101-120 of 1,361 results  for:

  • Musical Concepts, Genres, and Terms x
Clear all

Article

Beng  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Article

Benta  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Gavin Webb

Mouth bow of the Asante (Ashanti) and Akan people of Ghana. The instrument was first noted by Bowdich in 1817 and described as a stick bent in the form of a bow with a thin piece of split cane fastened across it as a string. This was held between the lips at one end and the string struck with a small stick whilst being stopped by a thick stick, the mouth acting as a resonator....

Article

Bentere  

Gavin Webb

[mpintin, pentre]

Calabash kettledrum of northern Ghana whose use has spread to southern areas, including the Akan. The head is tensioned with rawhide thongs tied to a ring at the bottom of the shell. Players either sit or stand with the drum suspended from a strap around the neck and beat the drum by hand....

Article

Article

Béré  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Beri  

Article

Beru  

Article

Betene  

Monique Brandily

Side-blown horn of the Kotoko people of central Chad and northern Cameroon. The horn is either from a bubal antelope or a damalisk (both types of hartebeest antelope); a rectangular mouthhole is cut in the side. A cowhorn bell is glued on with beeswax and then tied to the instrument. A little calabash lid, hanging from the horn on a cord, closes the bell to protect the inside when it is not being played. A feather is used to clean the mouthhole when the playing is interrupted. ...

Article

Andrew Alter

[bhauṅkar]

Trumpet of parts of Uttarakhand, North India. It is a straight tube of copper with integral mouthpiece and is usually found in pairs at ritual occasions associated with festivals and processions. Most are approximately 150 cm long and remain narrow for most of their length before slightly flaring at the distal end. Water is poured through the instrument before playing it. The instrument is not tuned to any specific pitch, and only two or three different pitches in the higher register are used. It is not used to play melodies or to accompany songs. The instrument is first sounded while the bell is pointing towards the ground and then it is swung rapidly upwards as if to throw the sound into the air.

J.K. Petshali: Uttarāñchal ke Lok Vādya [The Folk Instruments of Uttaranchal] (New Delhi, 2002) A. Alter: Dancing with Devtās: Drums, Power and Possession in the Music of Garhwal, North India...

Article

Bher  

Alastair Dick

Very large metal kettledrum of Sind, Pakistan. It is played standing, with two sticks, as part of the ceremonial band naubat found at the shrines of some Sindi saints (e.g. that of Shah Abdul Latif at Bhitshah). ‘Bher’ doubtless derives from the old Indian drum name bherī, but it is different from that so described in medieval Indian texts....

Article

Carol M. Babiracki

[bheir, bhẽṛe, turhi, turi]

Long straight trumpet, with integral mouthpiece, played by tribal and non-tribal musicians of Chotanagpur, India. It is made of copper or tin, in several sections, and can be from 95 to 148 cm long. For about four-fifths of its length the tube is thin-walled and narrow in bore, with bosses at regular intervals. At the end is a flared bell.

The player holds the trumpet just below the mouthpiece with the right hand, supporting the embouchure. The instrument is supported by a bamboo pole to keep it horizontal; with the left hand the player holds one end of the pole at a slant against the abdomen, and the distal end of the trumpet hangs suspended from the opposite end of the pole by a short length of rope. The bhẽr, also called turhi (turi in Orissa), is found most commonly as part of an ensemble including the ḍhāk (cylindrical drum), ...

Article

Bherī  

Alastair Dick

Indian drum name that occurs in Sanskrit texts from the epic to the medieval period. The term has often been translated as ‘kettledrum’, but there appears to be no evidence for this type of drum in India before the Middle Ages. The bherī is described in medieval sources as a double-headed drum, probably barrel-shaped, about 72 cm long and 48 cm in diameter at the heads. The body was made of copper, the heads stretched on creeper hoops laced by rope, with a central cross-lacing. The drum was beaten on the right head by a stick and on the left by the hand. It was described as a battle drum with a majestic sound. Drums of this type are found in ancient Indian sculpture, sometimes borne on a pole carried on the shoulders of two men.

See also Ḍhol.

C. Marcel-Dubois: Les instruments de musique de l’Inde ancienne (Paris, 1941)...

Article

Bhuang  

Carol M. Babiracki

[buang]

Single-string plucked stick zither of the Santāl people of Orissa, Bihar, and West Bengal, India. The body is a long bamboo tube with a flexible stick inserted in each of the two open ends. A hemp playing string is tied to the free ends of the sticks, arching them inwards; the string is held parallel to the tube and about 20 to 25 cm away from it. Alternatively, the playing string can be attached directly to one end of the tube and at the other end to a long stick peg affixed perpendicularly into the tube. In both versions a long bamboo basket resonator is attached to the underside of the tube at its centre, with the open end facing downwards. The basket is covered with decorative paper and streamers.

The player holds the tube in one hand and plucks the playing string with the other. The instrument adds rhythm and a drone of indefinite pitch to the instrumental ensembles accompanying Santali communal dances....

