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John Reeves White

revised by John Caldwell

(b Konitz, West Prussia [now Chojnice, Poland], Oct 10, 1893; d Bloomington, IN, March 14, 1988). American musicologist of German origin. He studied mathematics at the universities of Bonn and Munich (1912–14) and, after war service, at the University of Berlin (1918–22). Active as a pianist and music teacher, his interests turned to musicology while he was at the Freie Schulgemeinde at Wickersdorf (1922–8) and he was largely self-taught as a musicologist. He took the doctorate in Berlin in 1936, the year of his emigration to the USA, with a dissertation on 15th- and 16th-century tonality. He was a lecturer at Harvard University (1938–42) and professor of musicology at Indiana University, Bloomington (1950–70); he was made professor emeritus in 1963, though he continued to teach until 1970, and was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1972.

When Apel arrived in the USA he was just beginning his productive years and his career was thereafter essentially ‘American’. His first large books in English, addressed to students in a newly expanding subject, were remarkable for their timeliness and durability. ...


Manfred Boetzkes


(b Geneva, Sept 1, 1862; d Nyon, Feb 29, 1928). Swiss theatrical theorist and stage designer. He studied at Geneva (1879–89), and at the conservatories of Leipzig and Dresden, at the same time acquainting himself with contemporary theatrical practice by attendance at the Bayreuth Festival (from 1882), and the court opera houses of Dresden (1889) and Vienna (1890). After 1890 he pursued his interests as a writer and artist and led a secluded existence in the vicinity of Lake Geneva.

Like many contemporary artists Appia reacted against the economic and social conditions of his day, registering a Romantic protest by aspiring to a theatrical art independent of reality and determined solely by the creative imagination of the artist. Wagner’s music dramas were the focal point of his ideas. Whereas Wagner’s music and text as a product of the ‘first and primordial idea of creation’ was to his mind free from the conventions of the real world, its stage representation had been taken over by the ‘conventional influence of the milieu’. For Appia, the solution followed on from the insight that in Wagner the music constituted not only the time element but also that of space, taking on ‘bodily form’ in the staging itself. However, this could come about only if there were a hierarchical order of the factors of presentation to guarantee that the music, as the prime revelation of the artist’s soul, would determine all the relationships on the stage. Appia’s hierarchical synthesis – a departure from the equal participation of the arts in Wagner’s ...


Mark Hoffman

(b Hanau, June 20, 1839; d Hanau, Jan 13, 1900). German acoustician, son of Georg Appunn. At the Leipzig Conservatory he continued the acoustical experiments of his father, especially the determination of vibration ratios of very high tones by optical means, and constructed fine acoustic apparatus. He devised a new shape for the glockenspiel, with right-angled metal rods in a circular arrangement and a metal half-sphere above as a resonator....


(b Hanau, Sept 1, 1816; d Hanau, Jan 14, 1888). German musical theorist and acoustician. He studied theory with Anton André and Schnyder von Wartensee, the piano with Suppus and Alois Schmitt, the organ with Rinck and the cello with Mangold. He became a well-rounded musician who could play almost every instrument. Until ...


Edward Booth

revised by Sean Gallagher

(b Roccasecca, 1226; d Fossanova, March 7, 1274). Italian Dominican priest and theologian. He was described as ‘Doctor Angelicus’. He led a life of intense study, lecturing and writing at Cologne, Paris and Naples. His works form the most profound, comprehensive and ordered scholastic synthesis of the scriptures, patristic teaching and philosophy; his philosophical work consists primarily of a judicious interpretation of Aristotle and his Greek and Arab commentators, integrated with an often neglected element of Platonist thought (mostly derived through St Augustine and neo-Platonist intermediaries). He was canonized in 1323.

Although Aquinas wrote no treatise specifically on music (the Ars musica is spurious), there are passages scattered throughout his works that suggest a musical aesthetic consistent with his whole system and predicated on his broader definitions of both the essence and the effects of beauty. This musical aesthetic, though, is austere in its Aristotelian terms of expression, but reveals nevertheless an awareness of the affective power of music. In devotional contexts this could manifest itself both positively and negatively. Thus he could approve of singing, so long as it was not done merely to provoke pleasure, since ‘vocal praise arouses the interior affection of the one praising and prompts others to praise God’ (...


Gulbat Toradze

(b Vladikavkaz, Feb 23, 1878; d Tbilisi, Aug 13, 1953). Georgian composer, musicologist and teacher. An academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Laureate of the USSR State Prize (1950), Arakishvili is one of the founders of the Georgian School of composition. In the period 1894–1901 he attended the school of music and drama (attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society) where he studied composition with A. Il′insky, and theory with S. Kruglikov (1894–1901), later improving his compositional technique with Grechaninov (1910–11). In 1917 he graduated from the Moscow Institute of Archaeology. In 1897 he had started writing for the Russian and the Georgian press on musical matters, in 1901 became a member of the musico-ethnological commission at Moscow University, and in 1907 a member of the Georgian Society for Literature and Art in Moscow. He was an associate of the foremost Russian composers of the day – such as Taneyev, Ippolitov-Ivanov, Arensky and Pyatnitsky – and was one of the organizers of the People’s Conservatory in Moscow (...


