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Jere T. Humphreys

(b Wylie, TX, Oct 17, 1913; d Tallahassee, FL, Dec 13, 2004). American Music educator, conductor, scholar, and administrator. He earned degrees from North Texas State College (BS 1934), Teachers College, Columbia University (MA 1938), and New York University (EdD 1943). He was director of music for public schools in Texas (1934–7) and New York (1938–41), and taught at New York University (1941–3) and the University of Texas (1946–7). He served as an Executive Officer in the US Army Medical Administrative Corps in the United States and Philippines (1943–6). He then taught at Florida State University (1947–66), where he was named Distinguished Professor (1961). During those years he held a Fulbright Fellowship to Japan (1956–7) and summer appointments at North Texas State University, University of Michigan, and Indiana University. He served on committees and advisory boards for the US Department of State International Cultural Presentations Program (...

Article

James P. Cassaro

(b Buffalo, NY, March 31, 1928). American conductor, scholar, and educator. His degrees were from the Eastman School of Music (BM 1951, MM 1957), followed by postgraduate studies in trumpet with Helmut Wobitsch at the Vienna Academy of Music (1959–60) and conducting with Ingolf Dahl at the University of Southern California (1968–9). He joined the Kansas City Philharmonic as a trumpet player (1952–55) and was appointed instructor of brass instruments and music theory at the University of Missouri at Columbia (1955–61). In 1961 he was appointed Director of Bands at the State University of New York at Buffalo and brought the band program to a new level of size and quality. He developed a large marching band, an audition-only concert band, and a university band, plus chamber ensembles and a select wind ensemble. In 1991, Cipolla retired from his position at the university and was named emeritus professor. He was a founding member of the New York State Band Directors Association (president, ...

Article

Zygmunt M. Szweykowski

(b Lwów, July 7, 1882; d Kraków, Oct 27, 1953). Polish musicologist, composer and conductor. He studied music with Stanisław Niewiadomski and Henryk Jarecki at Lwów and musicology with Guido Adler in Vienna (1902–6), where he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Gomółka’s psalms. During his stay in Vienna he also studied composition under Herman Grädener and Arnold Schoenberg. In 1911 he completed the Habilitation at Kraków with a work on Italian influences on Polish music. He was successively lecturer in music history (1911), reader (1917) and full professor (1921) at Kraków University and later director of its musicology institute until his death. He gave courses at the universities and learned institutions of Rome, Padua, Bologna, Venice, Frankfurt, Vienna and Budapest. In 1934 he initiated a series entitled Rozprawy i Notatki Muzykologiczne, in which he intended to publish works by Kraków musicologists....

Article

Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....

Article

J.W. Junker

[Edward] (Leilani)

(b Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug 4, 1927). Hawaiian musician, bandleader, songwriter, and researcher. A leading figure in the late 20th century revival of Hawaiian culture, Kamae has led the seminal Sons of Hawaii band for over 50 years. He has reintroduced a large number of classic Hawaiian songs from earlier eras, composed several standards, and has documented important Hawaiian topics on over 1000 hours of film.

He began his career in 1948 performing light classics and pop with Shoi Ikemi as The Ukulele Rascals. Self taught, Kamae developed chord voicings and plucking techniques that expanded the instrument’s reach. In 1959 Kamae met Gabby Pahinui and formed Sons of Hawaii. He radically transformed his style for the group, moving between rhythmic accompaniment and pa‘ani (soloing) in a fluid give and take. He also began singing in a distinctive voice full of Hawaiian vocal inflections. With mentoring from scholar Mary Kawena Pukui and others, Kamae began researching older Hawaiian repertoire and composing. His arrangement of waltzes, such as “Sanoe,” and other songs of the 19th century introduced a classical elegance into the group. At the same time The Sons performed downhome party favorites, like “‘Ama ‘Ama.”...

Article

(b Karlsbad [now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic], April 1, 1907; d Bloomington, IN, Sept 9, 1984). American ethnomusicologist, conductor and composer of Austro-Hungarian origin. He studied at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik with Franz Schreker and Curt Sachs and at Prague University with Gustav Becking and Paul Nettl. He conducted opera in Karlovy Vary and Eger, Bohemia, 1927–8. His appointments included those of music director for All-India Radio (1935–46), head of the piano department at the Conservatory of Halifax, Nova Scotia (1947–8), conductor of the Winnipeg SO (1949–56), and professor of musicology at Indiana University (1957–77). Kaufmann is best known for his two books, The Ragas of North India (1968) and The Ragas of South India (1976), in which he exhaustively catalogued rāga according to indigenous taxonomies. His other writings concentrated on the transcription and notation of Asian music. His compositions show a mixture of Eastern and Western influences, often blending tonal and serial elements into dissonant polyphonic textures....

