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Article

Philip Greene

[Ivory, Jr. ]

(b Dunedin, FL, Feb 14, 1930). American pianist. From the age of five he took piano lessons and played for church services. He served in the army (1946–9), and performed in bands at the Lockbourne (Ohio) Air Force Base. After studying at the Philadelphia Musical Academy, in ...

Article

Robert Gannon

(b Pontypridd, Wales, Feb 24, 1928). Welsh writer and broadcaster. He began writing on jazz in about 1950 and contributed articles, discographies, and reviews to Melody Maker (from 1951), Jazz Journal (1951–5), and Jazz Monthly (1955–71). He has also furnished liner notes for about 2000 albums and has written, collaborated on, or contributed to some dozen books; Modern Jazz (1956) is looked upon as the first thorough survey of bop published in the UK. Morgan has provided scripts for radio and television and from 1954 worked regularly for the BBC. He has also lectured on jazz and from 1969 has written a weekly jazz column for the Kent Evening Post.

(selective list)

with R. Horricks: Modern Jazz: a Survey of Developments since 1939 (London, 1956/R1977) with R. Horricks: Gerry Mulligan: a Biography, Appreciation, Record Survey and Discography (London, 1958)...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(Michael)

(b Munich, Oct 24, 1929). American writer. He grew up in Vienna, but left in 1938 and spent the next nine years as a refugee in Denmark and Sweden. After moving to the USA in 1947 he studied history at Brandeis University (1953–6). From 1958 to 1961 he was the New York correspondent for Jazz Journal. He then served as editor of Metronome (1961), Jazz (1962–3), and Down Beat (New York editor, 1964–6, editor 1966–73) magazines; during the 1960s he also produced jazz concerts in New York and for television. In the mid-1970s he held appointments as visiting lecturer in jazz at Brooklyn College and the Peabody Institute, and in 1976 he became director of the Institute of Jazz Studies at Rutgers, in which capacity he has worked as an editor of the Journal of Jazz Studies (from 1982 the Annual Review of Jazz Studies...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reuseni, Suceava county, Romania, May 2, 1944). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher . Rooted in the folklore of Bukovina and in Byzantine liturgical music, furthering the musical environment of his predecessors Ciprian Porumbescu and George Enescu, his works stand at the crossroads of tradition and modernity, having become established through their authentic expression and mastery of form. His personality has been influential in the musical life of Iaşi and the George Enescu University of Arts, which he served as a professor, dean, and rector.

He studied at the George Enescu Conservatory in Iaşi. He graduated in pedagogy and composition under Vasile Spătărelu. He attended composition classes led by Ştefan Niculescu, Aurel Stroe, and Anatol Vieru at the Vacanţele muzicale de la Piatra Neamt (‘Musical Holidays of Piatra Neamţ’, 1972–80), and then he studied with Roman Vlad at the Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome (1980). Up until ...

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Nucleus  

Article

Gregory N. Reish

(b Seattle, WA, Aug 5, 1961). American multi-instrumentalist, composer, and educator. A teenaged multi-instrument prodigy in country and bluegrass styles, he won the National Junior Fiddle Championships (1974–7), the Grand Masters Fiddle Championship (1975), the National Flatpick Guitar Championship (1975), and the National Mandolin Championship (1979). His early mentor was noted Texas-style fiddler benny Thomasson , and he later studied with jazz violinist Stephane Grappelli.

In 1980 O’Connor joined the David Grisman Quintet as guitarist, absorbing Grisman’s progressive blend of bluegrass and swing-era “hot club” jazz. Two years later he became violinist in The Dregs (formerly The Dixie Dregs), a jazz-rock fusion band. O’Connor’s early solo recordings, such as On the Rampage (Rounder, 1980) and Meanings of (Warner Bros., 1985), showcase his virtuosity on guitar and violin and demonstrate the influence of Grisman and the Dregs. Since 1982 O’Connor has worked extensively as a session musician, recording with numerous bluegrass, country, and pop artists....