Don Harrán

(b Spain, c1420; d Naples, 1494). Rabbi and philosopher. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, he settled in Naples. He referred to music under the heading nigun ‘olam (‘cosmic music’) in chapter 12 of his ‘Aqedat Yits ḥaq (‘Binding of Isaac’), a homiletic interpretation of the Pentateuch which survives in a manuscript source ( I-Ra Or.58) and in a print from Salonika (now Thessaloníki), dated 1522. Expounding the theme of cosmic order, i.e. harmony, Arama established its existence on lower and higher levels, hence the relationship between the micro- and macrocosm, or music as made and performed by man and music as divine harmony. On both levels, music is governed by scriptural precepts; and he who observes them is in greater harmony with the ‘greater instrument’. Arama saw the laws of music as enfolded in the laws of Torah; the study of Torah thus becomes a form of music-making. Failure to obey the scriptures leads to deficient harmony, or dissonance, which ends in destruction. Torah is powerful only if the soul of the believer is tuned to its ordinances. That the microcosm is subordinate to the macrocosm follows from Arama's general premise that divine truth is superior to human reasoning, i.e. philosophy, and that when the two are in conflict, or ‘out of tune’, philosophy yields to the Holy Writ. It is for man to redress the imbalance, restoring consonance through faith....


Robert Stevenson

(b ?Aranda de Duero, c1495; d Coimbra, Feb 15, 1548). Spanish theorist. He studied music theory with Pedro Ciruelo at the University of Alcalá de Henares sometime before 1524; later he went to Italy for practical instruction. By 3 April 1528 he was mestre de capela at Évora Cathedral in Portugal, a post which he held until 26 August 1544, when he was appointed professor of music at Coimbra University. During most of this period the Portuguese court resided in Évora rather than in Lisbon, and Aranda earned praise from the administrator of the see, Cardinal Dom Afonso. At Coimbra, however, the native Portuguese professors proved so resentful towards the foreigner that according to a colleague, Juan Fernández, Aranda died of ‘pure vexation’. His body was carried back to Évora for burial on 2 June 1549.

Aranda's two music treatises were the first to be printed in Portugal, although they are written in Spanish. In the ...


Nina Yur′yevna Afonina

(b Leningrad, Aug 25, 1928). Russian musicologist. He studied at the Leningrad Conservatory under the supervision of E.L. Frid, graduating in 1952, and subsequently undertook postgraduate studies at the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography under M.K. Mikhaylov, gaining the degree in 1966. From 1966 to 1980 he was a senior research officer at the Leningrad Institute. In 1980 he was appointed senior researcher at the All-Union Research Institute of the Arts, Moscow, where he later became chief researcher (1983–91), head of the music department (1991–3) and professor in 1993. He was awarded the doctorate in 1982. He has organized a number of musicology conferences and is a member of the Russian Federation Union of Composers.

Aranovsky’s areas of research include the theory of music and musical language, the psychology of musical creativity and the history of Russian classical and contemporary music. In his research on music theory he combines the ideas of Tyulin and Asaf′yev with methods from linguistics and semiotics, and considers the musical language as a symbolic, evolving semiotic system that is governed by a hierarchy of grammatical rules. His theory of melody proposes a melodic syntax of motif–syntagma–exposition; his theory of genre also introduces the notion of a structural semantic archetype. These ideas are continued in his investigations of the axiomatic logic of musical creativity, the interaction of the conscious and unconscious, the intellectual activity in musical thinking and the creative process, and the various types of artistic creativity of composers such as Glinka, Tchaikovsky and Rachmaninoff. His studies of the history of music, particularly the works of Prokofiev and Shostakovich and the evolution of the symphonic genre in 20th-century music, further expand these conceptions of music and lead to descriptions of the origins of intonation and the evolution of musical language, genre and style. His work also highlights for the first time the appearance of a Romantic aesthetic in the Russian classics of the 19th century. (...


André Barbera

(fl first half of the 4th century bce). Mathematician, music theorist and inventor. A friend of Plato, he may have been taught by Philolaus, the first man known to have publicized Pythagorean discoveries widely. Although no extended writing by Archytas survives, fragments attributed to him are contained or summarized in the works of others. He may have been the first author to establish the subjects of the Quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music). He also expounded a theory of acoustics that associated pitch with the speed of sound as it passed through the air, noting that sounds arriving swiftly and strongly appear high-pitched, whereas those arriving slowly and weakly appear low-pitched (Diels, 47b1).

