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Article

Bel  

Article

Bele  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

[belémban-bátchot]

Obsolete bamboo jews harp of the Chamorro people of Guam in the Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia. It took the form of a bamboo stick in which a tongue was cut. The instrument was placed in the half-open mouth and its tongue set in motion by a finger.

G. Fritz...

Article

Raymond F. Kennedy

[belémban-túyan, belenbaotuyan]

Musical bow of the Chamorro of the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. It is especially important on the island of Guam where it has become a symbol of early Chamorro culture. The bent stick of the belembau tuyan, made of a supple native wood (usually hibiscus), is about 2 metres long. A string made from wild pineapple fibre (wire in later forms) is stretched along the stick and fastened to it at both ends. A half gourd (or two half coconut-shells, one inside the other) is attached, opening outward, part way between the ends of the stick on the side opposite the string. The player reclines or sits, the gourd resting against his stomach, and fingers the string with his left hand while striking it with a piece of sword-grass held in his right hand (see illustration). When a wire string is used, protective cylinders are worn on the fingers of the left hand. Freely translated, ...

Article

Belikan  

Gini Gorlinski

Lute of the Iban people of Sarawak, Malaysia, and the Maloh group of peoples in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. It was rare in the late 19th century and virtually unknown by the 21st. The resonator and integral, unfretted neck are carved from a single block of wood. The neck constitutes up to nearly two-thirds of the instrument’s total length of roughly 80 to 90 cm. The resonator is hollowed from the top and covered with a thin wood soundtable, perforated with several small soundholes. The end of the neck is often ornamented with the carved head—sometimes including the preserved beak—of a hornbill, a bird emblematic of Iban culture.

The belikan has two strings, made of rattan, that pass through small holes in the neck to two tuning pegs, which pierce the neck laterally. At the other end, the strings are affixed to two small pieces of wood that are inserted into a wooden block raised from the soundtable. The left hand fingered a melody against the neck of the instrument, while the fingers of the right hand plucked or strummed the strings....

Article

Article

Bembé  

Malena Kuss

Cuban drums of African ancestry. The term refers to a set of three drums of different sizes and registers, as well as dancing to these drums and to the celebration in which they participate. There are six types of bembé drums: (1) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical open wooden body, with nailed head; (2) double-headed cylindrical or barrel-shaped body with heads fastened by rope in W pattern and reinforced by transverse netting; (3) double-headed cylindrical body with nailed heads; (4) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical drum, with the head held by a hoop and stretched by rope fastened to perpendicular wedges on the upper half of the body; (5) single-headed cylindrical, barrel-shaped, or conical body, with the head fastened by a system of hoops and stretched by metal tension keys; (6) single-headed cylindrical or conical body, with the head held by rope and stretched by straps fastening it to a girdle held in place by wedges on the upper part of the body....

Article

Amanda Villepastour

Double-headed cylindrical drum of the Yorùbá people of Nigeria. One or both skins have snares and one head is struck with a curved stick held by the right hand while the left hand presses on the other skin to regulate the tone. The largest bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ ensembles comprise the ìyáàlù (‘mother drum’) lead instrument, accompanied by the atẹ̣̀lé (‘the one that follows’) and the hourglass drums related to the dùndún ensemble, the kẹríkẹrì, ìṣáájù, and gúdúgúdú. The agogo bell and ṣẹkẹ-ṣẹkẹ or ṣẹ̀kẹ̀rẹ̀ rattles may be added. In palace orchestras, a kàkàkí (long trumpet adopted from the Hausa) may be added. Yorùbá bẹ̀m̀bẹ́ drums were likely adapted from the Hausa gàngaa, a double-headed cylindrical snared drum of similar construction. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ can be used for a range of life-cycle celebrations and in the worship of Yorùbá deities. The bẹ̀mbẹ́ is now most prevalent in Ọ̀ṣun worship in Ọ̀ṣun State. The bẹ̀m̀bẹ́...

Article

Beme  

Article

Bende  

Margaret J. Kartomi

[bende]

Small suspended bossed gong of Central and East Java, Bali, and Sumatra. It is made of heavy bronze, about 30 to 40 cm in diameter, and is beaten with a padded hammer on the boss, which is about 5 to 7 cm wide. Bende are used in the prajuritan theatre ensemble in the mountains south of Semarang, Java; usually four or more different pitches are played together with a derendeng (frame drum). Some bende are suspended so that they can resonate freely, while others are held by the rim in the left hand to produce a damped sound. The bende is used also in the kelenongan ensemble in Lampung, Sumatra, in the Balinese gamelan gong, and is traditionally used by Javanese military officers for signaling or giving commands to their troops. It is a very old instrument, being mentioned in two 14th-century Old Javanese poems.

See also Derendeng ; Gamelan .

J. Kunst...

Article

Bendre  

Rainer Polak

[bentere, binderi]

Kettledrum of Gur-speaking peoples (Mossi, Sisala, Mamprusi, and others) in Burkina Faso and northern Ghana. It is an almost spherical calabash with a small goat- or antelope-skin head, tuned with black adhesive paste at the center. It is beaten by the hands. The player either stands with the drum suspended from his neck or sits on the ground. Often metal plaques with rings along the edges are attached to the instrument creating a jingling sound. The bendre is considered sacred and noble by the Mossi of Burkina Faso. At the court of Tenkodogo several bendre join gangaogo and lunsi drums in an ensemble that accompanies declamation of the history of the rulers. Alternatively, a single drum can be made to ‘talk’ while a declamator translates the words. At Koupéla the drum is known as binderi, cognate with the bentere of Ghana. In Mali and western Burkina Faso, the Bamana, Bobo, Senufo, and others use a similar calabash drum without tuning paste, called ...

Article

Bene  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Beng  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Article

Benta  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Gavin Webb

Mouth bow of the Asante (Ashanti) and Akan people of Ghana. The instrument was first noted by Bowdich in 1817 and described as a stick bent in the form of a bow with a thin piece of split cane fastened across it as a string. This was held between the lips at one end and the string struck with a small stick whilst being stopped by a thick stick, the mouth acting as a resonator....

Article

Bentere  

Gavin Webb

[mpintin, pentre]

Calabash kettledrum of northern Ghana whose use has spread to southern areas, including the Akan. The head is tensioned with rawhide thongs tied to a ring at the bottom of the shell. Players either sit or stand with the drum suspended from a strap around the neck and beat the drum by hand....

Article

Béré  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Beri  

Article

Beru  

Article

Betene  

Monique Brandily

Side-blown horn of the Kotoko people of central Chad and northern Cameroon. The horn is either from a bubal antelope or a damalisk (both types of hartebeest antelope); a rectangular mouthhole is cut in the side. A cowhorn bell is glued on with beeswax and then tied to the instrument. A little calabash lid, hanging from the horn on a cord, closes the bell to protect the inside when it is not being played. A feather is used to clean the mouthhole when the playing is interrupted. ...