Article

Barry Kernfeld

(b Wrocław, Poland, Feb 20, 1963). Polish double bass player. After working in Poland with Jan Wróblewski, Zbigniew Namysłowski, and Tomasz Szukalski he moved in 1988 to Los Angeles, where his surname came to be known in abbreviated form, as Oles. He studied from 1989 at the California Institute of the Arts and remained there as a faculty member after graduating in 1992. The following year he became a founding member of a cooperative group, the L.A. Jazz Quartet, which mainly performed locally but toured France in 1998. He also joined James Newton’s quartet and groups led by Kei Akagi and by the drummer Gerry Gibbs. As a freelance Oleszkiewicz appeared in the studio, in concert, and at clubs with such musicians as Joe Lovano, Bennie Maupin, Ravi Coltrane, Scott Hamilton, Marcus Printup, Brian Lynch, Tim Hagans, Art Farmer, Arturo Sandoval, Billy Childs, Joe LaBarbera, Larance Marable, Terri Lyne Carrington, and Albert “Tootie” Heath; he was reunited with Wróblewski for a performance in West Hollywood in ...

Article

(b West Hartlepool, Sept 11, 1908; d Bath, Sept 20, 1981). English writer on music . He studied at the RCM, London, and lectured at Morley College (1934–9) before being appointed head of the music department of Goldsmiths’ College, London in 1945; he retired in 1969. He wrote a sympathetic study of Bellini in the Master Musicians series (London, ...

Article

Robert Pernet

[Jean ]

(b Nivelles, Belgium, March 8, 1903; d Brussels, Jan 13, 1983). Belgian pianist. A classically trained musician, he moved in August 1925 to New York and for about four months played organ at the Strand Palace. On his return to Belgium he gave the first performance in the country of George Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue (18 Nov 1927), worked with the group Bistrouille ADO, and lectured on jazz. From 1928 he toured the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy, and Egypt, and, as a member of the band led by the violinist Marek Weber, Hungary, Switzerland, and Germany; he also arranged film music. After making his first recording, with Gus Deloof in 1931, he worked in 1934 with Robert De Kers in Antwerp and in the same year performed with Stan Brenders. While playing in Brenders’s big band (1936–44) he toured with Jean Omer (1941). In the following years he took part in concerts of music for two pianos and four pianos (with, among others, Johnny Jack and Egide Van Gils), worked with Fud Candrix (...

Article

Robert L. Doerschuk

revised by Mark Gilbert and Barry Kernfeld

(b Kōbe, Japan, March 25, 1961). Japanese pianist. The son of a jazz pianist and organist, he was a reluctant student of classical piano as a child. At first, under the influence of Jimmy Smith, he would only play jazz on the Hammond organ, but after attending a concert by Oscar Peterson at the age of 12 he took up jazz piano and transcribed some of Peterson’s solos. From 1980 he attended the Berklee College of Music, where he quickly assimilated new ideas through his work with Gary Burton and from the playing of such musicians as Chick Corea. Ozone recorded albums in a duo with Phil Wilson (1982), a faculty member at Berklee, and in a quartet led by Bobby Shew. More significantly, after graduating he joined Burton’s band and in 1983 made a world tour; he also began to give performances as an unaccompanied soloist. In ...

Article

Bernarr Rainbow

( b 1798; d 1866). French educationist . A former pupil of Pierre Galin, he abandoned a legal career to perfect and propagate Galin’s method of teaching sight-singing. Cooperating with his sister Nanine and her husband Emile Chevé he produced the Galin-Paris-Chevé method . He devised the ‘langue des durées’, which forms an essential part of that teaching method....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b St. Louis, Dec 16, 1947). Clarinetist and educator. As a child he sang in his church choir. His father was a saxophonist, and at around the age of 11 Parran took up the tenor instrument; later he studied saxophone and clarinet at Washington University and Webster College. In the late 1960s he was a founding member of the Black Artists Group and worked in the Human Arts Ensemble. In 1971, after gaining a masters degree in music, he moved to New York, where he joined the big bands of Frank Foster and the arranger James Jabbo Ware and worked extensively as a freelance studio musician; during the same period he received some tuition from George Coleman. Back in St. Louis he recorded two albums with the Human Arts Ensemble (1972–3). Following studies in Africa, Parran settled again in St. Louis (1974) and joined the faculty of Southern Illinois University (located across the river from St. Louis, in Edwardsville, Illinois); he sang in and directed the university’s gospel choir, collaborated with local poets and comedians, formed a trio with the electronic music composer Thomas Hamilton and the classical percussionist Rich O’Donnell, and founded, with the trumpeter Floyd LeFlore, the group Third Circuit ’n’ Spirit, which merged bop, funk, electronic music, and free jazz. In the late 1970s he recorded as a leader (...

