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(b Kiev, May 14, 1891; d Moscow, March 10, 1940). Soviet novelist . He graduated in medicine from Kiev University in 1916 but soon abandoned that career to work as a writer, travelling throughout Russia before settling in Moscow in 1921. His first success was in 1926, with the play Dni Turbinykh (‘The Day of the Turbinykh’), a dramatization of his own novel Belaya gvardiya (‘The White Guard’). The play was later suppressed; in fact all his work was banned by Stalin from 1929. Bulgakov’s masterpiece, Master i Margarita (‘The Master and Margarita’, 1938), an allegorical novel about the Stalinist terrors, remained unpublished until 1966. Its exotic mixture of fantasy and satire – the devil incarnated in Moscow interwoven with a retelling of the Crucifixion from the viewpoint of Pontius Pilate – prefigured ‘magic realism’; its operatic potential has attracted several composers, including Slonimsky (1989, concert perf.), Rainer Kunad (...

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(b London, May 25, 1803; d Torquay, Jan 18, 1873). English writer . The son of General Bulwer and Elizabeth Lytton, he was born into a comfortable family background, but from the age of 22 was obliged to earn his living from writing. Having produced a volume of poetry at the age of 17, he went on to write a vast number of novels, plays, poems and journalistic articles. He also had a distinguished career in politics, entering the House of Commons as a Whig in 1831 but defecting to the Tory Party for whom he served as Colonial Secretary (1858–9) before being made a peer in 1866. On inheriting Knebworth from his mother in 1843 he took the additional name -Lytton, although he was still known as Bulwer and generally published under the name Bulwer Lytton; in 1866 he was created Baron Lytton of Knebworth.

Bulwer’s novel ...

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Thomas Bauman

(b Breslau, Dec 7, 1753; d Berlin, April 28, 1831). German writer . After studies at Halle he worked as a teacher and private secretary. His literary endeavours, warmly supported by Wieland, included poetry, plays, librettos and copious translations from the French and English. Don Sylvio von Rosalva, his first and most popular opera text, is based on Wieland’s fashionable novel ...

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Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Feb 4, 1723; d London, Aug 4, 1792). English dramatist . ‘Gentleman Johnny’ Burgoyne, the English general forced to surrender to the Americans at Saratoga (1777), was the librettist of William Jackson’s only successful opera, The Lord of the Manor (1780), in the preface to which he advocated English ‘musical comedy’. Garrick’s staging of his first dramatic piece, ...

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Paul Griffiths and Jean Gribenski

(b Mons-en-Baroeul, Nord, Sept 14, 1926). French writer. His work shows a particular fascination with means of perceiving, organizing and recording periodicity and the passage of time – journals, timetables, the names of months or geological ages – and so it is not surprising that music should be among the objects of his interest; it has profoundly influenced the handling of time in his novels. He has written texts for music, and in his ‘dialogue’ with the Diabelli Variations he produced a stimulating series of ‘interventions’, part imaginative elaboration, part analytic and historical exegesis. The conception of Midi–minuit Stravinsky, with its complex structuring of a 12-hour span, its exploration of the ‘genius of place’ (Olympus, Earth, Hell, the Fair, the Arch) and its involvement of Stravinskian character-symbols (Pulcinella, Apollo, Noah etc.), is peculiarly Butorian.

Répons: music by H. Pousseur, 1965; text worked into Paysage de répons, pubd in Travaux d’approche...

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Anna E. Kijas

(b Washington, DC, Aug 25, 1960). American pianist, writer, broadcaster, and new music advocate. An extraordinary performer and champion of new American and experimental music, she began formal piano studies at the age of seven with Sharon Mann. At 16, she performed Bach’s D major Toccata at the chamber music festival Sommermusikwochen in Trogen, Switzerland. In 1977, she briefly attended the San Francisco Conservatory before transferring to the University of Michigan and studying English (BA 1985). She serves on the music faculty of the San Francisco Conservatory, writes reviews, program notes, liner notes, and articles, and hosts the classical music show Then and Now on public radio station KALW 91.7 FM. In her performances and other activities, she has promoted the work of early 20th-century composers, including Henry Cowell and Ruth Crawford, and contemporary figures such as Kyle Gann, Terry Riley, and Frederic Rzewski, among many others....