Article

Charlotte Erwin

(b Schwanenburg, Livonia [now Gulbene, Latvia], July 5, 1874; d Niederwartha bei Dresden, Aug 21, 1949). German conductor, composer and musicologist. He spent his youth in St Petersburg. In 1900 he enrolled at the Leipzig Conservatory where he studied the cello, score-reading and counterpoint; at the same time he studied musicology with Kretzschmar and Riemann at the university. From 1906 to 1918 he was active in Prague as a choral and orchestral conductor and also delivered lectures in music history and aesthetics. In 1918 he was appointed director of the Berlin Sing-Akademie and succeeded Siegmund von Hausegger as conductor of the Berlin PO. Meanwhile he continued to make appearances as a guest conductor. In 1926 he was elected to membership of the Berlin Academy of Arts and honoured by the founding of the Keussler-Gesellschaft in Prague. In the following year he and Kurt Thomas were the first recipients of the Beethoven Prize. Keussler went in ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

revised by Bernd Wiechert

(b Olbernhau, Saxony, Jan 19, 1848; d Berlin, May 10, 1924). German musicologist and conductor. He was first taught music by his father, Karl Dankegott Kretzschmar, a choirmaster and organist, and at the age of 14 went to the Dresden Kreuzschule, where he studied composition until 1867 with J. Otto. In 1868 he studied musicology at the University of Leipzig with Oscar Paul, F. Ritschl and Woldemar Voigt, taking the doctorate in 1871 with a dissertation, written in Latin, on early notation and Guido of Arezzo. From 1869 to 1870 he also studied at the Leipzig Conservatory with Paul, E.F. Richter and Carl Reinecke. He became a teacher at the conservatory in 1871 and was also active as a conductor of several musical societies in Leipzig, including Euterpe and the Singakademie. A few of his compositions from the 1870s, mostly smaller vocal works, survive. Overwork forced him to give up his post at the conservatory in ...

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(b Ribeira Seca, S Jorge, Azores, May 11, 1869; d Lisbon, July 18, 1934). Portuguese conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied under Vieira, Gazul, Montinho de Almeida and Soromenho at the Lisbon Conservatory, where he was made professor of piano in 1892. Three years later he went to Paris to study at the Conservatoire under Pessard, Bourgault-Ducoudray, Libert and Widor, and at the Schola Cantorum under d’Indy and Guilmant. Thereafter he established himself as a conductor in Paris, in other French cities and throughout Europe. He founded the Concerts Historiques in Nantes (1905) and the Filarmonia de Lisboa (1923). A friend of Debussy and of Fauré, he numbered Ansermet among his pupils.

(selective list)

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Alfred Grant Goodman

(b Stettin [now Szczecin, Poland], June 3, 1874; d New York, Sept 20, 1941). German musicologist and conductor. He studied music with Thuille, Heinrich Urban and Reger and musicology with Friedlaender and Oskar Fleischer at Berlin University and with Sandberger at the University of Munich, where he took the doctorate in 1900 with a dissertation on Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg. He was subsequently an opera conductor at the theatres in Aachen (1902–4), Kiel (1912–13), Breslau (1913–15) and Würzburg (1915–20), and music director of the Munich Bachverein (1918–28), where he performed a wide variety of music, including that of Bach's sons, Pergolesi, Hasse and Jommelli as well as contemporary works. When the municipal subsidy was stopped in 1928 he moved to Berlin; his activity there was confined to occasional broadcasts, lectures at the Lessing Hochschule and library research. He emigrated to Italy in ...

Article

Charles Shere

(b Portland, OR, March 3, 1938). American composer, conductor and musicologist . He studied at Pomona College and the University of California, Berkeley (MA 1962); in 1958 he was a Crofts Fellow at the Berkshire Music Center. After playing the horn in the Oakland SO and San Francisco Opera and Ballet orchestras (1960–65), he travelled to Poland (1965–6) on a joint US-Polish government grant to investigate contemporary Polish music. He subsequently designed the electronic music studio at UCLA, where he taught and directed two ensembles (1967–70); later teaching appointments included positions at the Centro Simón Bolívar, Caracas, and Reed College. In 1980, after turning to private teaching, he became involved in early music performance, serving as the first music director of the Portland Baroque Orchestra (1984–5) and the coordinator of the Portland Handel Festival (from 1985). He has written extensively on intonation and alternative tunings, as well as on the performance of ancient Greek and Latin verse....

