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Howard Rye


(b Monmouth, IL, July 25, 1894; d Chicago, Jan 2, 1980). American jazz and blues record producer. After attending Brown University and working for a period as a professional football player, he became a producer and talent scout for Paramount’s race series in Chicago around 1924; he also ran the associated publishing company Chicago Music. In March 1927 he left Paramount to establish his own Chicago Record Company, but its Black Patti label survived only until around September of that year. He worked for the Vocalion and Brunswick race series, and again managed a related publishing operation, which remained in existence after he became head of the race department of the newly formed Decca company (1934). As one of the very few African Americans employed in positions of responsibility in the recording business before World War II, he played an important role in recording many of the great jazz and blues musicians of the period. In the mid-1940s he worked as a freelance producer and ran a succession of small labels – Chicago, Southern, Harlem and South Center – whose material was also leased to other companies, such as King and Decca. From the late 1940s until his retirement in the early 1970s his principal label was Ebony, on which he issued both newly recorded material and electronically modified reissues of pre-war material....


Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...


Ryan R. McNutt

(Douglas )

(b Inglewood, CA, June 20, 1942). American songwriter and producer. As the musical leader of the Beach boys during the 1960s, Wilson penned a series of massively successful hits that expanded the sound palette of radio pop. Though he subsequently struggled with mental illness and drug abuse, a late career revival brought with it recognition as one of the most important popular songwriters of the 20th century.

Wilson and his younger brothers Dennis and Carl grew up in Hawthorne, California. Their father Murray Wilson, occasionally abusive, strongly pushed his sons towards musical endeavors, making particular note of Brian’s talent with harmony and piano. In high school the brothers recruited cousin Mike Love to be part of a singing group; classmate Al Jardine, joined shortly thereafter. Eventually given the name the Beach Boys, the group signed with Capitol Records in 1962.

Over the next two years, the group would release nine albums, all but two of which were produced by Wilson—a rare privilege for a popular recording artist at the time, but granted due to the group’s astoundingly rapid success. His sound, noted for both studio perfectionism and immaculate vocal harmonies, was equally influenced by Phil Spector and Chuck Berry. Wilson wrote or cowrote nearly all of the band’s material, with songs like “Surfin’ USA,” “Little Deuce Coupe,” and “I Get Around” becoming touchstones of American mass culture in the early 1960s. However, the pressure of recording and touring, combined with stage fright, led to a nervous breakdown in ...


David J. Hough

(b Waco, TX, Oct 4, 1941). American designer, playwright and director. He was educated at the University of Texas (1959–62), studied painting and graduated in architecture from the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1965). He began writing plays and directing in New York in the 1960s, winning critical acclaim especially in Europe. His own Deafman Glance (1971), together with his set designs for A Letter for Queen Victoria (1975), won several awards, as did his designs for Philip Glass’s Einstein on the Beach (1974, Avignon; 1976, Metropolitan Opera). His stage designs include Charpentier’s Médée (1984, Lyons); sections of the multilingual epic the CIVIL warS, which Wilson wrote with Glass and Bryars (1984, 1985 and 1987, Rome and New York); Gluck’s Alceste (1986, Stuttgart); Salome (1987, La Scala); and Le martyre de St Sébastien (1988, Paris). His productions as a director have included ...


Michael Kennedy

(b Clifton, July 22, 1889; d Petersfield, Dec 18, 1966). English tenor and administrator . He had music lessons from C.B. Rootham at Cambridge University, 1908–11, and in 1911 he sang Vaughan Williams’s On Wenlock Edge for the Oxford University Music Club, so pleasing the composer that he wrote his Four Hymns for him. War injuries during his army service affected one lung and permanently damaged his health, but he resumed his singing career in 1918, playing a leading part in the formation of the English Singers. He took further lessons in 1921 from Jean de Reszke, and rapidly went to the forefront of British singers, with special success in The Dream of Gerontius and as the Evangelist in the St Matthew Passion. He made concert tours in the USA, Canada and Australia, appeared with the British National Opera Company, in Mozart operas at the Old Vic Theatre, and in the Glastonbury Festival operas by his friend Rutland Boughton. In ...