Article

John A. Emerson

revised by Christopher E. Mehrens

[Pasmore, Harriet Horn ]

(b San Francisco, CA, May 12, 1892; d Sonoma, CA, Jan 25, 1986). American Contralto, teacher, and music therapist. After attending the University of California, Berkeley (BA, French, 1914), she taught piano and then voice at Pomona College in Claremont, California (1914–20). After study and concert performances in Europe (1920–25) she returned to the United States and performed and taught privately in New York (1925–35) and Hollywood, California (1936–40). During the 1930s Pazmor was noted for her performances of contemporary American art songs. Her programs regularly included works by Charles Ives, Henry Cowell, Carl Ruggles, John Cage, Ernst Bacon, Ruth Crawford, Roger Sessions, Lou Harrison, Aaron Copland, and William Grant Still. She gave recitals for organizations such as the League of Composers and the Pan American Association of Composers, and at academic institutions including the New School for Social Research, Columbia University, Princeton University, and Harvard University. She studied music therapy at Boston University (MM ...

Article

Deborah Gillaspie

(b Milwaukee, April 18, 1931). American pianist, composer, and arranger. He began formal piano study at the age of 14 and attended the Wisconsin Conservatory of Music before entering the army in 1951. Later he studied music education at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (BS 1958). After moving to Chicago in 1958 he taught music in public schools (1966–90) and at the American Conservatory (1971–87); in 1997 he joined the faculty of Northern Illinois University. He is best known outside Chicago for his work with Eddie Harris (1961–6) and, later, Elvin Jones (1990–97), with whom he appears in the video Elvin Jones Jazz Machine (n.d. [filmed 1991]). A powerful and harmonically sophisticated pianist, he formed a short-lived trio with Muhal Richard Abrams and Amina Claudine Myers (December 1975) and appeared with many leading players, among them Roy Eldridge, Art Farmer, Dexter Gordon, Johnny Griffin, Roy Haynes, Milt Jackson, Roscoe Mitchell, Red Norvo, Max Roach, and Joe Williams; his trio consisting of Larry Gray on double bass and Robert Shy on drums is one of the finest modern-jazz rhythm sections in Chicago. Pickens appeared regularly at international jazz festivals and performed at Chicago Jazz Festival almost yearly from its inception. He was interviewed by Marian McPartland for her NPR radio show “Piano Jazz” in ...

Article

David J. Hough

(b Brno, May 27, 1884; d Vienna, Dec 20, 1957). German stage designer and teacher. The son of a well-known painter, he studied art and architecture in Vienna, then taught drawing in a secondary school. He opened an architect’s studio in Munich (1908) and a school of stage and graphic design (1913). In 1918 he designed Pfitzner’s Das Christ-Elflein and Christian Grabbe’s play Hannibal for the Munich Staatstheater and in 1919 Schiller’s Maria Stuart, the first of many productions for the Berlin Staatstheater. With the leading expressionist director Leopold Jessner (1878–1945), director of the Staatstheater from 1919 to 1930, he began one of the theatre’s most famous artistic collaborations. Influenced by Adolphe Appia’s concept of ‘rhythmic space’, he constructed for each of his productions ‘an architecture that adapted to the rhythm of the action’. He conceived the idea of the ‘Jessnertreppe’ that ‘make the stage breathe and render it expressive’....

