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Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Cayambe, Dec 10, 1903; d Quito, Dec 11, 1977). Ecuadorian composer, pianist and music critic. He first studied with his father Francisco Salgado, himself a composer, then entered the Quito Conservatory in 1910. His first attempts at composition dated from 1913. As a teenager he played the piano in silent-film theatres. He graduated in piano in 1928 and in 1934 was appointed professor of solfège and harmony at the Quito Conservatory (director for two periods, beginning in 1952). Besides directing the group Camara Voz Andes, he founded and directed the symphonic ensemble of the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana and conducted the orchestra and chorus of the conservatory. For many years he was the music critic of the daily El comercio, and he contributed to the Spanish journal Ritmo.

Salgado is generally considered the leading composer of his generation. He was a prolific composer, mostly of a musical nationalist persuasion, as his numerous symphonies, tone poems, concertos and operas bear witness. He also cultivated typical Ecuadorian popular genres, such as the sanjuanito and pasillo. His ...

Article

Jann Pasler and Jerry Rife

(b Blâmont, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Sept 28, 1870; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, Aug 17, 1958). French composer, pianist and critic. Throughout his life, Schmitt was valued for his independent spirit and refusal to be identified with any school or group. In a time when many composers embraced Impressionism, his music, albeit influenced by Debussy, was admired for its energy, dynamism, grandeur, and virility, for its union of French clarity and German strength. While some works, especially youthful ones, reveal a desire to please and are sometimes facile, many others refuse lyrical abandon and sentimentality and are formed of a wilful and premeditated complexity as well as a passion for strong bold colours, violent emotions and extreme contrasts. Schmitt was considered a pioneer during his lifetime, rejected by some and embraced by others for a style that influenced and helped prepare for later innovations by Stravinsky, Ravel, Honegger and Roussel.

Schmitt was born in Lorraine near the German border. His parents loved music and assiduously controlled what he listened to, steering him toward the Classical and German Romantic repertories. His father hoped he would become an organist. At 17 he entered the Nancy Conservatoire where he studied the piano with Henri Hess and harmony with its director, Gustave Sandré. According to his biographer Pierre-Octave Ferroud, Schmitt's most significant musical experience during this period was Franck's Violin Sonata. In ...

Article

John Daverio and Eric Sams

(b Zwickau, Saxony, June 8, 1810; d Endenich, nr Bonn, July 29, 1856). German composer and music critic. While best remembered for his piano music and songs, and some of his symphonic and chamber works, Schumann made significant contributions to all the musical genres of his day and cultivated a number of new ones as well. His dual interest in music and literature led him to develop a historically informed music criticism and a compositional style deeply indebted to literary models. A leading exponent of musical Romanticism, he had a powerful impact on succeeding generations of European composers....

Article

Ramona H. Matthews

(b Appleton, WI, July 21, 1893; d Neenah, WI, Nov 3, 1975). American pianist, teacher, and writer on music. He was educated at Charleston (South Carolina) College and the University of Wisconsin, and then went to Europe (1920) to study at the University of Madrid and elsewhere, his teachers including the pianist moriz Rosenthal. He settled in Paris to perform, teach, and write, serving as music and drama critic for the Paris Tribune (1921–34) and Paris correspondent for the Musical Digest of New York (1922–9), the Musical Courier of New York (1932–41), the Nuova Italia musicale of Rome, and the Musical Times of London. He was an enthusiastic promoter of concerts of American music in France, and organized the first European festival of American music (Bad Homburg, Germany, 1931). On his return to America (1942) he settled in Appleton to teach and write. He received several honors from the French government for his services to music, and was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in ...

Article

Christopher Mark

(b Swinton, nr Manchester, July 26, 1943). Australian composer, pianist, and critic, born in England. He lived in England until 1976 when he migrated to Australia, taking Australian citizenship in 1990. Entering the RCM in 1961, Smalley studied composition with Fricker and John White, whose wide-ranging interests he found especially stimulating, and piano with Antony Hopkins. He also studied composition with Goehr at Morley College, London (1962); with Stockhausen in Cologne (1965–6); and with Boulez during a Darmstadt summer course (1965). In 1968 he was appointed the first artist-in-residence at King’s College, Cambridge, where he subsequently held a three-year research fellowship. During this time he co-founded the live-electronics ensemble Intermodulation with Souster, Peter Britton and Robin Thompson. In 1974 Smalley was artist-in-residence at the University of Western Australia (UWA), returning two years later to become a research fellow and subsequently associate professor (...