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Stanley Sadie

(Adam)

(b Loughton, Essex, June 8, 1926). English writer on music. He was educated at Winchester and Oxford (where he read history, 1945–8) and had a year's study (1950–51) at Princeton. In 1950, with Stephen Gray, he founded the Chelsea Opera Group and in 1983 he established an orchestra, the Thorington Players. He has held various appointments as music critic, notably for the Spectator (1958–62), the Financial Times (1962–7), the New Statesman (1967–70) and later the Sunday Times.

During the years 1967–72 Cairns worked for Philips Records, taking part in the planning of several substantial recordings, among them works by Mozart, Berlioz and Tippett. These composers, above all Berlioz, are at the centre of his interests; he contributed an introduction and notes to a translation of Berlioz's Les soirées de l'orchestre in 1963 as well as translating and editing his memoirs (London, ...

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Thomas J. Mathiesen

( fl 4th or early 5th century ce). Translator and commentator . His commentary on Plato's Timaeus (only to 53c) is dedicated to Hosius, long thought to be the bishop of Corduba (d 358). More recently, it has been proposed that the dedication is to a Milanese official of about 395 and that Calcidius was a Christian Neoplatonist active in Milan whose writings were known to St Ambrose. The earliest surviving manuscripts, F-Pn lat.2164 and VAL 293 (formerly 283), date from the early 9th century. Within the tradition of Christian Neoplatonism, Calcidius's commentary made the Timaeus generally (but imperfectly) available to the Middle Ages, although it does not seem to have been known to Macrobius or Isidore of Seville.

Calcidius departs from tradition (in his commentary on Timaeus, 35b) when he asserts that geometry rather than harmonics holds the fundamental position and is a substructure for the others (‘geometrica vicem obtinet fundamentorum ceterae vero substructionis’), but otherwise his commentary is derivative. Several short chapters (40–55; pertaining to ...

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Albert Dunning

(b Noyon, July 10, 1509; d Geneva, May 27, 1564). French theologian, one of the leaders of the Reformation in Switzerland.

In 1523 he studied theology in Paris, then studied law in Orléans in 1528 and in Bourges in 1529. In 1531 he returned to Paris to complete his classical studies, publishing a commentary on Seneca’s De clementia in the following year. Between 1528 and 1533 he became converted to reformed doctrines and in 1533 he had to leave Paris when the Lutheran sect at the university was proscribed by the court. He went to Basle at the end of 1534 and began work on his Christianae religionis institutio; in the dedication of the first edition (1536) to François I he called for toleration of Protestants. In 1536 he stayed for a short time at the court of Renée of France in Ferrara, and there met Clément Marot. On his way back to Strasbourg he went to Geneva, where the reformer Guillaume Favel persuaded him to help with the organization of the Church. However, in ...

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Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...

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Almonte Howell

(fl 1689–1702). Spanish theologian. A Jesuit priest, he taught theology at the royal college of his order in Salamanca and was the author of several works on moral and theological questions. His Discurso theológico sobre los theatros y comedias de este siglo (Salamanca, 1689), a vigorous attack on moral grounds on the theatre of his day, is frequently quoted for its account of contemporary Spanish stage music. He describes its beauties with great eloquence, suggesting that they may have been inspired by the Devil, and elaborates in suspiciously vivid terms on its power to arouse amorous feelings. It is unlikely that he can be identified with the Ignacio Camargo who in the 1660s composed some 40 vocal works ( E-V ).

SubiráHME G. Chase: The Music of Spain (New York, 1941, 2/1959) M. Querol: ‘Neuvos datos para la biografía de Miguel Gómez Camargo’, Miscelánea en homenaje a Monseñor Higinio Anglés...