Article

Mireille Helffer

Cymbals of the Newari people of Nepal. In the Kathmandu valley the term designates a category of large-bossed cymbals made in three sizes. The largest is used mainly in the instrumental ensemble called dhime bājā.

S. Wiehler-Schneider and H. Wiehler: ‘A Classification of the Traditional Musical Instruments of the Nevars’, ...

Article

Geneviève Dournon

Idiochord tube zither of Madhya Pradesh (Bastar district), India. The instrument may be designated by several terms: the Maria people call it bhuyabaja in Halbi (the lingua franca of this region), or dumir in Koya (Gondi dialect), and Grigson (1938) mentioned it as pak dhol or veddur dhol, which literally means ‘bamboo drum’.

The bhuyabaja is made of a section of bamboo, cut between two nodes, about 50 cm long and 8 cm in diameter. The outer surface of the bamboo is excised in part and cut into thin strips to provide two or three strings, raised on small movable bridges, also of bamboo. The Maria treat the zither as a string drum, striking the strings with two sticks. It is made and used during certain seasons for agrarian rites, which explains why it is rare. The tube zither, probably of Malay-Indonesian origin, is found only among a few tribal populations in India. It is used mainly in Indonesia, in the highlands of Vietnam, and also in Madagascar ...

Article

Bi  

K.A. Gourlay

[bin]

Root term in the Benue-Congo language group for double-headed cylindrical drums found in the Jos Plateau and adjoining areas of Nigeria. The term bi is used by the Jaba people, bin by the Katav, Kagoro, Morwa, and Pyem, biyin by the Kaje, bing by the Birom, and ibin and ingonbin by the Jarawa people. In the Ada-mawa language group to the east the ‘b’ becomes ‘v’; hence the Waka vi, Kumba and Teme vim, Yendang vin, and Kugama and Gengle avim. All drums are of the ganga type, with cord and lace bracing, though not all have snares. The most common use is in pairs of larger and smaller drums, for example the Kagoro badang bin (‘large drum’) and shishio bin (‘small drum’), which are played as a rhythmic accompaniment to horn or flute ensembles for singing and dancing. An exception is the bi of the Irigwe of the Jos Plateau, a tall, open, single-headed drum, played standing with hands or sticks, and used as the solo instrument for paeans of praise for traditional warriors and slayers of wild animals....

Article

Bib  

Accessory used occasionally by cellists and double-bass players. It is a length of smooth, usually padded cloth that is draped loosely over the part of the instrument that rests against the player’s clothing, to protect the instrument’s surface from abrasion and moisture. For the same purpose violinists and violists often place a piece of cloth under the chin (over the chinrest if present) and on the shoulder. The material is small and light enough not to interfere with the sound....

Article

Joachim Braun

The various musical instruments mentioned in the Bible (Old and New Testaments). The nature and significance of the biblical instruments has been the subject of considerable discussion from the early Middle Ages onwards. The following article focusses on the meaning of the words as they appear in the original languages of the various biblical texts (Heb., Aramaic, Gk.), using archaeological evidence and other literary sources to establish as far as possible the identity of the individual terms; it also addresses the interpretation of other musical terminology in the Bible. (See also Jewish music, §II.)

References to particular biblical passages follow the Revised Standard Version and the abbreviation IAA is used for the Israel Antiquities Authority.

The controversy surrounding the identity and significance of the ‘biblical instruments’ derives from the complexity of the original source. Even the term itself is ambiguous, since it may denote the instruments of the period described by any given text of the Bible, those of the period and environment in which the written tradition originated, or those that have remained in the memory of society from a certain stage of the oral tradition. Furthermore, should a reference to an instrument be regarded as a theological symbol or a historical document? Must it be placed in the relevant context by archaeological finds before it may be regarded as concrete fact? It is possible to discuss the subject only if an interdisciplinary approach is adopted involving ‘new and processual archaeology’, recent studies of the Pentateuch, and modern archaeomusicology. Although the organological information provided by the biblical texts themselves is scanty, the social and symbolic context of the music can often be established quite precisely (see Kolari, ...

Article

Bidi  

Alan R. Thrasher

revised by June L.F. Lam

Nose flute of the aboriginal cultures of Taiwan, notably high mountain dwellers such as the Bunun, Thao, Tsou, Paiwan, and Rukai, and plains peoples such as the Ami and Puyuma. The Chinese name, bidi (‘nose flute’), is a generic term for all flutes of this type; local terms include dibolo (Ami) and burari (Rukai). Structures differ regionally but are all basically end-blown bamboo duct flutes, with either a single or double pipes, the latter slightly more common. They are bound together with rattan, separated by a wooden support, or held together by hand. A plug inserted into the upper end (in some flutes a node may be partly pierced) forms a duct that directs the air against a sharp edge located at a small window in the back. Some players use a finger to block one nostril to increase the air pressure. While some flutes have three fingerholes, most double flutes have four in each pipe. Dimensions and tunings vary according to the individual taste of the craftsman and irregularities in bore configuration. An Ami four-holed double flute kept at the Academia Sinica in Taipei is 23 cm long, with a distance between each fingerhole of 2.3 cm, yielding a scale of ...