Harold Rosenthal

revised by Alan Blyth

(b Annemasse, Switzerland, June 26, 1914; d Stuttgart, 5 or Sept 8, 1974). German tenor and director . He studied in Stuttgart with his father, the tenor Fritz Windgassen, and Alfons Fischer. In 1941 he made his début at Pforzheim as Don Alvaro (La forza del destino). He was a member of the Stuttgart Staatsoper (1945–72), singing first in the Italian repertory and in such parts as Tamino, Max, Hoffmann and Florestan; he then began to prepare Wagnerian roles and in 1950 sang his first Siegmund. In 1951 he sang Parsifal at Bayreuth to acclaim; he appeared there each year until 1970, as Froh, Siegmund, Siegfried, Lohengrin, Tannhäuser, Walther, Erik, Loge and Tristan, establishing himself as the leading postwar Heldentenor. In 1972 he was appointed director of the Stuttgart Staatsoper, where his productions included Boris Godunov (1972). He appeared regularly in the Wagnerian repertory at Covent Garden (...


[Hell, Theodor]

(b Waldenburg, Feb 9, 1775; d Dresden, Sept 24, 1856). German poet, impresario and journalist. The son of Gottfried Winkler (archdeacon at Waldenburg and from 1779 deacon at the Dresden Kreuzkirche), he displayed a versatility and diligence in Dresden as lawyer, author and critic, translator and editor, and musical and theatrical organizer. He was the mentor of Friedrich Kind's Liederkreis, assistant director of the court theatre and founder-editor of the Dresdner Abendzeitung. He was a friend of Weber and a trustee of his orphaned children. Although his translation of the libretto of Oberon is not of high quality, he wrote an excellent text for Die drei Pintos and was responsible for the first collection of Weber's writings (Hinterlassene Schriften von C.M. von Weber, Dresden, 1828). Winkler was also among the first Germans to recognize and appreciate the operas of Meyerbeer. He wrote under the pen name Theodor Hell....


Jonas Westover

(b Michigan, 1949). American composer, pianist, producer, and guitarist. He is best known for his evocative and introspective solo piano works. He often draws on nature for his picturesque titles, perhaps responding to his time in the Midwest and areas such as eastern Montana. He did not receive any formal training, but instead learned to play the organ by ear in 1967 by listening to records. In 1971, he turned to the piano, influenced by 1920s jazz and the stride piano style of Thomas “Fats” Waller and Teddy Wilson, among others. He studied music at Stetson University in Deland, Florida. The style he developed has been described by Winston as “rural folk piano,” and he was asked to record by John Fahey for Takoma Records in 1972. His first album, Ballads and Blues, did not receive much popular or critical acclaim, but it brought Winston to the attention of New Age guru William Ackerman in ...


Teresa Chylińska

(b Kraków, 1523; d Kraków, 15–17 June 1605). Polish printer and bookseller active in Kraków. He was probably a pupil of Florian Ungler. For the high standards of his publications (which equal those of Januszowski), Wirzbięta received the title ‘Sacrae Maiestatis Regiae chalcographus’. A Calvinist, he became the principal printer for the Reformation in Poland. He published much music, almost entirely consisting of songbooks in which Protestant solo songs are well represented. In Walenty z Brzozowa's ...