Article

(b Gloucester, MA, April 15, 1930; d Gloucester, MA, August 11, 2007). Bandleader, trumpeter, and teacher. After studying at the Schillinger House of Music (1950–52) and playing in Boston with Charlie Parker (for one week in June 1953) and Charlie Mariano (later that same year) he toured as a trumpeter with Lionel Hampton (December 1953 – April 1954) and Stan Kenton (September 1954). He then returned to Boston and worked with Serge Chaloff (1954–5). In 1955 he began teaching at Schillinger, which the previous year had taken a new name, the Berklee School of Music. While establishing himself as the cornerstone of this school’s growing jazz program he led a 16-piece swing and bop ensemble that performed regularly at The Stables (1956–60); among its sidemen were Joe Gordon, Jaki Byard (who was then playing tenor saxophone), Boots Mussulli, and later, Mariano and Bill Berry. He was also the leader of another band (...

Article

Sarah Gerk

(b Cricklade, England, 1828; d Lansingburgh, NY, Oct 17, 1867). Composer, performer, and music teacher of English birth. Best known for penning the song “Aura Lea.” Poulton emigrated at the age of seven from England to the United States with his parents. As an adult, he moved to Rochester, where he taught at a series of music schools. In 1859, however, he was fired from the Fort Edward Academy for imprudent behavior. Local newspapers reported that Poulton, already married, eloped with a student at the school, with her brother and friends in hot pursuit. Poulton was tarred and feathered at the hands of vigilante justice. “Aura Lea” was published in 1861, and remained popular through the Civil War. The song has also survived in various adaptations, including West Point’s “Army Blue” (1865) and Elvis Presley’s “Love me tender” (1956). Other publications include a number of songs, like “Johnny Darling,” an answer to the popular “Katy Darling,” and piano music, the most well-known of which was his piano setting of the hymn tune “Old Hundred” with variations. Poulton died at his parents’ Lansingburgh home. The cause of death was listed as influenza....

Article

Frederick A. Beck

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Rochester, PA, Oct 21, 1935). American trumpeter, flugelhorn player, teacher, arranger, and composer. He began playing at the age of five, studying with his father and later at the US Naval School of Music and Sam Houston State University. He played with Woody Herman (October 1959–1961, 1965, including a tour of Europe), Maynard Ferguson (1961–3, 1964), and Count Basie (replacing Thad Jones, April 1963 – July 1964) and wrote arrangements for all three bands. He also performed with Harry James, Terry Gibbs (with whom he recorded in 1965), and Frank Foster’s quintet. In the period 1967–72 he played with Les Brown on three world tours and began working with Louie Bellson (from 1968). As a member of Stan Kenton’s band he appeared as a principal soloist in a special program on PBS television in 1969; he also taught in Kenton’s jazz workshops (...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

(b Toronto, Jan 14, 1944). Canadian composer. He studied with John Weinzweig and Gustav Ciamaga at the University of Toronto and with Milton Babbitt at Princeton. In 1973 he was appointed to teach at McGill University, Montreal, where he was later Dean of the Faculty of Music (1986–91). He lived in Berlin (1979–80), and was composer-in-residence in Mannheim in 1984. He was a founder-member of the Montreal new-music society Les Evénements du Neuf, and joined the board of directors of the Société de Musique Contemporaine du Québec in 1982.

Rea’s first opera, The Prisoners Play, to a libretto by Paul Woodruff, was commissioned in 1972 by the University of Toronto opera department and had its première on 12 May 1973 at the MacMillan Theatre. A serial work written for children, it combines the magical and enchanted world of Circe with that of discovery in the music. His second opera, ...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Lynchburg, VA, May 27, 1955). American double bass player and educator. His grandfather played blues guitar, banjo, and harmonica. He taught himself electric bass guitar from the age of 16 and changed to double bass six years later. In 1979 he moved to New York, where he played with Kenny Garrett, Mulgrew Miller, Sadik Hakim, Warne Marsh, and Andy Bey, and took part in Barry Harris’s workshop and jam sessions at the Jazz Forum (1979–81). Reeves toured Japan with Sonny Stitt in 1982. That same year he met Jackie McLean in Hartford, Connecticut, and he moved there to joined McLean’s group and his Artists Collective; he also became a member of the faculty at the Hartt School of Music. While continuing his association with McLean (through the 1990s) he recorded with Christopher Hollyday (1984), performed with Walter Davis (1990), and toured (from ...