Article

John Beckwith

[Leopold]

(b Birmingham, Nov 26, 1881; d Toronto, April 18, 1952). Canadian composer, cellist and critic of English birth. He made his début as a performer in Birmingham Town Hall at the age of eight. Later he studied at the Royal Manchester College of Music with Fuchs (cello) and at Manchester University (MusB). In 1910, after working as a cellist in the Hallé and Covent Garden orchestras, he emigrated to Canada to teach the cello and theory at the Toronto Conservatory. He was a member of the Conservatory String Quartet and for many years a contributing editor of the Toronto Conservatory Quarterly Review. He was the principal cellist of the Toronto SO during its early years and held a similar post later with the orchestra of the city's summer Prom concerts. Smith also played the viol and led viol ensembles. He was appointed to the Faculty of Music, University of Toronto, in ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Exeter, Oct 28, 1823; d Leeds, June 16, 1897). English organist and writer. His father William Spark (1797–1865) was a lay vicar of Exeter Cathedral; two brothers were also musicians. He was a chorister at Exeter Cathedral and was articled to S.S. Wesley for five years in 1840. When Wesley moved to Leeds parish church in 1842, Spark went with him, and was soon appointed organist successively at Chapeltown and St Paul’s, Leeds. Appointments at Tiverton, Daventry, and St George’s, Leeds (1850), followed. From his return to Leeds he was extremely active in local music, founding the Leeds Madrigal and Motet Society, the People’s Concerts, and other organizations. With Henry Smart he designed the large organ for the new town hall, opened in 1858, and was elected borough organist, a post which he held until his death. His views on organ building, tending to promote the French school, were influential. He played an organ sonata at the first Leeds Festival (...

Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b Everton, Liverpool, Jan 11, 1839; d Torquay, May 29, 1924). English architect, amateur organist and writer, father of Heathcote D. Statham. He studied the organ at Liverpool Collegiate Institution and practised architecture in Liverpool for several years before moving in 1869 to London, where he increasingly devoted time to journalism and writing. For several years during the late 1870s he gave a series of Sunday afternoon organ recitals at the Royal Albert Hall, but held no regular organist's post beyond an honorary one at St Jude's, Whitechapel. From 1883 to 1910 his principal occupation was as editor of the journal The Builder, and he wrote several standard works on architectural history.

A thoughtful and intelligent critic, Statham combined his knowledge of architecture and music in his writings on concert hall design, arguing that recently built large halls, such as the Royal Albert Hall and St George's Hall, Liverpool, were constructed solely as places of spectacle in defiance of the basic principles of acoustics. His ...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

[Nikolaus]

(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...

Article

Alex Harris Stein

(b Dayton, OH, Oct 14, 1957). American writer, guitarist, and bandleader. He was a staff writer for the Village Voice from 1987 to 2003 (a contributor since 1981) and one of a group of young African Americans writing for the Voice on black culture, politics, and identity. His work focuses on black music and culture from a postmodern, black nationalist perspective and is noteworthy for an unconventional style that Tate describes as blending academic and street culture. One of the first journalists to cover hip hop, he has written about Miles Davis, George Clinton, Jimi Hendrix, Carlos Santana, Bob Dylan, and others. He has contributed to the New York Times, Rolling Stone, VIBE, the Washington Post, Spin, The Nation, Down Beat, and other publications. His books include Flyboy in the Buttermilk (New York, 1992), Midnight Lightning: Jimi Hendrix and the Black Experience (Chicago, 2003), and ...

