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Alex Harris Stein

(Alan )

(b Bronx, NY, Oct 4, 1954). American writer. A jazz enthusiast from a young age, he became in 1977 the jazz editor of Record Review, a position which he held for the publication’s entire lifespan (1977–84). Since then, he has contributed to many jazz periodicals, including Downbeat, Jazz Times, Jazziz, Cadence, Coda, the Mississippi Rag, Los Angeles Jazz Scene, and the Jazz Rag. He was a contributor to the first edition of All Music Guide to Jazz (San Francisco, 1994), a co-editor of and contributor to the second edition (San Francisco, 1996), and the sole editor of the third edition (San Francisco, 1998), to which he contributed thousands of additional reviews spanning recordings from throughout the 20th century. He has also written 11 books on jazz and hundreds of disc notes, produced a series of albums for Allegro, and hosted a radio show, “Jazz after Hours.”...


Masakata Kanazawa

(b Tokyo, Sep 23, 1913). Japanese music critic. He studied French literature at Tokyo University, graduating in 1936. During World War I he published translations of Schumann's writings (Tokyo, 1942) and of Richard Benz's Ewiger Musikers (Tokyo, 1943). He founded a ‘Music Classroom for Children’ in collaboration with the conductor Hideo Saito and the pianist Motonari Iguchi in 1948, which eventually led to the foundation of Tōhō Gakuen School of Music in 1961. He also co-founded the Institute of 20th-Century Music with Minao Shibata, Yoshirō Irino and others in 1957, which sponsored a series of summer festivals of contemporary music. Meanwhile he began to write actively for journals and newspapers, particularly for the Asahi newspaper. He has published nearly 60 books and translated many others, including Rostand's La musique française contemporaine (Tokyo, 1953), Arthur Honegger's Je suis compositeur (Tokyo, 1953, 2/1970), Bernstein's The Joy of Music...


David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...


Frank Dobbins

(b Lezat-sur-Lèze; fl Avignon, c1555–1582). French musician and author . He wrote a short didactic work on practical music, Traité de la musique pratiquele tout extraict de plusieurs auteurs latins et mis en langue françoise (Paris, 1582/R). He dedicated the treatise to the humanist Georges d’Armagnac, Archbishop of Avignon, his patron for 25 years or more. The layout follows that of similar treatises by Bourgeois, Martin, Guilliaud and Menehou published in the 1550s, although Yssandon admitted only to Latin models and quoted Boethius, Tinctoris, Faber Stapulensis and Listenius. Like his more immediate predecessor, Cornelius Blockland (Instruction, Lyons, 1573, 2/1587/R), he included many musical examples.

F. Lesure and G. Thibault: Bibliographie des éditions d’Adrian le Roy et Robert Ballard (1551–1598) (Paris, 1955), 43 [transcr. of ded.], 208 A. Seay: ‘French Renaissance Theory and Jean Yssandon’, JMT, 15 (1971), 254–72...


Virgilio Bernardoni

(b Trieste, March 2, 1922; d Rome, May 22, 1987). Italian composer and critic. He studied first in Venice with Gian Francesco Malipiero and graduated in composition at the Conservatorio di S Cecilia in Rome in 1944. He then undertook further study with Pizzetti, and lived in Paris between 1947 and 1948. Following a long career as a music critic, on L’unità (1949–56) and La Giustizia (1956–63), he became artistic director of the Teatro Comunale Giuseppe Verdi, Trieste (1966–8), the Rome opera (1968–74) and the Teatro Lirico Sperimentale, Spoleto. From 1973 to 1983 he was president of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome; he was also president of the Sindacato Nazionale Musicisti (after 1983) and honorary president of the Arts Academy and of the Rome Istituzione Sinfonica (both after 1985). His numerous prizes for composition include the Premio Marzotto (...


