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Andrew Lamb

(b Marburg an der Drau [now Maribor], Nov 23, 1903; d Vienna, Dec 12, 1984). Austrian conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied with Hermann Frisch in Marburg and Roderich von Mojsisovics (composition) at the Graz Conservatory. From 1924 to 1928 he was double bass player, répétiteur and conductor at the Stadttheater in Graz and then successively conductor of a touring opera company (1928–9), at the Theater an der Wien and Vienna Stadttheater (1929–33) and at the Vienna Volksoper (1933–8). From 1931 to 1968 he conducted for Vienna Radio, giving many concerts with the Vienna SO during the 1930s and founding a radio orchestra in Vienna in 1945; he also made guest appearances on foreign radio stations. He came to specialize in light music, and his radio performances of Viennese operetta and dance music displayed a rare sense of Viennese style. He received the title of professor in ...


Henry Burnett

(b St Petersburg, March 26, 1906; d New York, Dec 31, 1983). American musicologist, violinist and conductor, of Russian birth. He studied musicology with Schering, Wolf and Sachs at the University of Berlin (1930–36) and completed his studies at Columbia University with Paul Henry Lang. In 1950 he was awarded the doctorate for his dissertation on French instrumental music between the revolutions. He studied the violin with Flesch in Berlin (1922–5), continuing with Jacques Thibaud and Lucien Capet in Paris (1925–6). At the age of 14 he made his violin concert début in Hanover with his father, the pianist Joseph Schwarz; he was first heard in London in 1931. After performing throughout Europe he settled in the USA in 1936. He was leader of the Indianapolis SO (1937–8) and a member of the NBC Symphony Orchestra under Toscanini (1938–9...


Claudio Casini

(b Padua, Dec 23, 1934). Italian conductor and musicologist. He studied with Zecchi, Mitropoulos and Ferrara. In 1959 he founded at Padua the chamber ensemble I Solisti Veneti, which specializes in 18th-century Italian instrumental music and in contemporary works; Bussotti, Donatoni, Malipiero and Guaccero are among the composers to have written works specially for the group. Scimone has continued to direct it on tours in Europe, the USA and Japan. His work has helped to introduce rediscovered 18th-century Italian instrumental music to a wide audience, and he has edited a number of concertos by Tartini. From 1952 until 1957 he wrote the music column in La gazzetta del Veneto, and from 1961 he taught at conservatories: at Venice until 1967, then at Verona, where he taught chamber music, and from 1974 to 1983 at Padua, where he was director of the conservatory and where in 1968 he became permanent conductor and artistic director of the chamber orchestra. From ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Friedberg [now Frimburk], Bohemia, Oct 11, 1788; d Vienna, Sept 10, 1867). Austrian theorist, composer, conductor and organist. Sechter went to Vienna in 1804 and soon became known as a harmony and counterpoint teacher. In 1810 he began teaching the piano and singing at the Educational Institute for the Blind. He was appointed assistant court organist in 1824, and principal court organist in 1825. Schubert, shortly before his death (1828), took one counterpoint lesson with Sechter. In 1851, Sechter was appointed professor of thoroughbass and counterpoint at the Vienna Conservatory. Bruckner studied with Sechter, 1855–61, eventually succeeding him at the conservatory and passing on his methods. Other pupils were Marxsen (Brahms's teacher), Nottebohm, C.F. Pohl, Thalberg, Carl Umlauf and Henry Vieuxtemps.

A prolific composer, Sechter was said to have written a fugue every day. He apparently wrote more than 8000 pieces, of which the masses and oratorios written after ...


Israel J. Katz


(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...


Wolfgang Maria Hoffmann

(Alcantara) [Josef Anton]

(b Häselgehr, July 18, 1810; d Salzburg, Jan 25, 1882). Austrian composer, music theorist, organist, choirmaster and instrument maker. He was musically mainly self-taught; at the age or 9 he learnt to play the piano and organ, as well as the violin, harp, flute, clarinet and horn. When he was 11 he took lessons in harmony and basso continuo from P. Mauritius Gasteiger in Reutte. He attended the Gymnasium in Hall (1824–30), and took some organ and piano lessons from the organist Ignaz Heinz. He entered the Franciscan monastery of Salzburg in 1830 under the name of Peter von Alcantara, and was ordained in 1834. From 1837 to 1840 he was organist and choirmaster in Bolzano and Innsbruck, and he spent the rest of his life in the Franciscan monastery in Salzburg.

