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Jerome F. Weber

American classical record company, founded in 1949 as the Westminster Recording Co. by James Grayson, Michael Naida and Henry Gage. Recordings made in New York and Vienna were issued in April 1950. Henry Swoboda conducted many of them, using the Vienna SO’s own studio. By the end of the first year the label had established a solid reputation for quality of performance and engineering with Schubert’s ‘Trout’ Quintet, Haydn’s ‘Military’ Symphony and Bach’s Mass in B minor, the last two conducted by Hermann Scherchen, who was identified with the label more than any other artist. Handel’s Messiah and Bach’s St Matthew Passion under Scherchen were early examples of Baroque performing practice that foreshadowed a later approach to early music. In 1951 Kurt List became the record producer.

The label penetrated the French market by exchange of masters with Selmer (later called Ducretet-Thomson) from 1952 and Véga from 1957. The label entered the British market by joint productions with Nixa from ...


Rob Bowman

(b New York, NY, Jan 10, 1917; d Sarasota, FL, Aug 15, 2008). American music journalist, producer, and record executive. After graduating with a degree in journalism from Kansas State University in 1946, Wexler got a job at the music industry trade magazine, Billboard. In a 1949 article for Billboard Wexler coined the phrase “rhythm and blues” to replace “race music” as the umbrella term for the new forms of black popular music that came to prominence immediately after World War II.

In 1953, Wexler became a partner in Atlantic Records, alongside Ahmet and Nesuhi Ertegun, building the label into an industry powerhouse over the next 20 years. With Nesuhi handling most of the company’s jazz releases, Ahmet and Jerry supervised/produced sessions with the cream of 1950s R&B artists including Ray Charles, Professor Longhair, Big Joe Turner, LaVern Baker, and the Drifters.

In 1960, Wexler made a deal with the Memphis-based Stax Records to distribute their recordings. Over the next eight years, this meant that Atlantic distributed records by Otis Redding, Rufus Thomas, Carla Thomas, Albert King, William Bell, and Eddie Floyd, among others. In a unique arrangement, in ...


Maria Calderisi

Canadian publisher, instrument maker and dealer . It was founded in Toronto in 1888 by Eri Whaley and G.C. Royce, with a branch in Winnipeg 1889–1922. Its earliest publications were deposited at the copyright office in 1890 and by 1920 the firm’s output (c1500 pieces) surpassed that of all other Canadian music publishers. Unlike most of its competitors, Whaley, Royce & Co. owned a printing plant and functioned also as a job printer. Evidence of the firm’s enterprise is contained in its Descriptive and Select Catalogue of Sheet Music and Music Books published and for sale by Whaley, Royce & Co.(1895). Besides the usual popular and light classical repertory, the company published serious works including a piano arrangement of Sibelius’s Finlandia (1894) and Rhakmaninov’s Prelude op.3 no.2 (1923), as well as the music of many Canadian composers, notably R.S. Ambrose, Gena Branscombe, W.O. Forsyth, C.A.E. Harriss and Clarence Lucas. Calling itself ‘Canada’s Greatest Music House’, the firm also produced songbooks, operatic vocal scores, cantatas and oratorios, educational music and two periodicals. Its publishing activities waned considerably from ...


Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

English firm of music publishers and instrument makers . Although supposedly established in London about 1750, the earliest identifiable figure in the business was Charles Wheatstone (1768–1823), who came from a Gloucester family, and who was active in London from about 1791. The firm was known as Wheatstone & Co. from about 1815. Charles's brother William (b Gloucester, 17 Aug 1775; d London, 12 July 1854) moved with his family to London in 1806, where he became a flute teacher and manufacturer and music seller on his own account from about 1813, holding patents for improvements to the instrument. He also published a number of books of airs for the flute.

His sons, the future Sir Charles Wheatstone (b Gloucester, 6 Feb 1802; d Paris, 19 Oct 1875) and William Dolman (b Gloucester, 1804; d London, 30 Aug 1862) entered their uncle's business, which they took over following his death, and William senior then amalgamated his own business with theirs about ...