Philip L. Miller

(b Buffalo, NY, July 21, 1873; d New York, May 10, 1935). American bass, teacher and music administrator . At Yale University he studied both art and music; his teachers included Horatio Parker in composition and Gustav Stoeckel in singing. He continued his studies with MacDowell, among others, and later studied in Paris, London and Berlin. In 1898 he made his début with Savage’s Castle Square Opera Company in New York as Ramfis in Aida, and was one of the first American singers engaged by the Metropolitan Opera’s new general manager, Gatti-Casazza. Having made his début as Titurel in Parsifal (1908), he sang, among other roles, Gurnemanz, King Mark, the Landgrave (Tannhäuser), Pogner and Sarastro, and took part in the first two American operas given by the Metropolitan, F.S. Converse’s The Pipe of Desire (1910) and Parker’s Mona (1912). Witherspoon retired from the Metropolitan in ...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Akron, IA, Sept 18, 1937). American music educator and administrator. She received degrees in music education from Morningside College, Iowa (BME 1959) and the University of Michigan (MM 1975, PhD 1978). She taught and served as acting dean and associate dean of music at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music (1978–87). She was director of the School of Music at the University of Minnesota (1987–91), dean and professor of music at the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music (1991–9), and dean of the School of Music at the University of Michigan (2000–05). In 2003, President George W. Bush appointed her to the National Council on the Arts, an advisory body to the National Endowment for the Arts. Wolff also served as president of the National Association of Schools of Music (2003–5), and on the boards of the Minnesota Orchestra, Minnesota Opera, Minnesota Composers Forum, Greater Twin Cities Youth Orchestra, Ohio Chamber Orchestra, University (of Michigan) Musical Society, Michigan Shakespeare Festival, and Interlochen Center for the Arts. Her research has focused on the effect of music education on children’s intellectual and social development, and on public policy in relation to the arts....



Friedrich Baser

revised by Rudolf Walter

(b Schwarzenbach am Wald, Upper Franconia, Dec 17, 1854; d Samaden, Grisons, May 8, 1919). German conductor, concert organizer, teacher and composer. He became an elementary teacher at the Altdorf teachers' seminary. In 1875 he was appointed second music teacher at the Bamberg teacher's seminary. He then studied in Munich at the Königliche Musikschule with Rheinberger and Franz Wüllner. Humperdinck was a fellow pupil, and they became lifelong friends. Wolfrum returned to the Bamberg seminary from 1879 to 1884, when he was appointed to teach music at the University of Heidelberg. He became music director at the university in 1885, and in the same year founded and directed the Akademischer Gesangverein and the Bachverein, which made Heidelberg an important musical centre. Wolfrum was made professor of music history in 1898. His pupils included Fritz Stein, Karl Hasse and Hermann Poppen.

Wolfrum was a champion of the works of Liszt, Bruckner, Strauss and Reger. He conducted all of Reger's works composed between ...


James Doering

(b Alzey, Germany, 1842; d New York, NY, May 31, 1909). American music manager of German origin. His family immigrated to the United States in 1851 and settled in New York City, where he later attended City College. After graduating from college, Wolfsohn had aspirations of a musical career and studied briefly with the conductor Theodore Thomas and the composer William Mason. His interest in music management began in the 1870s and focused initially on traveling opera troupes. In 1879, he scored his first big success in the management field when he organized the American tour of Hungarian pianist Rafael Joseffy. The acclaimed Joseffy tour inspired Wolfsohn to create the Wolfsohn Musical Bureau, one of the first solo artist management agencies in the United States. The Wolfsohn Bureau would eventually have offices throughout the USA and Europe and manage the period’s most sought after and respected soloists, including Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Fritz Kreisler, Josef Hofmann, and Mischa Elman. The agency’s emphasis on soloists rather than large ensembles or touring troupes made Wolfsohn a pioneer among music managers of his era. The Wolfsohn Bureau remained in operation after its namesake’s death, eventually becoming part of the Columbia Concerts Corporation in ...