Archytas presents the three mathematical means of music (Diels, 47b2): arithmetic [(a+b)÷2], geometric [√ab] and subcontrary or harmonic [2ab÷(a+b)]. The geometric mean divides a musical interval exactly in half. Accordingly, Pythagorean music theory uses it to characterize the octave as the mean interval between the double octave and the unison. The arithmetic and harmonic means, since they always produce rational numbers provided that the original terms are rational, have the potential for wider application in music theory. Within an octave, the arithmetic mean determines the frequency ratio of the ascending 5th and the harmonic mean determines that of the ascending 4th....


(b Seville; fl 1628–33). Spanish writer. He was a member of the Trinitarian order in Seville. Between 1628 and 1633 he wrote several pseudo-historical works on local and religious topics as well as one pertaining to music: El psalterio de David: exortación, y virtudes de la música, y canto, para todo género de gentes, en particular para los eclesiásticos, y obligación que tienen de cantar, o rezar las divinas alabanzas con toda atención, y devoción (Jerez de la Frontera, 1632). This is a curious mixture of legend and history. The first part traces music from classical and biblical times up to and including the medieval period, the second treats of its various uses, not only religious but also military, social, educational and recreational. Arellano mingled ancient fable with contemporary anecdote and drew fanciful analogies between the realms of music and religion. His book is of particular interest as a compendium of the kind of material used in the traditional ‘praise of music’ (...


Ingrid Brainard

[Arènes, Antoine desDe la Sable, AntoineDu Sablon, Antoine]

(b Solliès, [now Solliès-Pont, Var], late 15th century; d Saint Rémy, Bouches du Rhône, or Solliès, after 1543). French dance theorist and man of letters. In 1519 he began to study law at the University of Avignon, after completing his studies he joined the French troops that invaded Italy. Late in 1528 he returned to Provence and spent several years in Aix until he was named juge ordinaire of Saint Rémy in 1536.

The most widely read of Arena’s writings is the dance instruction manual Ad suos compagnones studiantes qui sunt de persona friantes bassas danzas de nova bragarditer (Avignon, ?1519), which also includes an account of his experiences in the Italian campaign. Its 32 editions published between 1519 and 1770 testify to its popularity. The sections on dance date from Arena’s student days in Avignon; the main subject is the basse danse as it was practised in the south of France. 58 basses danses ‘qui ne sont pas communes’ are given with their choreography in the traditional French-Burgundian letter tablature, the only difference being that the letter ‘b’ (...


(b Buenos Aires, April 13, 1913; d Buenos Aires, June 2005). Venezuelan-Argentine ethnomusicologist, folklorist and composer, wife of Luis Felipe Ramón y Rivera. She studied the piano under Rafael González (1923–31) and composition with Athos Palma (1928–33) at the Buenos Aires National Conservatory of Music, instrumentation with Villa-Lobos in Brazil (1937), anthropology (1938–40) and, with Carlos Vega, folklore and musicology (1938–44) at the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. She took the doctorate in musicology in 1967 at the Argentine Catholic University with a dissertation on Argentine folk music. She was an associate member of the Instituto Argentino de Musicología from 1938 to 1950. After working as the first professor of ethnomusicology at the Escuela Nacional de Danzas de Argentina (1950–52) she moved to Caracas, Venezuela, where she has held appointments as research fellow in folklore and ethnomusicology at the Instituto Nacional de Folklore de Venezuela (...



Andrew Hughes

[Aribo Scholasticus]

(fl Freising, c1068–78). Music theorist. He was the author of a treatise De musica. There are only two pieces of substantial evidence relating to his life, both deriving from his treatise: the first is the dedication to Ellenhard, Bishop of Freising (d 1078); the second is a reference to Wilhelm as Abbot of Hirsau (1068–91). These place the date of the writing of the treatise between 1068 and 1078.

Aribo’s association with Freising is supported by his knowledge of Wilhelm, who was previously a monk of St Emmeram at nearby Regensburg. A 12th-century anonymous author from Melk referred to Aribo as ‘Cirinus’ ( PL , ccxiii, 981–2), an epithet given also to the 8th-century Bishop Aribo of Freising. Meichelbeck in 1724 referred to Aribo as ‘Freisingensis’ without documentation. Citing Aribo extensively, the 14th-century theorist Engelbert of Admont called him ‘scholasticus Aurelianensis’ (GerbertS, ii, 289): this constitutes a unique reference to Orléans. Smits van Waesberghe (...


Warren Anderson and Thomas J. Mathiesen


Warren Anderson, revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Stagirus, 384 bce; d Chalcis, 322 bce). Greek philosopher.