German family of publishers . Carl Friedrich (b Kelbra, Thuringia, 1788; d after 1849) studied in Leipzig and after 1811 worked in the Bureau de Musique of Franz Anton Hoffmeister and Ambrosius Kühnel, from 1814 C.F. Peters. Whistling’s Handbuch der musikalischen Literatur, a serious attempt at a list of music in print, was first issued in 1817 by Anton Meysel, whose shop Whistling acquired on 13 November 1821. Friedrich Hofmeister issued Whistling’s supplements to the Handbuch between 1819 and 1825, although Whistling’s own imprint appears after 1826. On 28 May 1830 Hofmeister purchased both the shop and the Handbuch, which by then had evolved into a current list of new music publications, edited by Whistling and later his sons, Friedrich Wilhelm (1809–61) and August Theodor (1812–69). Carl Friedrich later had a music shop in Hamburg, eventually in Vienna, while Friedrich Wilhelm in Leipzig became a publisher in his own right in ...


Lukas Pearse

(Jesse )

(b New York, NY, May 12, 1940; d Los Angeles, CA, Sept 16, 2008). American songwriter and record producer. Born in Harlem, New York, Whitfield relocated to Detroit with his family as a teenager. After briefly writing and producing songs for Detroit’s Thelma Records, he was hired by Motown owner Berry Gordy, Jr., to help with quality control and the selection of releases. He quickly became part of the songwriting and production staff.

He paired with lyricist Barrett Strong, and the two wrote and produced many Motown hits, most notably “I heard it through the grapevine,” which was recorded by many artists including Gladys Knight and the Pips as well as Marvin Gaye. He was instrumental to The Temptations, writing or cowriting hits such as “Papa was a rollin’ stone” and “Ain’t too proud to beg,” and shifting their sound from doo-wop and R&B toward funk and psychedelic soul. Writing longer songs for the group, which featured extended instrumental breaks and the group’s singers sharing lead vocals, earned Whitfield and Strong a number of Grammy Awards....


Stanley Boorman

(d Graz, May 20, 1618). Austrian printer . One of an artisan family of Nellingen bei Ulm, he was in Bavaria by 1564. He married the daughter of the printer Daser, and between 1568 and 1584 was employed as a typesetter and proof corrector by the music printer Adam Berg of Munich. In 1585 Widmanstetter travelled to Graz, where he was appointed as ‘katholischer Hofbuchdrucker’ to the court, and to the Jesuit College and the university. His salary was 100 florins a year with a free house. He remained there as a printer until his death, with a total production of over 200 titles. He exhibited at the Frankfurt book fairs between 1588 and 1596 (after which date no Graz names appear in the list for 70 years), including some music in his catalogue. His music production was not very large, and surprisingly does not include the music of the Italians who were employed at Graz. (Almost all of this was first printed in Venice.) His most famous titles were Lassus’s ...


Austrian firm of music publishers . It was founded in Vienna on 5 April 1923 by Alfred Kalmus (d 1972). The firm is best known for its series of Philharmonia miniature scores. Kalmus established the company after 14 years at Universal Edition. From the start there was a close relationship between the two firms, though Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag was initially an independent company in which UE were shareholders. In 1923 Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag published a notable group of facsimiles: Bach’s Coffee Cantata, Mozart’s Jupiter Symphony and Strauss’s Tod und Verklärung. The firm also issued books, including Hans Gál’s Anleitung zum Partiturlesen, Eckstein’s Erinnerungen an Anton Bruckner and a new edition of Sechter’s analysis of the finale of Mozart’s Jupiter Symphony. In 1925 UE purchased the firm; since then, Philharmonia miniature scores have been issued by UE, with a separate series of plate numbers. (Wiener Philharmonischer Verlag: September 1924...


Lennart Reimers

revised by Reinhold Kubik

Music publishing company, founded in 1972 by Schott’s Söhne, Mainz, and Universal Edition, Vienna. It continues the work of the Wiener Urtext Ausgabe of Universal Edition, which originally published 18th- and 19th-century music for practical and scholarly use. A first collection of 39 volumes of works by Bach, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Chopin and Brahms appeared in ...


