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Bembé  

Malena Kuss

Cuban drums of African ancestry. The term refers to a set of three drums of different sizes and registers, as well as dancing to these drums and to the celebration in which they participate. There are six types of bembé drums: (1) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical open wooden body, with nailed head; (2) double-headed cylindrical or barrel-shaped body with heads fastened by rope in W pattern and reinforced by transverse netting; (3) double-headed cylindrical body with nailed heads; (4) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical drum, with the head held by a hoop and stretched by rope fastened to perpendicular wedges on the upper half of the body; (5) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical body, with the head fastened by a system of hoops and stretched by metal tension keys; (6) single-headed cylindrical or conical body, with the head held by rope and stretched by straps fastening it to a girdle held in place by wedges on the upper part of the body....

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Amanda Villepastour

Double-headed cylindrical drum of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria. One or both skins have snares and one head is struck with a curved stick held by the right hand while the left hand presses on the other skin to regulate the tone. The largest bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ ensembles comprise the ìyáàlù (‘mother drum’) lead instrument, accompanied by the atẹ̣̀lé (‘the one that follows’) and the hourglass drums related to the dùndún ensemble, the kẹríkẹrì, ìṣáájù, and gúdúgúdú. The agogo bell and ṣẹkẹ-ṣẹkẹ or ṣẹ̀kẹ̀rẹ̀ rattles may be added. In palace orchestras, a kàkàkí (long trumpet adopted from the Hausa) may be added. Yorùbá bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ drums were likely adapted from the Hausa gàngaa, a double-headed cylindrical snared drum of similar construction. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ can be used for a range of life-cycle celebrations and in the worship of Yorùbá deities. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ is now most prevalent in Ọ̀ṣun worship in Ọ̀ṣun State. The bẹ̀m̀bẹ́...

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Beme  

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Bende  

Margaret J. Kartomi

[bende]

Small suspended bossed gong of Central and East Java, Bali, and Sumatra. It is made of heavy bronze, about 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and is beaten with a padded hammer on the boss, which is about 5 to 7 cm wide. Bende are used in the prajuritan theatre ensemble in the mountains south of Semarang, Java; usually four or more different pitches are played together with a derendeng (frame drum). Some bende are suspended so that they can resonate freely, while others are held by the rim in the left hand to produce a damped sound. The bende is used also in the kelenongan ensemble in Lampung, Sumatra, in the Balinese gamelan gong, and is traditionally used by Javanese military officers for signaling or giving commands to their troops. It is a very old instrument, being mentioned in two 14th-century Old Javanese poems.

See also Derendeng ; Gamelan .

J. Kunst...

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Bendre  

Rainer Polak

[bentere, binderi]

Kettledrum of Gur-speaking peoples (Mossi, Sisala, Mamprusi, and others) in Burkina Faso and northern Ghana. It is an almost spherical calabash with a small goat- or antelope-skin head, tuned with black adhesive paste at the center. It is beaten by the hands. The player either stands with the drum suspended from his neck or sits on the ground. Often metal plaques with rings along the edges are attached to the instrument creating a jingling sound. The bendre is considered sacred and noble by the Mossi of Burkina Faso. At the court of Tenkodogo several bendre join gangaogo and lunsi drums in an ensemble that accompanies declamation of the history of the rulers. Alternatively, a single drum can be made to ‘talk’ while a declamator translates the words. At Koupéla the drum is known as binderi, cognate with the bentere of Ghana. In Mali and western Burkina Faso, the Bamana, Bobo, Senufo, and others use a similar calabash drum without tuning paste, called ...

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Bene  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Beng  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Benta  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Gavin Webb

Mouth bow of the Asante (Ashanti) and Akan people of Ghana. The instrument was first noted by Bowdich in 1817 and described as a stick bent in the form of a bow with a thin piece of split cane fastened across it as a string. This was held between the lips at one end and the string struck with a small stick whilst being stopped by a thick stick, the mouth acting as a resonator....

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Bentere  

Gavin Webb

[mpintin, pentre]

Calabash kettledrum of northern Ghana whose use has spread to southern areas, including the Akan. The head is tensioned with rawhide thongs tied to a ring at the bottom of the shell. Players either sit or stand with the drum suspended from a strap around the neck and beat the drum by hand....