Singer became famous for the building of his ‘Pansymphonikon’ in 1845; this was a keyboard instrument with sets of reeds, two manuals and 42 registers which imitated an entire orchestra. He wrote contemplative works, a treatise on choral singing entitled ...


Henri Vanhulst

(b Marchienne-au-Pont, Hainaut, July 10, 1899; d Paris, Feb 12, 1970). Belgian composer, conductor and musicologist. He studied at the Brussels Conservatory (1911–18), where he won first prizes in music history (1915), harmony (1916), counterpoint and fugue (1917, under Du Bois) and the violin (1918); he later studied composition and orchestration with Gilson. In 1927 he won the Rubens Prize, which enabled him to stay in Paris for a time and make contact with the leaders of the avant garde. Scherchen gave him conducting lessons in 1935, and from 1937 to 1946 Souris was conductor for Belgian radio. As director of the music department of the Brussels Séminaire des Arts (1944–9) he introduced and arranged performances of works unknown in Brussels, especially serial music. He directed the Belgian section of the ISCM (1946–52) and was the editor of the journal ...


Asta-Rose Alcaide

revised by Alexandre Delgado

(b Lourenço Marques, Mozambique, Feb 15, 1927). Portuguese composer, musicologist and conductor. He took a degree in classical philology at Lisbon University and studied the piano (diploma 1947) with Abreu Mota and composition (diploma 1952) with Jorge Croner de Vasconcelos at the Lisbon Conservatory; he also studied conducting with Fritz Lehmann in Munich (1954–5), Hans Swarowsky in Vienna (1957) and Albert Wolff in Hilversum (1957). He was one of the founders of the Portuguese section of the Jeunesse Musicale and, during his ten years as director of the Portuguese television music department (1959–69), he also taught composition at Lisbon Conservatory (1963–7). Besides some activity as a conductor he has carried out much research, discovering several 18th- and 19th-century Portuguese manuscripts which he has reconstructed and revised. These include As variedades de Proteu (1737) and ...


Bonnie J. Blackburn

[Spatarius, Joannes]

(b Bologna, ?26 Oct 1458; d Bologna, 17 Jan 1541). Italian theorist, composer, and choirmaster. His name comes from his family’s occupation: his grandfather was a merchant who dealt in swords. He mentions his age in two letters, which yield a birth year of 1458 or 1459; since he is not listed in the baptismal records, which go back to 1 January 1459, the year is probably 1458, and the day possibly 26 October, the date of two of his wills. Spataro never attended university and did not take holy orders; he may have continued his family’s profession until late in his life (he bequeathed a forge to his ‘compare’).

During the 1490s Spataro was on friendly terms with younger members of the Bentivoglio family: Antongaleazzo received the dedication of his Honesta defensio, and one of his lost treatises was written for Hermes, as well as two masses on pears (a pear appears on Hermes’s arms). Only in ...


Helmut Wirth

revised by Dietmar Schenk

(Friedrich Wilhelm)

(b Gerlachsheim, Dec 17, 1879; d Berlin, Nov 14, 1961). German musicologist, organist and conductor. He studied theology in Heidelberg but from 1902, encouraged by the church musician Philipp Wolfrum, he devoted himself entirely to music. After his studies in Leipzig under Krehl and Nikisch as well as Straube and Riemann, he became university music director and municipal organist of Jena in 1906 and took the doctorate at Heidelberg in 1912. In Jena he had taken up the cause of Reger, but was unable to succeed him as conductor in Meiningen as planned because of the outbreak of war in 1914. From 1918 to 1923 he was organist in Kiel; in 1920 he became reader in musicology at the university there, and in 1928 he was appointed professor. As conductor of the municipal symphony concerts and of the oratorio society, which he founded, he was awarded the title of Generalmusikdirektor in ...


Sergio Lattes

(b Brescia, Sept 7, 1864; d S Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno, May 11, 1952). Italian scholar, composer and conductor. He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Panzini and Ponchielli (1883–5) and with Haller and Haberl at the Kirchenmusikschule, Regensburg (1888). He was maestro of the Schola Cantorum of S Marco, Venice (1889–93), maestro di cappella of the basilica of S Antonio, Padua (from 1894), director of the Parma Conservatory (1897–1902) and music director at the Santa Casa of Loreto (1902–24). In 1925 he took charge of the courses in Palestrina interpretation at the Naples Conservatory and in 1931 became director of the Ateneo Musicale, Genoa.