Leah G. Weinberg

(b Exeter, NH, Nov 8, 1961). American Musician, songwriter, record company founder, and author. Zanes was raised near Concord, New Hampshire, and after attending Oberlin College for one year, moved to Boston. There, Zanes, his brother Warren, the bass player Tom Lloyd, and the drummer Steve Morrell formed the Del Fuegos. The roots-rock band produced five albums between 1984 and 1989, with singles “Don’t Run Wild,” “I still want you,” “Name Names,” and “Move with me Sister.” After the Del Fuegos disbanded and Zanes’s solo album Cool Down Time failed to sell, he began to listen to banjo songs, cowboy tunes, and traditional songs that he remembered from childhood. After his daughter Anna was born, Zanes’s dissatisfaction with the American children’s music market led him to form a family-oriented band that merged folk and rock styles and instrumentation. Initially known as the Wonderland String Band, the New York based-group underwent changes in title and personnel, first to the Rocket Ship Revue, and then to Dan Zanes & Friends. The seven-member band has produced nine albums on Zanes’s label, Festival Five Records, which include original songs as well as folk, traditional, and gospel songs from the United States, Jamaica, Africa, and Mexico. ...


Arnolds Klotiņš

(b Riga, April 14, 1951). Latvian composer and critic. He graduated from Skulte’s composition class (1974) at the Latvian State Conservatory. Since 1972 Zemzaris has been teaching composition and music theory at the Emils Dārziņš Music School in Riga, and writes as a music critic in weekly publications. Zemzaris’s characteristic genres are instrumental chamber music and symphonic miniatures. He refers to the worlds of literature, theatre and painting by appending to his works poetic epigraphs or polysemantic titles. He also creates poetic signs and symbols by citing well-known musical styles, collages and models. With the freedom of a postmodernist, Zemzaris uses both historical styles and jazz and rock music idioms to achieve complicated subtexts with simple musical text. He favours extended repetitions of his material in the spirit of minimalist music. His music in in general lyrically fragile, sophisticated and intellectualized.

(selective list)


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kursk, 6/Oct 18, 1881; d Jan 20, 1938). Russian critic, composer and teacher. A member of the London Geographic Society. Zhilyayev first studied with Taneyev (1896–1900) and was one of his favourite pupils; he later studied with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1905. His activity as a composer was limited to the period 1905–9, and several of his works were published by Jurgenson. After a round-the-world trip during which he visited Grieg at his house in Troldhaugen (1907), he appeared as a pianist with the singer M. Deysha-Sionitskaya at the Muzïkal′nïye vïstavki (‘Musical Exhibitions’) in Moscow. He was active as a music critic and wrote for the journals Zolotoye runo (‘The Golden Fleece’), Moskovskiy yezhenedel′nik (‘Moscow Weekly’), Muzïka (‘Music’) and for the newspaper Rul′ (‘The Rudder’) (in which he used the pseudonym Peer Gynt). One of Skryabin’s close friends, Zhilyayev made editorial corrections to a number of his works during the composer’s final years, including the piano sonatas nos.8, 9 and 10. Not long before World War I Zhilyayev began teaching; among his first pupils were Stanchinsky, Feinberg and Anatoly Aleksandrov; as a member of the editorial board of the Music Sector of Gosizdat during the 1920s and 30s, he edited Skryabin’s complete works (in ...


Tamara Nikolayevna Levaya

(b Pavlodar, Yekaterinoslav province, 9/Dec 22, 1906; d Moscow, June 27, 1992). Russian musicologist and critic . He studied the theory of music at Kharkiv Conservatory under S.S. Bogatïryov and later studied the theory and history of music with Ivanov-Boretsky and composition with Zhilyayev at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1931. He took the Kandidat degree in 1942 with a dissertation on Tchaikovsky and the doctorate in 1968 with a dissertation on Schumann. In the late 1920s and early 1930s he was a member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians (RAPM) and, as music critic, was on the editorial staff for the journals Proletarskiy muzïkant (‘The Proletarian Musician’) and Za proletarskuyu muzïku (‘For Proletarian Music’). He began teaching the history of music at the Moscow Conservatory in 1931. He was forced to leave his post in 1937 and despite being quickly reinstated was once again dismissed in ...


(b Dresden, Jan 5, 1739; d Vienna, Jan 5, 1813). Austrian diarist , nephew of Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. A highly placed government official, he chronicled aristocratic life in Vienna and elsewhere in his diary, which he kept from the age of eight to his death. This diary, in 76 volumes, is in the Haus- Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna. The Tagebücher or diaries comprise volumes 6–57 and begin at the time of Zinzendorf's move to Vienna in 1761. Factual and reliable, they have long been consulted by music historians to establish what was performed when, where and for whom; only rarely, however, do they also provide performance details or critical commentary. Although Zinzendorf was a connoisseur of the theatre, he was not especially musical. He generally attended concerts, particularly of instrumental music, only if they were society events. His comment at a performance of Handel's Messiah on 7 April 1789...


