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Erkki Salmenhaara


(b Vårdö, April 27, 1879; d Turku, Dec 27, 1969). Finnish musicologist and folklorist. After qualifying as an organist and choirmaster (1900), he studied (1901–5) at the Helsinki Music Institute (later the Sibelius Academy) and Helsinki University (MA 1915), taking the doctorate there in 1923 with a dissertation on the bowed harp. In 1906 he was a co-founder of the Brage Society for the preservation of Swedish-Finnish culture and from its inception he was president of its music section and conductor of its choir. He taught music in Helsinki and then became a lecturer in Scandinavian music history at the university (1925) and professor of musicology and folk literature (1926–46) and rector (1929–36) at the Finland-Swedish University of Åbo (Turku). In 1926 he founded the latter's music history collection, which in 1950 became the basis of the Sibelius Museum. As a musicologist he made valuable contributions to the study of early music history in Finland; he also collected folk music and studied folk music instruments of Swedish-speaking regions in Finland....


Norman Fraser

revised by Gerard Béhague


(b São Paulo, Oct 9, 1893; d São Paulo, Feb 25, 1945). Brazilian writer and musicologist. He was one of the founders of Brazilian ethnomusicology, and very influential in the assertion of musical nationalism in his country in the 1920s and 1930s. He studied at the São Paulo Conservatory where he later taught. He took an active part in the Semana de Arte Moderna (February 1922) whose basic goal was the reform of Brazilian art from academicism into ‘modernismo’. Soon afterwards he began his lifelong investigations into Brazilian folk and popular music which produced a series of outstanding essays. His first monograph, Ensaio sôbre a música brasileira (1928), considers the relationship that ought to exist between art music and popular music, and analyses the rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, textural, instrumental and formal peculiarities of Brazilian music. Andrade was one of the chief organizers of the Congresso da Língua Nacional Cantada (...


(fl late 14th century). Theorist. He is named only in the manuscript US-Cn 54.1, copied at Pavia in 1391. This manuscript attributes to him two widely distributed theoretical works: De contrapuncto quedam regule utiles (ed. in CoussemakerS, iii, 116–18), a set of contrapuntal instructions written in 26 pseudo-hexameters and found in seven further sources (see Sachs, 215 and 87), of which only two include the musical examples printed in CoussemakerS; and the Tractatus figurarum (ed. Schreur), known from 12 further copies. Both treatises appear elsewhere with ascriptions or implied ascriptions to Philippus de Caserta. While the Tractatus figurarum is also ascribed to Egidius de Murino, the stemmatic arguments of Arlt effectively rule out his authorship. Despite the arguments of Arlt and Schreur, it seems hard to resist the suggestion of Strohm (following Pirrotta) that both treatises are in fact by Philippus de Caserta. Coussemaker's suggestion (CoussemakerS, iii, XXII) that he could be identified with the composer Andreas de Florentia has found no further support....


Bojan Bujic

(b Split, March 19, 1909; d Zagreb, Jan 16, 1982). Croatian musicologist. He studied Romance languages at the universities in Zagreb and Rome and graduated in 1931. Between 1931 and 1941 he was a schoolmaster in Šibenik, Hercegnovi, Zagreb and Split, where he also studied composition privately. In order to complete a formal university course in music, he then entered the Academy of Music in Zagreb, although he had already written several articles and two books. In 1945 he became professor of the history of music at the Academy of Music and head of its musicology department; he occupied these positions until his retirement in 1972. In 1950–51 he was the editor of the musical periodical Muzičke novine, and between 1958 and 1963 general editor of Muzička enciklopedija, the first publication of its kind in Yugoslavia; between 1965 and 1969 he edited the proceedings of the music section of the Croatian (formerly Yugoslav) Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in ...