(b Lubomierz, Silesia, c1480; d 1546/7). Polish printer, publisher and bookseller . Probably a pupil of Jan Haller he worked in Vienna from 1510 to 1517 and moved to Kraków in 1519. Around 1527 he became ‘royal printer’. He was the first in Poland to use an italic type and the first to print music from movable mensural type in double- and, later, single-impression methods. Among his music publications were treatises, songbooks and numerous anonymous secular and sacred partsongs. After his death Łazarz Andrysowicz (b Stryków; d Kraków, 1577) married Wietor’s widow and took over the firm. He published many works by Polish composers, mostly popular partsongs, psalms and hymns. After his death his son Jan Łazarzowicz Januszowski (b Kroki, 1550; d Kraków, 1613) continued the printing firm. Known for publications of a high standard, he too became ‘royal printer’. In music he widened the firm’s output to include lute tablatures, missals and other service books, as well as treatises and partsongs....


Thomas Willis

(b Salt Lake City, UT, Nov 4, 1927). American artist manager. He attended the University of Utah, then moved to New York in 1949 and in 1953 founded Ronald A. Wilford and Associates. He joined Columbia Artists Management, Inc. (CAMI), in 1958 as general manager of its Broadway Theater division; at the same time he continued to be active as an independent manager and soon acquired a reputation for shrewdness. Among his early clients were Marcel Marceau, Régine Crespin, Nicolai Gedda, Rita Gorr, and Aldo Ciccolini, all of whom made their American debuts under his management. In 1962 he created his own division within CAMI, bringing his private clients under its auspices. After being named president in 1971, Wilford adopted a policy of increased specialization, diversification, and overall expansion; in 2010 the company was managing the careers of more than 1000 conductors, singers, and instrumentalists in the world of classical music. CAMI also has begun to represent a small number of popular musicians. The company has long been involved in the production of special events and television production. Wilford’s own interests as a manager center on conductors and music directors, and among his clients are many leaders of major symphony orchestras in the United States. In his sixth decade of artist management, Wilford serves as chairman and CEO of CAMI....



Peter Ward Jones

English music printers and publishers . The firm was established in London in 1808 by Lucy Williams, a music and copperplate printer who printed some works for Clementi & Co. She was presumably a relative of John Williams, a music printer active in the 1780s at Fountain Court, Cheapside, since this was also her first address. In 1843 she took her son Joseph William Williams (1819–83) into the firm, which was known as Lucy Williams & Son until the following year, after which Joseph continued in his own name. He was succeeded in 1883 by his son, Joseph Benjamin Williams (1847–1923), who, under the pseudonym of Florian Pascal, also composed some 200 songs, piano pieces, cantatas, comic operas and operettas. He in turn was succeeded by his eldest son, Florian Williams (1879–1973), for some time helped by his brother Ralph Williams (1881–1948). A family company, Joseph Williams Ltd, was formed in ...


R. Allen Lott

(b Germany, 1764; d Philadelphia, Dec 30, 1851). American publisher . He took over John Christopher Moller’s business in Philadelphia in 1794 and established one of the most active and enduring music publishing firms of the early 19th century. He built up a large and varied catalogue of instrumental and vocal music and popular songs, including Stephen Foster’s first published song, Open thy lattice, love (1844). In 1856 the firm was taken over by Lee & Walker, which was in turn acquired by Oliver Ditson in 1875. In 1822 Willig acquired the business of Thomas Carr in Baltimore, and his son George Willig jr took control of that firm (which was renamed after him) in 1829. The Baltimore firm also published popular songs, especially minstrel music such as Clare de Kitchen, Jim Crow and Zip Coon. At the death of George Willig jr in 1874, his sons Joseph E. Willig and Henry Willig, who had joined him in ...


Ryan R. McNutt

(Douglas )

(b Inglewood, CA, June 20, 1942). American songwriter and producer. As the musical leader of the Beach boys during the 1960s, Wilson penned a series of massively successful hits that expanded the sound palette of radio pop. Though he subsequently struggled with mental illness and drug abuse, a late career revival brought with it recognition as one of the most important popular songwriters of the 20th century.

Wilson and his younger brothers Dennis and Carl grew up in Hawthorne, California. Their father Murray Wilson, occasionally abusive, strongly pushed his sons towards musical endeavors, making particular note of Brian’s talent with harmony and piano. In high school the brothers recruited cousin Mike Love to be part of a singing group; classmate Al Jardine, joined shortly thereafter. Eventually given the name the Beach Boys, the group signed with Capitol Records in 1962.

