera librettos, published in Italy; it also lists many unpublished works. A second, vastly enlarged and updated edition by Giovanni Cendoni, Apostolo Zeno, Giovanni degli Apostoli, and others unnamed (Venice, ...


Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(bNew York, Nov 2, 1920; dPoint Pleasant, NJ, Dec 23, 1974). Americanwriter. He studied geology at Columbia University (BS 1942), served as a navigator in the army air corps, and then returned to Columbia, where he gained a master's degree in mineralogy. Although an engineer by profession (PhD, Rutgers, 1964) and a teacher of ceramics engineering at Rutgers (1964-74), he was involved in jazz discography throughout his life, and with his scholarly training he recognized that this subject could be approached with the same rigorous concern for accuracy, weighing of evidence, and documentation of sources that would be expected in traditional fields. He prepared numerous brief discographies and wrote full-length bio-discographies of King Oliver and Fletcher Henderson, the latter being an exhaustive and definitive study. Allen published and distributed these books as part of his own Jazz Monograph series, which also included important works by Samuel B. Charters, Brian Rust, and others. As a further means of disseminating information he produced ...


Renee Lapp Norris

(b Northborough, MA, Sept 5, 1830; d Madison, WI, Dec 9, 1889). American classical scholar, teacher, editor, and writer. Allen is best known musically as an editor of Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867), also edited by Charles Pickard Ware and Lucy McKim Garrison, who were white collectors of black music.

Allen graduated from Harvard in 1851, subsequently studied in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1856. In 1863 he began an eight-month stint as a teacher on St Helena Island in South Carolina, home to former slaves who remained after plantation owners left in 1861. Here, Allen gained first-hand experience of slave singing that contributed to the detailed explanations of his 36-page prologue to Slave Songs. In 1867 Allen was appointed chair of ancient languages at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, where he remained until his death.

Allen’s interest in philology is evident in the many pages of the prologue to ...


Juan Orrego-Salas

(b Santiago, June 29, 1885; d Santiago, Aug 17, 1959). Chilean composer and ethnomusicologist. He studied the violin, music theory and composition at the Santiago Conservatorio National de Música (1899–1908). The Chilean government then sent him to France and Spain for further study (1910–11). On returning to Chile he was elected to the Folklore Society and worked for the Ministry of Education in improving the teaching of music in the state schools (1924–8). He travelled again to Europe in 1922 and was one of the founders of the International Academy of Fine Arts in Paris (1923). In 1928 he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio National, which had recently become part of the arts faculty of the University of Chile. There, until his retirement in 1946, he taught many Chilean composers who later came to international prominence. On another visit to Europe, also in ...


Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...


Ferenc László

(b Cluj [now Cluj-Napoca], Dec 8, 1934). Romanian-Hungarian ethnomusicologist. He studied music education and choir direction under János Jagamas, Ferenc Major and István Nagy at the Cluj Academy of Music (1951–6). He joined the Folklore Archives of the Romanian Academy of Sciences (1957), initially as an assistant researcher, becoming researcher (1960) and senior researcher (1970). He took the doctorate in 1989 at the Academy of Music under Romeo Ghircoiaşiu, with a dissertation on the early stages of Hungarian folk music research in Transylvania. Almási has collected more than 6000 folksongs and instrumental melodies from 130 Transylvanian villages. He is chiefly interested in the classification and systematization of folk melodies, the methodology of field investigation, inter-ethnic musical relations, and the history of folklore research. He has compiled folk music programmes for Radio Cluj and Radio Budapest. He is a member of the editorial board of the journals ...


Norman Fraser

revised by Gerard Béhague

(b S Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Dec 6, 1895; d Rio de Janeiro, Jan 25, 1981). Brazilian musicologist and folklorist. After graduating from law school in Rio de Janeiro, he set out to be an author, journalist and critic. His first writings dealt with criticism and philosophy, but he also wrote important works on music, including the well-known História da música brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, 1926). The second edition (1942) contains over 150 musical examples and gives a chronological treatment to the art-music tradition as well as a detailed account of Brazilian folk and popular music. This was the standard Brazilian reference book for many years.

From 1947 Almeida turned his attention to folk music and folklore studies. For many years he was a member of the executive board of the International Folk Music Council. He was a founder-member of the Brazilian Academy of Music and chief of the information service of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations. He was also the first chairman of the Comissão Nacional de Folclore, created in ...


Robert Stevenson

(b Huánuco, Jan 3, 1871; d Lima, July 17, 1942). Peruvian ethnomusicologist and composer. At the age of 13 he was sent by his mother to live with her brother at Lima, and there in 1887 he began studies of solfège with Manuel de la Cruz Panizo and the piano with Claudio Rebagliatti. He studied medicine at the Lima Facultad de S Fernando (1892–4), but in 1896, while on a lengthy visit to the hinterland Campas tribe, he was stimulated by a Franciscan to devote himself to the study of indigenous music. The Cuban pianist Sebastiana Godoy, whom he married on 19 February 1897, helped him to harmonize and arrange the Andean tribal music collected during the numerous journeys throughout Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia that occupied him intermittently until 1917. A lecture-demonstration at S Marcos University, Lima (1910) brought his Inca researches to national notice; after the issue by Victor and Brunswick of 13 discs of his orchestrally accompanied arrangements, he became the best-known Peruvian musician of his time. He spent periods in Havana (...


Ingo Schultz

revised by Howard Hotson

(b Ballersbach, nr Herborn, March 1588; d Gyulafehérvár [Weissenburg, Transylvania; [now Alba Julia, Romania], Nov 9, 1638). German theologian, encyclopedist and music theorist. From 1608 he taught at the Calvinist academy, Herborn, where J.A. Komenský was among his pupils. Following the disruptions of the Thirty Years War, he transferred to Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in 1629–30. His liberal strand of Calvinist thought is reflected in his theological understanding of music: he tolerated secular music (both polyphonic and instrumental) alongside strictly regulated church music as long as it was committed to the spiritual purpose of all music. Classifying music among the mathematical disciplines, he treated it briefly in a series of mathematical textbooks and most extensively in his masterwork, the largest, most comprehensive and systematic encyclopedia assembled to that time (1630). Like that of most of the 37 disciplines handled in the work, his treatment of music is derivative, and its chief importance lies in its comprehensiveness, systematic presentation, wide distribution and easy accessibility within the encyclopedia as a whole. Like Erycius Puteanus and David Mostart, he favoured seven-syllable solmization series (...


Dietrich Kaemper

(b Bad Hersfeld, Jan 9, 1947). German musicologist. He studied musicology at the universities of Marburg and Cologne with Hans Engel and Heinrich Hüschen while taking private lessons in piano, organ and Baroque trumpet (the last with Walter Holy). He obtained the doctorate at Cologne in 1973 with a dissertation on the history of the trumpet. In 1973 he became an assistant lecturer at Cologne University, completing the Habilitation in 1980 with a study on Liszt’s aesthetics. After working as visiting professor at Göttingen University (1980–81) and lecturer at the Cologne Musikhochschule (1982–3), he was appointed professor at Paderborn University in 1983. He was appointed professor at Regensburg University in 1994. He became chief editor of the critical edition of Liszt’s writings in 1985 and assistant editor of Die Musikforschung, 1986–9, associate editor of the Journal of the American Liszt Society from 1987, and editor of the series Musik und Musikanschauung im 19. Jahrhundert and Weimarer Liszt-Studien. He is also curator of the European Liszt Centre and was made president of the Franz-Liszt-Gesellschaft in ...