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Dutch organization. It was founded in 1945 by Walter A.F. Maas, a Jewish émigré from Mainz, at Bilthoven in the Netherlands. It is based in the Huize Gaudeamus, a villa built in the shape of a grand piano by the composer Julius Röntgen (i), and its aim is the promotion of new music, particularly that of Dutch composers. From 1947 it held an annual music week of Dutch compositions and national and international weeks were held alternately until 1959, when they became fully international. From 1960 the foundation organized concerts of Dutch music abroad, including tours by the Gaudeamus Quartet, and in 1963 the International Gaudeamus Competition for Interpreters of Contemporary Music was inaugurated. More recently the foundation has held a biannual International Composers' Workshop, a workshop for young musicians from France, Germany and the Netherlands, and a number of festivals. The monthly bulletin Gaudeamus informatie was published from 1965...

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Romanian music festival. Held in Bucharest every other year in August and September, it lasts for over three weeks. It was established in 1958, three years after George Enescu’s death, and in his honour. The decision was also politically motivated, as the communist regime of the time was eager to prove its ability as a non-capitalist cultural power. Since then, it has changed on many levels and has become not only the grandest classical music festival in Romania and Eastern Europe, but has gained a growing renown within Europe’s important festival scene.

The festival was organized every three years (and occasionally every two or four years) until 2001, at which point it became a biannual event. Up to 2013 there have been 21 festivals, organized in 1958, 1961, 1964, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2003 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. The George Enescu International Competition has accompanied the festival ever since its foundation, in the first decades comprising sections for violin, piano, and sometimes voice. But the competition has fewer iterations, being interrupted for a period due to financial reasons, that have affected the festival during ...

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Stanley Sadie

Opera house near Lewes, East Sussex, about 90 km south of London. John Christie (1882–1962), whose family owns the estate on which it stands, built the opera house and founded Glyndebourne Festival Opera in 1934.

Christie initially designed the house, seating 311, for his wife, the soprano Audrey Mildmay. His intention was to open it with Don Giovanni or Die Walküre and to later give other Wagner operas. The first season, beginning on 28 May 1934 and lasting two weeks, was made up of Le nozze di Figaro and Così fan tutte, which his wife persuaded him would be more appropriate to the scale of the house. Christie was determined to aim for the highest standards, and the exodus from Nazi Germany in the 1930s provided him with the opportunity. He engaged Fritz Busch as musical director, Carl Ebert as head of production and Rudolf Bing as manager. The seclusion of Glyndebourne and the natural beauty of its surroundings attracted performers of the highest quality and allowed them to develop, during a rehearsal period unlike anything that is possible in a traditional opera house in a large city, the sense of ensemble and dedicated purpose that has distinguished Glyndebourne performances and can be perceived in the Mozart recordings made under Busch in the 1930s....

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Wilma Tichelaar

A series of international music, opera and dance events, with drama performances and art exhibitions, held annually in Amsterdam in June and July. Until the mid-1980s performances were also held in The Hague, Rotterdam and other Dutch cities.

The festival was initiated in 1948 as a means of revitalizing the nation’s cultural life after World War II. In the early years the Dutch government and local authorities of the participating cities, which funded 90% of the festival’s total costs, sought to attract foreign investment, promote tourism and foster international cultural exchange. By 1995 government funds were reduced to 46% of the total cost of about eight million guilders; approximately 21% came from sponsors. Revenue from ticket sales usually accounted for about 10 to 15%, as ticket prices for the Holland Festival remained quite low compared to festivals in other countries. The remaining revenue came from radio and television broadcasting companies, CD sales, publications, private funds and ...

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It was established in 1978 on the initative of Yorkshire Arts Association with Richard Steinitz, lecturer (later professor) in the music department of Huddersfield Polytechnic (later University), as artistic director. The major event of its kind in Britain, it attracts composers, performers and audiences from throughout the world to its annual 12-day programme of concerts, theatre performances, workshops and discussions. Its aims have remained the promotion of new music through a balanced policy of providing a platform for major recent works and commissioning new pieces. Its strong educational programme for students and local school children reflects its close links with the university. The opening of, first, the university’s St Paul’s Hall (1981) and later Huddersfield’s Lawrence Batley Theatre (1994) provided additional venues for festival events.

Performance milestones in the festival’s development have included Birtwistle’s Clarinet Quintet (world première, 1981), Ferneyhough’s Carceri d’Invenzione (UK première, 1987...

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[Saptamâna Internaţională a Muzicii Noi; SIMN]

Romanian contemporary music festival. It has been held the last week of every May in Bucharest since 1991. The festival was founded at the initiative of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists and of Ştefan Niculescu (1927–2008), one of the most important Romanian composers of the past generation. It was the first international festival organized in Romania that was entirely dedicated to contemporary music.

It constitutes an important meeting point between artists—composers, performers, and musicologists—from Romania and abroad, undertaking a multicultural dialogue, starting from the newest influences in the musical world. This diversity is also encouraged by the festival’s management, as the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists organizes a competition every year, after which they select the artistic director of the future festival, usually a composer. The festival has had the following artistic directors: Ştefan Niculescu (1991, also its founder), Liviu Dănceanu (1992, 1993...