Richard Langham Smith

(b Paris, April 2, 1840; d Paris, Sept 29, 1902). French writer. Brought up in Aix-en-Provence, he became a leading man of letters in the latter years of the 19th century, having a profound effect on the arts reaching far beyond the boundaries of his own work. He is celebrated as the leading figure in French naturalisme. His many expositions of his aesthetic emphasize that his accurate observation of real-life events was not an end in itself but rather a scientific basis underlying the creative nature of his art. ‘J’observe pour créer, non pour copier’, he stressed, in the belief that he could penetrate the depths of human nature only by seeing man acting in the society in which he lived. His concept of a series of linked novels – the Rougon-Macquart novels – was his major literary contribution in this respect.

His credo affected not only much other writing, visual art and theatre but also opera, providing a French alternative to Italian ...


Christopher Fifield

(b Glogau [now Głogów], Silesia, June 1, 1826; d Leipzig, July 12, 1883). German critic and composer . At his father’s wish he studied agriculture in Breslau and Berlin, and only after the successful performance of an overture in 1850 did he decide to make music his career. He studied with A.B. Marx and Theodor Kullak at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin, where he later joined the staff to teach music theory. In Berlin he also founded an opera academy and an orchestra, but he moved to Leipzig in 1864, when Franz Brendel chose him to be an editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik; four years later he succeeded Brendel as editor-in-chief and continued his advocacy of the New German School. He was also active as a writer, choral director, and teacher of singing and music theory. His compositions include two published but unperformed operas, Mohammed and Maccabäus...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...


(b Waldbröl, April 12, 1803; d Nachrodt, March 23, 1869). German music scholar, critic and poet of Italian and Dutch extraction. He was educated in Mülheim am Rhein and at the Carmelite Gymnasium in Cologne. After three years’ military service he entered the University of Heidelberg in 1826 to study civics and law. There he joined a circle around Thibaut which concerned itself with early church music and the preservation of folksong repertories, and with friends he founded a literary student club. He also interested himself at this time with the German language and its dialects, mythology, archaeology, history, astronomy and natural science. In 1829 he published with E. Baumstark his first folksong collection, Bardale, and in the same year ceased studying for financial reasons. After living in Cologne, Mülheim and Bouzonville, he became tutor to the only son of Prince Gorchakov of Warsaw in 1833. In Warsaw he met Ernemann, Elsner, Vieuxtemps and Henselt and wrote for periodicals, among them Schumann’s ...


Jay Weitz

(Ann )

(b Rochester, NY, July 28, 1946). American Music critic and journalist. Zuck was raised in Scottsville, New York, southwest of Rochester, where she studied piano and violin and played bagpipes in her high school band. She attended Middlebury College, beginning as a math major before switching to music; she graduated in 1968. During her four years at Middlebury, she sang alto in the Chapel Choir under directors James G. Chapman and Emory Fanning. Zuck attended Boston University briefly before transferring to the University of Michigan (PhD 1978), where she studied musicology with Louise Cuyler and Richard Crawford. Her thesis, Americanism and American Art Music, 1929–1945 (published as A History of Musical Americanism), was strongly influenced by her extensive interviews with Charles Seeger. Zuck has taught at Drew University, the University of Michigan, and Otterbein College. While teaching at Otterbein in 1978, she began reviewing music and dance for the daily ...


Richard Evidon

revised by Tamara Levitz

(b Vienna, Nov 28, 1881; d Petrópolis, Brazil, Feb 22, 1942). Austrian writer . In his day a leading European literary figure, he was exceptionally cultivated and had deep humanistic sympathies. His active pacifism dates from his exile in Zürich (1917–18), during which time he met several noteworthy musical figures. After the war he became one of the more highly regarded, widely read and translated Austrian writers of his generation. In 1934 he emigrated to England, and in 1941 settled in Brazil. Distraught at the persecution of the Jews, Zweig committed suicide, together with his wife, in 1942.

His writings include several on musicians – Busoni, Toscanini and Bruno Walter, who were his close friends (Berg was another), as well as Handel, Mahler and Richard Strauss. His significance for music history lies largely in his collaboration with Strauss, which began in 1932. Only one work was produced, the comic opera ...