Robert Stevenson

[Andres, Giovanni]

(b Planes, Alicante, Feb 15, 1740; d Rome, Jan 12, 1817). Spanish literary historian and music critic. He was professed in the Society of Jesus on 24 December 1754 and studied at Tarragona, Manresa, Gerona and Valencia from 1754 until 1763, when he was ordained a priest. Four years later, while teaching rhetoric and poetry at the University of Gandía, he was exiled with the rest of the Spanish Jesuits. He went first to Corsica, then to Italy, where he taught philosophy at Ferrara until 1773. After Clement XIV suppressed the Jesuits in 1773 Andrés devoted himself to letters and bibliography, living three years with the Bianchi at Mantua, and then travelling throughout Italy and in 1794 to Vienna. During his travels he maintained a correspondence with his brother Carlos, which was published from 1786 to 1794. The work contains much valuable material on music, particularly the third volume, which deals with Venetian conservatories, singers, opera and Greek-rite chant in ...


Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...


(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...


Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

[Spangenberg, Wolfhart]

(b Mansfeld, probably before 1570; d Buchenbach, nr Freiburg, before Oct 1636). German theologian and writer. The first two names of his pseudonym are equivalents of Wolfhart Spangenberg, his original name, and Andropediacus derives from the name of his birthplace. He was the son of Cyriac and grandson of Johann Spangenberg. His father having been obliged to leave his position as court preacher at Mansfeld in 1574 because he supported Matthias Flaccius's substantialist view of Original Sin, he spent his earliest years at, among other places, Strasbourg, from 1578, and Schlitz, near Fulda, from 1581 and came under his father's influence in theological and artistic matters. He matriculated at Tübingen University on 5 April 1586 and took the bachelor's degree in 1588 and master's degree in 1591. He too was an adherent of Flaccianism, which hindered his career as a theologian. In 1595 he followed his father to Strasbourg, where he gained citizenship and earned his living as a proofreader. In ...


Rudolf Klein

(b Gadderbaum, Bielefeld, Sept 2, 1940). Austrian musicologist of German origin. He studied musicology in Mainz (1961–5), Münster (1965–7) and Salzburg (1967–70) with Schmitz, Massenkeil, Federhofer and Croll, as well as the piano, double bass and music theory at the Salzburg Conservatory. He received the doctorate at Salzburg University with a dissertation on Salieri in 1970 and was assistant lecturer at the musicology institute of Salzburg University under Gerhard Croll (1968–72). While continuing to teach at Salzburg University, in 1972 he became academic librarian of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg, a post in which he worked with Otto Schneider on the preparation of the Mozart bibliography. He has been editor-in-chief of the Mozart Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke (1973–81), director of musicology (1981–9) and secretary-general (1989–) of the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, curator of many exhibitions and a prolific Mozart scholar. His Salieri studies have brought him international recognition and he has edited the opera ...


Gabriel Banciu and Cristina Şuteu

[Angi István]

(b Ojdula, 16 Oct 1933) Romanian music aesthetician and musicologist. He is considered the founder of musical aesthetics in Romania. Ştefan Angi studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1953–8) where his teachers included Márkos Albert (music theory), Jodál Gabor (harmony), Max Eisikovits (counterpoint), Jagamas János (forms), Földes László (aesthetics), Lakatos István and Benkő András (music history), Zsurka Péter (violin), Ana Voileanu-Nicoară (chamber music), Antonin Ciolan (orchestral ensemble), and Szenik Ilona (folklore). He then studied at Lomonosov Moscow State University (1963–5), with the philosopher Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, where he graduated with a dissertation on Music and Affectivity and took the PhD in Romania in 1966. In 1958 he joined the academic staff of Cluj-Napoca Conservatory and between 1976 and 1986 was the dean of the Theoretic Faculty. He was awarded the ‘Cultural Merit’ medal (1970) and the ‘Romanian Academy Award’ (1977). Angi is a permanent correspondent on serial radio broadcasts, has published more than 100 articles, and has attended 70 conferences – on musicology, philosophy, and aesthetics....


Josef-Horst Lederer

(b Cremona; d 1630). Italian theorist. He was a Franciscan tertiary and studied composition with Claudio Merulo. According to Lucchini, he was maestro di cappella at the Florentine court in 1622, but this cannot have been so, as Marco da Gagliano held the post at that time. In his treatise La Regola del contraponto, e della musical compositione (Milan, 1622) he was primarily concerned with strict counterpoint, basing his theory on mathematically established intervals from the speculative theory of harmony. In this way he appears as one of the closer adherents of Zarlino, together with Girolamo Diruta, Cerone, Artusi and Zacconi, but he defended the seconda pratica as the outcome of the prima pratica. He discussed – with continual references to Merulo – intervals, keys, imitation and composition in two and more parts, including double counterpoint. As practical illustrations the treatise presents two of Angleria’s own ricercares, and some canons and a ricercare by his friend G.P. Cima....