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John Tyrrell

(b Malé Svatoňovice, nr Trutnov, Jan 9, 1890; d Prague, Dec 25, 1938). Czech writer and dramatist. He was the best-known Czech writer between the two world wars, with works widely published in many languages. Although his final novel, incomplete at his death, was about a charlatan composer, and his detective story about the conductor Kalina may have had Janáček in mind (Fischmann, 146), he had no close relationship to music and took no hand in the adaptation of his works into operas apart from Zdeněk Folprecht’s one-act opera Lásky hra osudná (‘The Fatal Game of Love’), for which he wrote the libretto (1922) with his brother Josef.

Ze života hmyzu [From the Life of the Insects] (play, with J. Čapek, 1922): Kalmanoff, 1977, as Insect Comedy; Cikker, 1987 Věc Makropulos [The Makropulos Affair] (play, 1922): Janáček, 1926 Krakatit [invented word, from ‘Krakatoa’] (novel, 1924): Berkovec, 1961; Kašlík, 1961...

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Maurice J.E. Brown

(b Northampton, March 23, 1885; d London, June 21, 1954). English music critic. After his education at Bedford Modern School, he studied the cello with Edmund S.J. van der Straeten in London, and later at Lille Conservatory, but decided against being a performer. A strong literary talent led him to journalism, at first in Northampton and then in London, where he became the music critic of the Daily Mail. He served in France during World War I and was awarded a military medal for gallantry at Vimy Ridge. After serving as a war correspondent (1939–45) for the Daily Telegraph (which he had joined in 1933) in France, the western Sahara and Greece (see his account Simiómata: a Greek Note-book 1944–1945, London, 1946), he was awarded the OBE in 1946.

Capell’s abilities as an editor were evident in his work with the Monthly Musical Record...

Article

Lawrence Gushee

revised by Bradley Jon Tucker

( fl Carthage, ?early 5th century). Latin writer . His only known work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (formerly often called Satyricon because of its affinity to Menippean satire) in nine books, is a fantasy in which seven bridesmaids, one for each of the artes, decribe the arts they personify. From his own remarks it seems that he was a resident of Carthage and perhaps a lawyer by vocation, to judge from some idiosyncrasies of vocabulary and statements made in two separate places in his book. He is generally assumed to have lived before 439 ce, when Carthage was sacked by the Vandals.

Martianus’s main interest was to compile information on each of the liberal arts, couched in terms of an elaborate allegory. The direct sources for his discussions of grammar, dialectic and rhetoric are not known, but those for the quadrivial sciences are less obscure. His treatment of geometry is a geographic exercise drawn from Pliny and Solinus; that of arithmetic relies on Nicomachus and Euclid, although it is unlikely he consulted these sources directly; for astronomy, he is thought to have transmitted Posidonius through a Latin intermediary; as for music, the greater part of book 9 (Willis, §§936–95) is, with some rearrangements, deliberate or accidental omissions, and insertions of passages from other Greek or Latin sources, virtually a translation of ...

Article

Robert Anderson

revised by Nigel Scaife

(b Manchester, April 2, 1889; d London, Feb 28, 1975). English critic and writer on music. Largely self-educated, he first wrote music criticism for the Manchester Daily Citizen in 1913. He joined the Manchester Guardian in 1917, producing his first cricket notice in 1919, and assisting Samuel Langford as music critic from 1920. At Langford’s death in 1927 he became the paper’s chief music critic until 1939, based in Manchester for the earlier years and in London from 1931. In his concert notices he avoided technical jargon, cultivating instead an elegant, witty and urbane style that gave audiences an insight into the spirit of the composition and performance. His reviews of Hallé concerts during the 1930s, for example, were brilliant re-creations of their performances. A frank autobiographer, he described with zest both his early struggles and the subsequent richness of his experience. His predilections in music can be deduced from ...