Over the next two years, the group would release nine albums, all but two of which were produced by Wilson—a rare privilege for a popular recording artist at the time, but granted due to the group’s astoundingly rapid success. His sound, noted for both studio perfectionism and immaculate vocal harmonies, was equally influenced by Phil Spector and Chuck Berry. Wilson wrote or cowrote nearly all of the band’s material, with songs like “Surfin’ USA,” “Little Deuce Coupe,” and “I Get Around” becoming touchstones of American mass culture in the early 1960s. However, the pressure of recording and touring, combined with stage fright, led to a nervous breakdown in ...


Miriam Miller

(fl London, 1584–1611). English music printer . He owned one of the most successful general printing businesses in London. He held several important offices in the Company of Stationers and ultimately became Printer to the City of London. From 1592 he printed several editions of the Sternhold and Hopkins psalter for John Day and for his son Richard Day. His publications began with John Dowland’s Lachrimae (dated 2 April 1604 in the Stationers’ register); it was financed by Thomas Adams and was one of the most important musical publications of the time. Windet’s music output is not large, numbering only a dozen volumes, including Coprario’s Funeral Teares (1606), Robert Jones’s The First Set of Madrigals (1607) and Ultimum vale (1605) and Thomas Ford’s Musicke of Sundrie Kindes (1607). Windet worked with type, and his printing was always of a high standard, distinguished by spacious layout and a clean, sharp impression. His skill must have been stretched to its limits by the eccentric demands of Tobias Hume’s ...


Jonas Westover

(b Michigan, 1949). American composer, pianist, producer, and guitarist. He is best known for his evocative and introspective solo piano works. He often draws on nature for his picturesque titles, perhaps responding to his time in the Midwest and areas such as eastern Montana. He did not receive any formal training, but instead learned to play the organ by ear in 1967 by listening to records. In 1971, he turned to the piano, influenced by 1920s jazz and the stride piano style of Thomas “Fats” Waller and Teddy Wilson, among others. He studied music at Stetson University in Deland, Florida. The style he developed has been described by Winston as “rural folk piano,” and he was asked to record by John Fahey for Takoma Records in 1972. His first album, Ballads and Blues, did not receive much popular or critical acclaim, but it brought Winston to the attention of New Age guru William Ackerman in ...


Rudolf Elvers

(d Berlin, before 1772). German music printer and publisher . He founded his firm in Berlin in 1750 and introduced Breitkopf’s improved typeface there. He published primarily works by Berlin composers (Quantz, Agricola, C.P.E. Bach) and collections such as Musicalisches Mancherley (1762–3) and Lieder der Deutschen mit Melodien...


Kari Michelsen

Norwegian firm of music publishers . It was opened in Christiania in 1822 by the Dane Hans Thøger Winther (1786–1851). He traded in books, sheet music and instruments and also published books on music. In 1823 he set up the first music lending library in Norway. His firm was the most important music shop and publishing house in the country for the first half of the 19th century; it issued almost 200 light musical titles, some through the periodical Amphion. After Winther’s death in 1851 the business was sold by auction.

Winther’s son Edvard ran his own publishing and printing business from 1841. He published three music periodicals, Lyra, Musikalsk Løverdagsmagazin and Musikalsk Album, in which many Norwegian compositions appeared for the first time. Other Norwegian music publishers made much use of his printing firm. The business was taken over by Carl Warmuth in 1878.

K. Michelsen: Musikkhandel i Norge inntil 1929: en historisk oversikt...


Teresa Chylińska

(b Kraków, 1523; d Kraków, 15–17 June 1605). Polish printer and bookseller active in Kraków. He was probably a pupil of Florian Ungler. For the high standards of his publications (which equal those of Januszowski), Wirzbięta received the title ‘Sacrae Maiestatis Regiae chalcographus’. A Calvinist, he became the principal printer for the Reformation in Poland. He published much music, almost entirely consisting of songbooks in which Protestant solo songs are well represented. In Walenty z Brzozowa's ...