Jack Westrup

[Anglés, Higinio]

(b Maspujols, nr Tarragona, Jan 1, 1888; d Rome, Dec 8, 1969). Catalan priest and musicologist. From 1900 to 1912 he studied theology at the Seminario de Tarragona and was ordained in 1912. In 1913 he settled in Barcelona, where he studied harmony with José Cogul, harmony, counterpoint, fugue and organ with Vicente de Gibert, composition and folksong with José Barberá, and musicology with Felipe Pedrell. In 1917 he was appointed director of the music section of the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona. From 1923 to 1924 he studied with Willibald Gurlitt in Freiburg and with Friedrich Ludwig in Göttingen. In 1927 he was appointed professor at the Barcelona Conservatory, and in 1933 at the university. As a result of the Spanish Civil War he lived in Munich (1936–39). In 1941 he became a member of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans in Barcelona and in 1943 the first director of the Instituto Español de Musicología. At the same time he was elected a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid. In ...


Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

(b ?before 1200; d Saxony, ?1272). English Franciscan theologian. He has been falsely identified with Bartholomeus de Glanvilla (fl late 13th century). He studied at Oxford and later at Paris, where he was incepted as a regent master; he joined the Franciscans about 1225. He taught as a lector in Magdeburg, and was subsequently elected Provincial in Austria (1247), then Bohemia (c1255); he became bishop of Łuków (1257) and was appointed papal legate. Some ten years before his death he was elected minister provincial in Saxony. While at Magdeburg he completed his De proprietatibus rerum (c1245), of which well over 100 copies in manuscript survive; the editio princeps appeared in Cologne in 1472/3 (see Bartholomaei Anglici de genuinis rerum … proprietatibus, Frankfurt, 1601/R). The text was well known in university circles, and also appeared in several vernacular translations (that of John Trevisa into English, from ...


Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Rome, Feb 8, 1938). Italian musicologist. While a philosophy student at the University of Rome, he studied the piano privately and the organ and composition at the Conservatorio Statale di Musica S Cecilia, Rome (diploma 1962). He later took a postgraduate course in composition under Petrassi at the Accademia di S Cecilia (diploma 1966). He has been professor of music history at the conservatory of L’Aquila (1969–79) and at the Rome Conservatory (from 1979), where, from 1990, he gave courses in musicology. He has been a member of the editorial boards of the journals Musica antica (1984–5), Rivista italiana di musicologia (1989–91) and Il saggiatore musicale (1994–6), and he was on the teaching committee of the Società Italiana di Musicologia (1986–8). His areas of research are musical analysis, 17th- and 20th-century Italian music and musical patronage in Rome from the 16th century to the 19th. He has also undertaken archive research on Baroque instrumental sources in Rome, identifying the first autograph that can be attributed with certainty to Frescobaldi....


Cecil Adkins

revised by Bonnie J. Blackburn

(b Parma, before 1386; d c1440–43). Italian scholar and theorist. His many works, covering topics such as astronomy, astrology and medicine, also include a treatise De musica, notable for its influence on Gaffurius. He studied as a youth in Pavia and in about 1428 practised medicine in Ferrara, each time returning to Parma, where he was a member of a distinguished family.

The only remaining copy of Anselmi's treatise is Gaffurius’s well-glossed mid-century exemplar ( I-Ma H 233 Inf.). Written in April 1434, the work was purportedly the record of conversations between Anselmi and Pietro dei Rossi which took place in September 1433 at the Bagni di Corsena (now Bagni di Lucca). The treatise presents in dialogue form the topics of harmonia celestis, harmonia instrumentalis and harmonia cantabilis; each part represents one day’s conversation. The influence of the medieval tripartite division is apparent, and although he did not disagree with the main ideas, Anselmi did not accept certain details of the Boethian doctrines (e.g. the division of the tone)....