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Joseph A. Bomberger

(b Berlin, ?June 12, 1838; d New York, April 28, 1881). Prussian critic, editor, conductor, and writer, active in the USA. Carlberg started piano under the instruction of organist Louis Thiele at the age of four. He later studied violin with Gruenwald and harmony with A.B. Marx. Though his father wanted him to pursue medicine, Carlberg decided to enter a career in music. He traveled to New York in 1857, where he continued his musical studies with Carl Anschütz and served as music editor of the New York Staats-Zeitung from 1858 to 1860. Because he was still a Prussian citizen, Carlberg was conscripted in 1861 and served in the Prussian military for eight months. He also became editor of the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung. During the next decade he gave concerts in London, Vienna, Paris, Warsaw, and Berlin. While conducting in Russia in 1871, Carlberg was persuaded by Prince George Galitzin to return to America to conduct some Russian concerts. Though the concerts were a failure, he was engaged as music director for the Pauline Lucca opera season, also writing reviews for the ...

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Stanley Sadie

(b Vienna, Nov 15, 1904; d Stratton, Aug 3, 1985). British writer on music of Austrian birth. He was educated at the Vienna City Conservatory, where he studied composition, theory, piano, cello and clarinet, and at Vienna University, studying musicology and taking the doctorate in 1928 with a dissertation on sonata form in Schumann's works; he was one of the last pupils of Guido Adler, who strongly influenced his approach to stylistic criticism. He then took posts as opera conductor at Opava, Czechoslovakia (1929–30), and Danzig (1930–33). In 1933 he settled in London, where for some years he was music correspondent of continental publications. For a time he was also active as a conductor, appearing with the main London orchestras, but his principal energies were devoted to writing about music: he was critic of Time and Tide (1949–62) and the Evening News...

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Gerard Béhague

(b Havana, Dec 26, 1904; d Paris, April 24, 1980). Cuban writer. He worked as a journalist from 1922, writing not only political articles but also music and theatre criticism, and with Roldán he organized the first concerts of new music in Havana. After his imprisonment for having founded a minority party (1927), he turned his attention to the arts. He lived in Paris for a time, meeting Varèse and working with him on the abortive dramatic project The One-all-alone. On his return to Cuba in 1940 he was appointed director of the Cuban Broadcasting System and taught at the University of Havana. During the Batista period he lived in Venezuela, returning after the Revolution to serve as director of the Editora Nacional, and as cultural attaché and ambassador in Paris. As a writer on music he promoted the new trend of musical nationalism based on Afro-Cuban sources and the Cuban Grupo de Renovación Musical. His publications not only contributed greatly to the knowledge of Cuban musical traditions but also put forward an influential account of the true nature of Latin American and Caribbean musics. His novel ...

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(b Le Mée-sur-Seine, July 20, 1864; d Paris, June 15, 1920). French music critic and composer. He attended Massenet’s classes at the Conservatoire, winning the Grand Prix de Rome in 1890 for his cantata Cléopâtre; after devoting some years to composition he turned to music criticism. For over 20 years he contributed to La liberté and Revue bleue and had considerable influence on French musical life of the early 20th century. His judgments were informed by open-mindedness, historical awareness and eclecticism; while he did not disguise his preference for classical structures, he was an early supporter of Debussy’s Pelléas et Mélisande.

‘La musique symphonique’, Rapport sur la musique française contemporaine, ed. P.-M. Masson (Rome, 1913), 77–101 La vie, l'oeuvre et la mort d'Albéric Magnard (1865–1914) (Paris, 1921) [incl. catalogue of works] MGG1 (A. Gauthier) [incl. list of compositions] Obituary. A. Bachelet Le courrier musical, 22 (1920), 225;...

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Sergio Lattes

(b Würzburg, May 15, 1807; d Florence, Sept 24, 1881). Italian music critic and composer. He began piano lessons with Fröhlich at Würzburg, then studied at Florence, where he had settled in 1813, with Luigi Pelleschi, at the same time as he studied law. In 1825 he won a composition prize. He wrote several ballets, one opera and sacred and chamber music. At the same time he contributed to many reviews, including the Gazzetta musicale di Milano, the Rivista musicale di Firenze and the Nazione. He took part in the 1847 uprisings and wrote articles on political topics in several newspapers. When the grand duke returned to power, he retired from politics and in 1849 joined the Livorno railway. Ten years later he collaborated with Basevi in founding the Istituto Musicale of Florence (later the conservatory), which was given its charter in 1862 and of which he was president until his death. He worked with Pougin on the supplement to the ...