Although Tebaldini was active as a historian, conductor and composer (most notably of sacred works, but also of much orchestral and chamber music), he was most important for his long and devoted scholarly research and his promotion of the Cecilian movement for the reform of church music. (He was probably among those who inspired the ...


Enrique Iturriaga

(b Cerro de Pasco, July 7, 1951). Peruvian composer, musicologist and choral conductor. He studied the piano, musical pedagogy, composition and choral conducting at the Lima National Conservatory. On finishing his studies he taught theory at the same institution, and later conducted the choir there. He founded numerous choral ensembles in universities and institutions, a particular success being the choir of the Capilla Virreinal de Nueva España, with which he has extensively promoted the colonial Latin American repertory abroad. He conducted the Latin American première of the first colonial opera, La púrpura de la rosa by Torregón y Aparacio. In 1974 Tello’s participation in the Taller de Investigación Musical at the National Music School was to prove decisive for his career as a musicologist. He subsequently moved to Mexico, in 1982, where he has carried out important research for the National Documentation and Information Centre attached to the Institute of Fine Arts. Among his major works are the three-volume ...


Şahan Arzruni

(b Córdoba, July 1, 1934). Argentine composer, musicologist and conductor of Armenian descent. She studied composition with Ginastera at the National Conservatory, Buenos Aires, where she graduated in 1958 and won the Gold Medal in 1959. She also studied Armenian sacred music in Italy with Father Leoncio Dayan at the S Lazzaro monastery near Venice, and pursued private studies in conducting with Mariano Drago. She has won many honours in Argentina and France and the St Sahak and St Mesrob Medal from Catholicos Vazken I of Armenia (1993), and has received commissions not only in Argentina but also from London, New York, Zagreb, Grenoble, Salzburg, Radio France and the National SO of Buenos Aires. In 1978 she founded Encountros Internacionales de Música Contemporánea to introduce international audiences to Latin American, and specifically Argentine, avant-garde music; under her direction, the group has participated in about 200 festivals. She is General Secretary of UNESCO's Music Council of the Three Americas. She has been professor of composition at the National Conservatory and has lectured widely on contemporary music....


Israel J. Katz

(b Oviedo, April 8, 1888; d London, Feb 17, 1955). Spanish folklorist, writer on music and literature, teacher, choral conductor and composer . He began his musical education in Oviedo, studied the piano and composition at the Madrid Conservatory (1907–10), and, after two years in Oviedo conducting research on traditional Asturian music, went to the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1912–14), where he studied composition with d’Indy; he also went to lectures by Tiersot (who had influenced him earlier) at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales. He was invited by Ramón Menéndez Pidal to work at the Madrid Centro de Estudios Históricos in 1916, and was one of the remarkable group of artists living at the Residencia de Estudiantes which included Bal y Gay, Falla, Turina, Adolfo Salazar, Sainz de la Maza, Lorca, J. Ramón Jiménez, Buñuel and Dali. Later he dedicated to the institution his ...


Ioannis Fulias

(b Athens, Dec 4, 1968). Greek musicologist, conductor, and guitarist. He studied guitar from his early childhood and in 1986 he received the diploma from the National Conservatory in Athens under the guidance of Dimitris Fampas. In the 1980s and 1990s he won awards in international music competitions, gave many concerts in Greece, Italy, France, England, and Russia, and also recorded four discs with works for solo guitar, violin and guitar, and guitar and orchestra. With a Russian state scholarship, from 1987 to 1993 he studied orchestra conducting in both the Moscow and the St. Petersburg State Conservatories, and then he collaborated as a conductor with many orchestras in Russia and in Greece, especially in opera and musical theatre productions.

From 1995 onwards, he has taught in the faculty of music studies at the University of Athens, where he also defended his doctoral dissertation on Mystification and Temporality in the Late Works of Wagner and Mahler...


Karl Geiringer

(b Taura, Saxony, May 28, 1883; d Zürich, Dec 1, 1959). German musicologist and conductor. He went to the Leipzig Conservatory in 1904, studying piano with A. Ruthardt, composition with H. Zöllner, musical aesthetics with A. Seidl, at the same time attending Riemann's lectures on music history at the university. In 1906 he became conductor at the Vereinigte Leipziger Schauspielhäuser and a year later a teacher at the Bromberg Conservatory. He spent a year in London carrying out research on Clementi. After his return to Leipzig in 1908 he continued his studies with Riemann and took the doctorate in 1911 with a dissertation on Clementi. He was conductor of the Leipzig Madrigal Society (1912–14) and editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (1919–20). From 1932 to 1939 he lived in Zürich, where he made a catalogue of H.L. Bodmer's collection of Beethoven manuscripts. He lived in Volterra between ...