Article

Leanne Langley

(b Norwich, Jan 22, 1784; d Brentwood, March 12, 1863). English bass and writer on music. Born into a prominent Unitarian family with literary leanings, he worked as an ironmonger and was active in liberal politics as well as amateur musical life in Norwich. He sang at the Octagon Chapel and the Glee and Catch Club, was principal bass at the Hall Concerts, and played a key role in the founding and organization of the Norwich Triennial Festival in 1824; he was also skilled as a wind player and choir trainer. Among his teachers were the Rev. Charles Smyth, William Fish and J.C. Beckwith.

In 1825 Taylor started an engineering firm in London, but on its failure a year later took up music professionally, as a concert singer and teacher. Still associated with opposition politics, by 1829 he had become music critic for the weekly Spectator. Its didactic, reform-minded tone suited him well, and he wrote there regularly for 14 years, notably on provincial festivals, the relative merits of Spohr (his friend) and Mendelssohn (whom he thought overrated), and on the importance of earlier music and of amateur music-making. In ...

Article

Davide Ceriani

(b Brooklyn, NY, April 14, 1948). American music critic and pianist. He studied piano with Donald Currier at Yale University (BA 1970, MMus 1972) and with Leonard Shure at Boston University (DMA 1982). Tommasini has taught music at Emerson College (1978–86) and given nonfiction writing workshops at Wesleyan University and Brandeis University. He was appointed a staff music critic at the New York Times in 1997, and in 2000 he became the paper’s chief classical music critic. Prior to joining the Times, he covered music and theater for the Boston Globe.

He has published two books on the composer Virgil Thomson: Virgil Thomson’s Musical Portraits (New York, 1986; an expanded, revised version of Tommasini’s DMA dissertation) and the critically acclaimed Virgil Thomson: Composer on the Aisle (New York, 1997). Tommasini’s latest book, released in 2004, is Opera: a Critic’s Guide to the 100 Most Important Works and the Best Recordings...

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

(fl 1833–56). English organist and pioneer of school music. Music in schools, virtually dead in England since the abolition of the song and monastic schools at the Reformation, began its long period of recovery during the decade immediately following the passing of the first Reform Act (1832). Turner's Manual of Instruction in Vocal Music (1833) was the earliest music textbook published for use in English schools. Ostensibly designed to bring about the improvement of congregational psalmody, it was also meant to exert a wider civilizing effect on the industrial population.

Little is known of Turner’s life; but he wrote as an experienced teacher whose book was presented to the public ‘not as an experiment for the first time tried, but as the result of long experience’. Music master at the Westminster Day Training College for Teachers, Turner was also organist and choirmaster at St Stephen’s Church, Avenue Road, St John’s Wood (since demolished), where one of his choristers, L.C. Venables (...

Article

Stanley Sadie

(Hamilton )

(b London, Feb 9, 1928). English writer on music , son of Guy Warrack. He was educated at Winchester College and at the RCM (1949–52), where he studied the oboe with Terence Macdonagh, history with Frank Howes and composition with Gordon Jacob and Bernard Stevens. He played as a freelance oboist, chiefly with the Boyd Neel Orchestra and at Sadler's Wells, until 1953, when he joined Oxford University Press as a music editor. The next year he was appointed assistant music critic to the Daily Telegraph. He moved in 1961 to the Sunday Telegraph, as chief music critic, resigning in 1972. Warrack became a critic for Gramophone in 1958 and a member of the editorial board of Opera in 1953. In 1975–6 he was visiting lecturer at the University of Durham, and he was a university lecturer at Oxford, 1984–93. He was director of the Leeds Festival, ...

Article

W.H. Husk

revised by Bruce Carr

(b London, March 20, 1804; d Bexley, Kent, March 8, 1881). English organist and writer on music. In 1834 he became organist of St Mary’s (Roman Catholic) Chapel, Chelsea, and composed some masses for its service. Between 1840 and 1860 he published many instruction books for organ, reed organ, concertina and church singing.

Warren was a careful and thorough editor of earlier English music: his edition of Boyce’s Cathedral Music, for example, included new biographies of the composers with exhaustive lists of their works. Such scholarship was facilitated by the large and valuable library he collected during his life, including the partbooks from which he edited Hilton’s Ayres or Fa Las, many unique sale catalogues, and autograph manuscripts of Purcell, A. Scarlatti, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. The fruits of his research appeared often in the early Musical World.

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...