Gary W. Kennedy

[Ming ]

(b ?San Francisco, 1957). American tenor saxophonist, violinist, record producer, and leader. He first played violin but took up alto saxophone after hearing recordings by Charlie Parker. From 1975 he attended Stanford University, where he initially studied chemistry; while there he met future collaborators in Jon Jang and Glenn Horiuchi and changed to the tenor instrument, on which he was influenced by the music of John Coltrane and Sonny Rollins. He then studied jazz at San Jose State University, and later he graduated from Stanford with a degree in economics (1985). From around 1983 Wong worked in Jang’s ensembles 4-in-One and the Pan-Asian Arkestra. He also held a lasting association with Horiuchi and worked in Fred Ho’s Afro-Asian Music Ensemble and Asian American Art Ensemble. In 1987 Wong and Jang established Asian improv, and in 1988 they formed Asian Improv Arts, a nonprofit arts organization in which Wong served as artistic director from ...


J.M. Schlitz

(b Waterloo, NY, Jan 1872; d Los Angeles, CA, 1938). American Whistler and founder of a school of whistling. She grew up in Tecumseh, Michigan, and studied voice at the Detroit Conservatory. She later sang and taught locally until overstraining her voice. At age 30 she, her mother, and her aunts moved to California, where, after modeling certain bird species in the Sierras, Woodward began performing as a whistler. With the earlier successes of alice j. Shaw still fresh in the public’s mind, Woodward attracted many female students, and in 1909 she opened her California School of Artistic Whistling in Los Angeles.

Woodward’s “Bird Method” of whistling combined popular parlor tunes with chirped ornaments, each associated with a specific bird species and musical symbol. Her school was known for its touring Women’s Whistling Chorus of 30–50 members, which Woodward also directed. Noted students included Margaret McKee, who performed and recorded extensively, and Marion Darlington, who provided the whistling talent for early Disney films (...


Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Potsdam, Germany, Nov 15, 1855; d Washington, DC, Nov 14, 1938). American collector of and dealer in keyboard instruments. His father, Christian, had a music business in Trenton, New Jersey, from c1858 to 1861, and in Washington from 1863 to 1868 and again in 1883; Worch and his brother Emil took this over in 1883, and after Emil’s death his widow and Hugo continued the business as Hugo Worch & Co. from 1884 until 1895. After 1895 the firm of Hugo Worch sold instruments (including pianos sold under the Worch name but manufactured elsewhere), sheet music, and, as tastes changed, phonographs, recordings, and radios. The firm went out of business in 1960 on the retirement of Hans Hugo Worch, who had bought it from his brother Carl and sister Paulina in 1954.

In the 1880s Worch began collecting keyboard instruments that showed the development of the American piano industry from the 1790s to ...


John Bourgeois

(b London, UK, June 23, 1916). American band director, conductor, and educator of English birth. He immigrated to the US in 1923 and studied at the University of Miami (BA 1937, MEd 1947). He was instrumental in founding many band organizations including the Florida Bandmasters Association and the National Bandmasters Association. He led the Miami Senior High School (1938–54), the Purdue University Marching Band (1954–85), and the Purdue Symphony (1969–85). His Purdue University Marching Band set the standard for American college marching bands and many of his marching innovations are in use today. He developed the McDonald’s All American Marching Band and led many high school concert bands on international tours. He is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the John Philip Sousa Foundation. His many honors include honorary life president of the American Bandmasters Association and an honorary doctorate of laws from Troy State University (...


Edward H. Tarr

[Vurm, Vasily Vasilyevich]

(b Brunswick, Aug 28, 1826; d St Petersburg, 25 May/June 7, 1904). German cornet player, composer and band director. His first musical training was with his father, bandmaster of the Black Hussars of the Grand Duke of Braunschweig. At the age of 21 he moved to St Petersburg, where he was ‘Soloist of the Imperial Theatre Orchestra’ from 1847 to 1878 (from 1862, ‘Cornet Soloist to His Imperial Majesty’) and director of bands of the Imperial Guards from 1869 to 1889, as well as musical adviser to Tsars Aleksandr II and III, the latter an amateur cornet player. In 1866 he reorganized Russian infantry bands, using special instruments he had invented a year earlier together with the St Petersburg maker Anders. From 1867 until his death he taught the cornet and brass chamber music, the latter an innovation, at St Petersburg Conservatory. For 33 years Wurm was chairman of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society....


David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...