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Béré  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Beri  

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Beru  

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Betene  

Monique Brandily

Side-blown horn of the Kotoko people of central Chad and northern Cameroon. The horn is either from a bubal antelope or a damalisk (both types of hartebeest antelope); a rectangular mouthhole is cut in the side. A cowhorn bell is glued on with beeswax and then tied to the instrument. A little calabash lid, hanging from the horn on a cord, closes the bell to protect the inside when it is not being played. A feather is used to clean the mouthhole when the playing is interrupted. ...

Article

Andrew Alter

[bhauṅkar]

Trumpet of parts of Uttarakhand, North India. It is a straight tube of copper with integral mouthpiece and is usually found in pairs at ritual occasions associated with festivals and processions. Most are approximately 150 cm long and remain narrow for most of their length before slightly flaring at the distal end. Water is poured through the instrument before playing it. The instrument is not tuned to any specific pitch, and only two or three different pitches in the higher register are used. It is not used to play melodies or to accompany songs. The instrument is first sounded while the bell is pointing towards the ground and then it is swung rapidly upwards as if to throw the sound into the air.

J.K. Petshali: Uttarāñchal ke Lok Vādya [The Folk Instruments of Uttaranchal] (New Delhi, 2002) A. Alter: Dancing with Devtās: Drums, Power and Possession in the Music of Garhwal, North India...

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Bher  

Alastair Dick

Very large metal kettledrum of Sind, Pakistan. It is played standing, with two sticks, as part of the ceremonial band naubat found at the shrines of some Sindi saints (e.g. that of Shah Abdul Latif at Bhitshah). ‘Bher’ doubtless derives from the old Indian drum name bherī, but it is different from that so described in medieval Indian texts....

Article

Carol M. Babiracki

[bheir, bhẽṛe, turhi, turi]

Long straight trumpet, with integral mouthpiece, played by tribal and non-tribal musicians of Chotanagpur, India. It is made of copper or tin, in several sections, and can be from 95 to 148 cm long. For about four-fifths of its length the tube is thin-walled and narrow in bore, with bosses at regular intervals. At the end is a flared bell.

The player holds the trumpet just below the mouthpiece with the right hand, supporting the embouchure. The instrument is supported by a bamboo pole to keep it horizontal; with the left hand the player holds one end of the pole at a slant against the abdomen, and the distal end of the trumpet hangs suspended from the opposite end of the pole by a short length of rope. The bhẽr, also called turhi (turi in Orissa), is found most commonly as part of an ensemble including the ḍhāk (cylindrical drum), ...

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Bherī  

Alastair Dick

Indian drum name that occurs in Sanskrit texts from the epic to the medieval period. The term has often been translated as ‘kettledrum’, but there appears to be no evidence for this type of drum in India before the Middle Ages. The bherī is described in medieval sources as a double-headed drum, probably barrel-shaped, about 72 cm long and 48 cm in diameter at the heads. The body was made of copper, the heads stretched on creeper hoops laced by rope, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was beaten on the right head by a stick and on the left by the hand. It was described as a battle drum with a majestic sound. Drums of this type are found in ancient Indian sculpture, sometimes borne on a pole carried on the shoulders of two men.

See also Ḍhol.

C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne (Paris, 1941)...

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Bhuang  

Carol M. Babiracki

[buang]

Single-string plucked stick zither of the Santāl people of Orissa, Bihar, and West Bengal, India. The body is a long bamboo tube with a flexible stick inserted in each of the two open ends. A hemp playing string is tied to the free ends of the sticks, arching them inwards; the string is held parallel to the tube and about 20 to 25 cm away from it. Alternatively, the playing string can be attached directly to one end of the tube and at the other end to a long stick peg affixed perpendicularly into the tube. In both versions a long bamboo basket resonator is attached to the underside of the tube at its centre, with the open end facing downwards. The basket is covered with decorative paper and streamers.

The player holds the tube in one hand and plucks the playing string with the other. The instrument adds rhythm and a drone of indefinite pitch to the instrumental ensembles accompanying Santali communal dances....