(Victor Fidèle)

(b Ixelles, nr Brussels, April 24, 1825; d Tienen, April 28, 1888). Belgian conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied the piano, the violin, harmony and composition but obtained a degree in administrative and political sciences. At the age of 19 he published some light piano music. In 1860 he helped found a Cecilia Society in Leuven and represented Belgium at the Congress of Religious Music in Paris. He became the kapelmeester at St Pieterskerk in Leuven (1868), where he performed his own music as well as that of other little-known composers. In 1883 he was publicly honoured at Leuven and elected to the Royal Belgian Academy. Three years later he invented a machine which, when attached to any keyboard instrument, instantly produced a printed version of whatever was played on the keyboard. Elewyck's compositions include numerous motets, songs and piano works. His collection of Flemish keyboard music stimulated interest in Belgian music of the 17th and 18th centuries. He contributed historical and critical articles to Belgian, Italian, French and English periodicals....


Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

[Gomidas Vartabed; Soghomonian, Soghomon]

(b Kütahya, Turkey, Oct 8, 1869; d Paris, Oct 22, 1935). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist, choral conductor, singer and teacher. One of the first Armenians to have a classical Western musical education, as well as instruction in the music of his own people, he laid the foundations for a distinctive national style in his many songs and choruses, all of which are deeply influenced by the folk and church traditions of Armenia. His work on Armenian folksong is also of musicological importance.

Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan

Both of his parents (his father Gevorg Soghomonian was a cobbler) had gifts for music and poetry; in 1881, however, the boy was orphaned and sent to Armenia to study at the Gevork’ian Theological Seminary in Vagharshapat (now Edjmiadzine), and was ordained as a celibate priest in 1894, being given the name Komitas (a 7th-century Catholicos who was also a hymn composer). There his beautiful voice and his musical talents attracted notice, and under Sahak Amatuni’s guidance he mastered the theory and practice of Armenian liturgical singing. He also made decisive contact with folksong, to the collection and study of which he gave himself wholeheartedly. When he had only just learnt Armenian modern notation he set about recording the songs of the Ararat valley peasants and immigrant Armenians of other regions. Although he had no knowledge of European music theory, he harmonized these songs for performance with a student choir at the academy. His earliest surviving collection of folk melodies dates from ...


Vera Lampert

(b Budapest, July 10, 1922; d Budapest, Jan 31, 1992). Hungarian musicologist and conductor. He studied composition under Szervánszky and conducting under Ferencsik at the Budapest Conservatory, and from 1945 to 1950 worked at Hungarian Radio. After some years as a conductor at Szeged (1951) and as a theatre conductor (1952–4) he turned to music criticism and musicology, and was an editor of Editio Musica, Budapest (1956–82). His research was initially focussed on Hungarian music: in 1952 he found, among others, scores of the first Hungarian Singspiel with extant music, Mátray’s Cserni György. Opera, especially that of Verdi, was his main interest. He was a permanent member of the Istituto di Studi Verdiani of Parma, and gave papers at many Verdi conferences. In his articles he demonstrated how different means of expression serve dramatic characterization. He was also an authority on 20th-century Hungarian composers and wrote biographies of Béla Tardos (...


Noël Goodwin


(b Melbourne, June 6, 1926). Australian conductor and musicologist. He studied in Melbourne and London, where he made his conducting début in 1953 as assistant to Beecham with the RPO, and worked with Knappertsbusch at Bayreuth. As a scholar he became absorbed by textual inaccuracies between autograph and published texts of operas by Verdi and Puccini, and was drawn into dispute with the Ricordi publishing house. He published papers on Verdi (La Scala, no.104, 1958, pp.11–15, 71–2) and on Puccini’s orchestration (PRMA, lxxxvii, 1960–61, pp.1–14), and the article ‘“Tradition” in Verdi and Puccini’ (Opera, xii, 1961, pp.301–5). He became adviser to UNESCO on musical copyright and its abuses (1962–7) and was largely responsible for the 1967 Stockholm revision of the Berne International Copyright Convention.

Vaughan was music director for the Elizabethan Trust Opera Company, Sydney, in 1966, and in the 1970s he worked at the Munich and Hamburg opera houses. He returned to Australia as music director of the State Opera of South Australia at Adelaide (...