Article

Sabine Meine

(b Warsaw, Feb 17, 1913; d Paris, Aug 29, 1972). French music theorist, teacher, conductor and composer of Polish-Latvian origin. He spent his early years in Warsaw and, following a stay in Berlin, came to Paris in 1929 or 1930. It was there that he met musicians associated with Schoenberg, including Dessau, Kolisch and Erich Itor Kahn. Leibowitz’s claims of having met Schoenberg and studied with Webern in the early 1930s remain unsubstantiated: it appears that his knowledge of the their music was acquired primarily through intensive study of their scores, an activity he continued throughout the war years, which he spent fleeing the German occupying forces in Vichy France. He made personal contact with Schoenberg in 1945, and with Adorno in 1946.

Leibowitz played a crucial role in the dissemination of the music of the Second Viennese School after its wartime suppression in Nazi-occupied countries. In 1947...

Article

(b Selevynzi (now Monastyrok), Podillya (now Vynnyt′sa) province, 1/Dec 13, 1877; d Markivka, near Tyl′chyn, Jan 25, 1921). Ukrainian composer, ethnomusicologist and conductor . After graduating from the theological seminary in Kamyanets-Podils′kyi in 1899, he worked as a teacher at various primary and middle schools and also as an organizer and director of amateur choirs and orchestras. He then attended, as an external student, classes at the St Petersburg court chapel choir (1903–04) and later, on the recommendation of Sergey Taneyev, had sporadic lessons with Boleslav Yavorsky in Kiev (1909–14). In spite of the early popularity of his compositions, Leontovych received general recognition when he was brought to Kiev in 1918 to teach at the conservatory and at the Lysenko Institute of Music and Drama; there, he was also one of the organizers of the First Ukrainian State Cappella. In 1919 he returned to Tyl′chyn. He died under tragic and mysterious circumstances. According to official accounts, he was shot by a criminal burgling his parents’ home. Unofficially, rumors persist that he was killed on orders of Cheka, the secret police. In ...

Article

David Scott

(Carey)

(b Bermuda, March 2, 1915; d Haslemere, June 5, 1983). English musicologist, conductor, music administrator and composer. He went to Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1932. Dent guided his studies at Cambridge and a grant from his college enabled him to study with Nadia Boulanger in 1934. In 1935 he took the BA and the MusB and joined the BBC music department, where he organized the ‘Foundations of Music’ series and later became responsible for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946. Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music.

In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these performances are remembered for the high standards they established. During this time Lewis was also active in the recording studio and made the first English recordings of such works as Monteverdi's ...

Article

J.M. Thomson

(b Werne, nr Dortmund, May 24, 1930). Swiss recorder player, flautist, conductor and composer of German birth. He studied the flute with Gustav Scheck and conducting with Konrad Lechner at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Freiburg (1947–51), then became solo flautist of the Cappella Coloniensis of WDR at Cologne. A chance meeting with August Wenzinger in Cologne led to his appointment to the Schola Cantorum at Basle in 1957 and his joining the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis. He directs the vocal ensemble and in 1971 became joint director of the concert group. His high international reputation as a recorder player and flautist (he plays modern and Baroque flutes), is founded on an impeccable virtuoso technique and a scholarly sense of style. Linde tours widely and his extensive and important recordings include flute concertos by Leclair, Mozart, Stamitz and Dittersdorf, and recorder concertos by Sammartini, Vivaldi and Naudot. With his own Linde-Consort, augmented as required, he has recorded works ranging from early English consort music to Baroque orchestral and choral works. He has appeared as a guest conductor with several orchestras in Europe and the USA, and has conducted a number of 18th-century operas, including Keiser’s ...