In order to consider Aristotle's views on music, it is necessary to make some reference to the theories of sense perception and ethical behaviour on which they are based. His treatise On the Soul defines perceiving as the process of acquiring the form, or mental image, of an object. Considered in subjective terms, it is a developing of the potential into the actual, since a thing cannot become what it is not (424a18–19, 425b23–4, 417b2–7). The attitudes that characterize an individual have thus always existed potentially within him; music can evoke them, but it cannot implant them.

According to the same treatise, every affection (pathos) of the soul involves a concurrent affection of the body (403a16–19). Bodily affections, however, cannot cause movement in the soul, which is the unmoved mover. This definition of the soul occurs in ...


Annie Bélis

(b Tarentum, Magna Graecia, c375–360 bce; d ?Athens). Greek music theorist, philosopher and writer. According to the Suda he was the son of a musician called Mnesias or Spintharus who gave him his early musical education. It is not known to which philosophical or musical school Mnesias belonged, but he may have been one of the Pythagoreans whose political influence had been dominant in Magna Graecia, particularly in Tarentum, with which Archytas had long been associated. Mnesias could have known a number of prominent figures both in Magna Graecia and in Athens: the musicians Archytas, Damon and Philoxenus, as well as Socrates and perhaps even the Theban general Epaminondas. Aristoxenus himself followed the teachings of Lamprus of Erythrae, and then, in Athens, of Xenophilus the Pythagorean. He spent most of his life in Greece. A fragment of one of his works indicates that he lived for some time at Mantinea in Arcadia, where music, which was held in high esteem, was subject to the kind of conservative laws that appealed to his austerity and love of ancient traditions....


(b Moscow, March 15, 1958). Russian musicologist, pianist and composer. In 1978 he entered the Gnesin Academy of Music, where he studied the piano with A.V. Aleksandrov and the theory of music with Yu.N. Kholopov, M.G. Kharlap and L.A. Mazel′. He completed his postgraduate studies there on the piano in 1988. In 1992 he began teaching at the Russian Academy of Choral Art in Moscow, becoming professor of the piano department in 1995. He is well known for his concert playing activities, as a soloist and ensemble player, and as an accompanist to the baritone Dmitry Hvorostovsky. His compositions include works for the piano, chamber and choral music, and a Missa brevis for mixed choir and organ, which is recorded on CD. He was made an Honoured Artist of Russia in 1995.

Arkad′yev's scholarly interests include the issues of time, rhythm and articulation in music. He gained the doctorate in ...


(b Norwich, April 10, 1864; d Highclere, Hants., Aug 16, 1944). English music scholar. He studied at Eton and Oxford, where he was subsequently editor of the Musical Antiquary (1909–13/R). He edited a large body of English vocal music of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries – madrigals and songs by Weelkes, Ferrabosco and Blow, and sacred works by Tye and Milton – published in 25 volumes in the Old English Edition (London and Oxford, 1889–1902/R). For the Purcell Society he edited Three Odes for St Cecilia's Day (London, 1899) and Birthday Odes for Queen Mary, i (London, 1902). He also compiled a Catalogue of Music in the Library of Christ Church, Oxford (London, 1915/R). The composer Marian (Ursula) Arkwright was his sister.

Collection of Old and Rare Music and Books on Music the Property of Godfrey E.P. Arkwright...


Jürg Stenzl


(b Breslau [now Wrocław], March 5, 1938). German musicologist. He studied musicology at the universities of Cologne (1958–60), and Basle (under Schrade), where he obtained the doctorate in 1966 with a dissertation on the Beauvais Office for the Feast of the Circumcision. As an assistant he maintained and expanded the Basle microfilm archives, and became editor of Palaeographie der Musik, prepared by Schrade. In 1965 he was appointed lecturer at Basle University, where he completed his Habilitation in musicology in 1970 with a work on the theory and practice of Ars Subtilior; he was appointed supernumerary professor in 1972. From 1971 to 1978 he was also director of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, the teaching and research institute for early music in Basle, and editor of the journal Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis. He was made professor and chair of musicology at Basle in 1991.

In his research Arlt has concentrated on music of the Middle Ages. He is concerned with creating a productive relationship between the musicology of the past (in the tradition of Schrade and Handschin) and current approaches in the discipline. His writings focus on the genre, notation, analysis and interpretation of medieval, 17th- and 18th-century music, and he is particularly concerned with investigating the connections between music and text. Best known for his publications on medieval music, he has examined liturgical genres (particularly the trope and the lied), early polophony, the motet, Machaut and the history of the chanson. In his work with the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, he has successfully fused new findings in musicology with new standards of performance, assisted by international specialists in early music. His contribution in this area is exemplified by his collaboration with Dominique Vellard, whom he has advised on performing practice and style for a recording series which includes 11th-century polphony, tropes from the St Gallen Codices 484 and 381, and the ‘nova cantica’ of the Engelberg Codex 314....


Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...