Paula Morgan, Jon Stroop and Paula Matthews

(b Providence, RI, Feb 18, 1922; d Tucson, AZ, April 6, 2001). American musicologist. He attended Columbia University (BS 1946, MA 1948), the University of Paris (diploma 1951) and the University of Southern California, where he took his doctorate in 1964 with a dissertation on André Campra’s opéra-ballets. After serving on the faculty of the University of Montana (1948–50) he became a professor at the University of Arizona (1952); he retired in 1992. Anthony’s particular area of study was French music of the 17th and 18th centuries, and he concentrated on opéra-ballet of the French Baroque in many of his writings. His book on French Baroque music is valuable as an introduction to a vast body of instrumental and vocal music which has not been thoroughly explored; the volume has been cited as the classic study of its subject. Anthony was also known as a harpsichordist. He was named Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Government in ...


Rreze Kryeziu

(b Skopje, Macedonia, Sept 23, 1909; d Pristina, Kosovo, Oct 21, 1991). Albanian composer, music pedagogue, conductor, and ethnomusicologist. He learned music by analysing the works of other composers and by attending private lessons with professors in Belgrade. During his secondary education he learned to play the violin, the cello, and the piano. He arrived in Kosovo to pursue a career as a music pedagogue. He spent a decade in Prizren (1946–56), which was typified by intense musical activity and during which time he directed the choir SH.K.A. ‘Agimi’ (1944) and was a professor and director of the School of Music (1948). (See E. Berisha: Studime dhe vështrime për muzikën, Pristina, 2004, 209–14).

His familiarity with folk music is evidenced by his analyses of Albanian folk songs, which he summarized in a seven volume work called Albanian Folk Music. As a result of this work, he became known as the first ethnomusicologist specializing in Albanian folklore....


(b Vienna, Nov 22, 1937). Austrian musicologist. He studied with Schenk and Wessely at the University of Vienna, taking the doctorate there in 1962 with a dissertation on Ignaz von Mosel; in 1967 he spent a year of study with Remo Giazotto in Italy. From 1963 to 1999 he was a research musicologist for the Music Research Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Concurrently he was secretary of the Gesellschaft zur Herausgabe der Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (1963–74), becoming director of publications (from 1998). He also served the newly created Österreichische Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft as general secretary (from 1973), vice-president (from 1984) and president (1990–96). In 1979 he was appointed a reader at the University of Vienna. He was elected a corresponding member (1984) and later a full member (1995) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. He became editor in ...


Sven Hansell

revised by Emilia Zanetti

(b ?Milan, c1692; d Milan, 1776). Italian theorist and composer. He was living in Holland in the mid-1730s but then moved to London, where he stayed for more than two decades and wrote his treatise L’Arte armonica: or, A Treatise on the Composition of Musick (1760). It was published in an anonymous English translation, which the Monthly Review found lacking in purity and elegance of style but intelligible and valuable for advanced students of music. In many respects it is an up-to-date and sophisticated presentation of theory, for instance in its use of Corelli’s op.5 no.1 to illustrate the transformation of chord progressions into melodies and counterpoint. About 1770 Antoniotto returned to Milan, where he gave Giovenale Sacchi his scheme for creating dissonances by sustaining chords until all the notes of the scale sound together. Fétis, the most important source of information on Antoniotto, reported that he died in Milan in ...


Marysol Quevedo

(b Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Dec 11, 1955). American literary scholar. She studied Spanish and Comparative Literature at Indiana University (BA 1978), and earned the MA (1980) and PhD (1983) in Spanish from Harvard University. Aparicio’s research focuses on languages, cultural hybridity, and transnationalism in Latino and Latina culture. She examines the role of popular music in defining the cultural changes, hybridity and cultural politics in Latin American popular culture. She is the author of Listening to Salsa (1998), co-editor of two volumes of essays: Musical Migrations (New York, 2003) and Tropicalizations (Hanover, NY, 1997), and has published many articles. She received the Modern Languages Association’s Katherine Kovac Singer Award for the best book in Hispanic Studies and the Best Book Award from the International Association for the Study of Popular Music for Listening to Salsa. Aparicio has taught at Stanford University, University of Arizona, University of Michigan, and University of Illinois at Chicago, and currently holds the position of professor of Spanish and Portuguese and director of the Latina and Latino Studies Program at Northwestern University....