Article

Stephen McClatchie

(Ottokar)

(b Vienna, July 11, 1868; d Munich, Nov 20, 1939). German musicologist and conductor. A pupil of Spitta and Radecke in Berlin, he worked as a conductor from 1893, notably at Coburg and Gotha, and composed an opera, several orchestral works, songs and a Clarinet Quintet. In the aftermath of World War I he was forcibly retired and settled in Munich. He studied musicology under Moritz Bauer at Frankfurt, graduating in 1922 with a thesis on form in Wagner's Ring. The following year he was appointed lecturer, and in 1926 honorary professor, at Munich University. His four-volume Das Geheimnis der Form bei Richard Wagner (1924–33) laid the foundation for all subsequent Wagnerian analysis and is still unsurpassed in scope. Cognizant of Wagner's mention in Oper und Drama of the tonally unified ‘dichterisch-musikalische Periode’, Lorenz divided his post-Lohengrin works into such periods, each internally articulated by recurring forms such as ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

( b El Paso, TX, May 18, 1906; d Tepoztlán, March 29, 1975). Mexican ethnomusicologist, conductor and violinist . He studied first in El Paso at the Manuel Gil Academy of Music, then at the Conservatory of Music in Chicago, where he was also active as a violinist. On moving to Mérida (1935) he founded and directed the Orquesta Sinfónica de Yucatán and the Conciertos Martí, which remained active for over 20 years. Subsequently he settled in Mexico City and devoted himself to ethnomusicological research, concentrating on pre-Columbian music, instruments and dances of Mexican cultures, a subject he pioneered. In 1968 he discovered a new Mixtec archaeological site in the heart of the Sierra Madre of Oaxaca, which proved to be one of the richest areas of pre-Columbian culture.

Técnica básica para violín y viola/Basic Violin-Viola Technique (Mérida, 1938) ‘Música de las Américas’, Cuadernos americanos, no.56 (1951), 153–68...

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Gerard Béhague

(b Rio de Janeiro, Dec 17, 1913). Brazilian choral conductor and musicologist . She studied composition and conducting at the National School of Music of the University of Brazil (now the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), graduating in 1941. She also went through special training for teachers of music and choral singing at the University of the Federal District. From 1941 to 1993 she was director of the Côro Feminino ‘Pro-Música’ (from 1946 the Associação de Canto Coral). This association became the most celebrated mixed choral group in Brazil, performing and recording an eclectic repertory, from the standard oratorios to European and Brazilian church music of various styles. In 1947 Mattos began teaching music theory at the National School of Music. She collaborated with the Brazilian SO and the Radio MEC (Ministry of Education) in preparing the choruses for the celebration of the bicentennial of J.S. Bach’s death. In ...

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Vasilis Kallis

(bNicosia, Nov 12, 1905; dAthens, Sept 9, 1979). Cypriot composer, conductor, musicologist, and pedagogue. An iconic figure of art music in Cyprus. After studying in London (1927–30 at Trinity College of Music) and Paris (1930–34 at Ecole Normale, Schola Cantorum, and Institute de Pedagogie Musicale), Michaelides returned to Cyprus in 1934 to engage in activities that would be instrumental to the development of music on the island. Between 1934 and 1938 he formed various organizations such as the Limassol Conservatory, the Limassol Concert Association, a symphony orchestra, and a mixed choir, promoting the proliferation of musical life on the island.

In 1957, he relocated to Thessaloniki, Greece, following an invitation to take over the directorship of the Thessaloniki State Conservatory where he also taught advanced music theory, composition, and conducting. Two years later he founded the Symphony Orchestra of Northern Greece (1959), which he also conducted until his retirement in ...

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M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

(b Berlin, June 13, 1887; d New York, April 22, 1967). American musicologist, conductor and critic, of German birth . He studied musicology with Friedlaender at the University of Berlin and law at the University of Heidelberg, where he received the doctorate in 1911. From 1913 to 1921 he worked as an operetta conductor in Osnabrück, Essen, Strasbourg, Bremen and elsewhere; later (1921–3) he was music director of the Berlin Kammeroper. In the 1920s and 30s he was a critic for the Lokalanzeiger and other newspapers (including a few Jewish ones) and a writer of programme notes for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He taught music theory and history at the Stern Conservatory and conducted several madrigal choirs. The Nazis identified him as an important Jewish music critic, but on account of his non-Jewish wife Anni he was spared the concentration camps. He did, however, have to endure forced labour as a porter in the Jüdische Bibliothek des Sicherheitshauptamtes. After the war he was able to resume teaching and was even invited to form an orchestra by the mayor of Schöneberg, but he was abruptly arrested by a Soviet patrol for obscure reasons. After his release he emigrated to the USA in ...