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H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b New York, June 1, 1892; d Wyndmoor, PA, Sept 19, 1982). American composer and administrator. He studied at Harvard University (BA 1914), then in New York with Percy Goetschius and Franklin Robinson, in Paris with Philipp, and in Rome with Respighi (orchestration, 1923). Before World War I, and for two decades thereafter, he was active in New York civic and professional groups formed to promote music, and in liberal political action groups. He was the first chairman of the New York Community Chorus, chairman of the Independent Citizens Committee for the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, governor of the ACA, chairman of the American Committee for the Arts, director of the China Aid Council, and vice-president of the American Committee for Spanish Freedom. In addition, he taught in various settlement schools and was a frequent contributor to Modern Music.

Barlow’s opera Mon ami Pierrot, to a libretto by Sacha Guitry on the life of Lully and purporting to show the origin of the French children’s song ‘Au clair de la lune’, was the first by an American to be performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris (...

Article

William Brooks

revised by Deniz Ertan

(b Bethel, CT, July 5, 1810; d Bridgeport, CT, Apr 7, 1891). American impresario, author, publisher, philanthropist, and politician/reformer. He produced theatrical matinées, blackface minstrelsy, melodramas, circus tours (the first to own private trains), farces, baby and beauty contests, and temperance lectures. After an early success exhibiting Joyce Heth (advertised as George Washington’s 160-year-old nurse) in 1835, he capitalized on the enthusiasm for Tyrolean acts by introducing the often parodied “Swiss Bell Ringers” in 1844. His management of such novelties as the celebrated midget Tom Thumb had established him as America’s leading showman, and the lecture hall at the Museum became an early venue for “family” minstrelsy and variety. Barnum’s greatest triumph, however, was a tour by soprano JENNY LIND (1850–51); under his management she gave 95 concerts in 19 cities, attracting unprecedented receipts of $712,161.34 (see also Taylor, Bayard). This was the first major tour in the United States to be managed by a nonperformer, marking the rise of a separate class of agents and promoters. He also sponsored the Irish soprano Catherine Hayes on a tour of California (...

Article

William F. Coscarelli

(b Kingston, PA, 1946). American radio personality and producer. Barone is a nationally recognized radio personality heard via Minnesota Public Radio (MPR)/American Public Media (APM) as host and executive producer of the nationally syndicated series, Pipedreams, a 120-minute weekly program devoted to organ music. He served a similar function for national broadcasts of The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra from 1983 to 2005. Barone joined MPR in 1968 following graduation from the Oberlin Conservatory in Ohio with a BM degree in music history, with organ as principal applied instrument. From 1968 to 1992 he was network music director for MPR, and is currently senior executive producer. Pipedreams, in continuous production since 1982, is the longest-running and only nationally distributed weekly program devoted to the pipe organ in US radio history. Awards and honors include the American Guild of Organists President’s Award (1996), the Distinguished Service Award of the Organ Historical Society (...

Article

Jairo Moreno

(b Brooklyn, NY, April 29, 1929; d Hackensack, NJ, Feb 17, 2006). American conga player, bandleader, and producer of Puerto Rican descent. He began playing percussion informally during time in Germany as part of the US occupation army (1946–9). Returning to New York City in 1949, he participated in the lively jam-session scene in Harlem, playing bongos in sessions with Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. In 1957, he replaced Mongo Santamaría in Tito Puente’s band. By 1960, he became the house percussionist for various jazz labels (Blue Note, Prestige, Riverside), recording his first album as leader for Riverside in 1961. The Charanga La Moderna was his first full-fledged Latin dance band, beginning in 1962. In 1963, his song El Watusi became the first Latin tune to enter the Billboard Top 20. By 1990, his salsa career stagnant, he formed a small, jazz-influenced sextet, New World Spirit, recording a number of Grammy-nominated albums....

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Ceres, CA, Apr 6, 1923). American Evangelical music director, media personality, and administrator. Barrows studied sacred music and Shakespearean drama at Bob Jones University (BA 1944) and was ordained a minister in the Baptist church. He became a full-time worker with Youth For Christ in the immediate postwar years, and in 1945 joined the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association as music director. In 1950, Barrows became the host and crusade choir director for Graham’s Hour of Decision radio (and later television) program, a post which he still held in 2011. From 1965–70, Barrows was the president of World Wide Pictures, Graham’s film production company. He appeared in the film His Land (1970) alongside pop star Cliff Richard. Barrows has also edited many collections of gospel music for Graham’s Association. For his significant contributions to the field of music, he was inducted into the Gospel Music Hall of Fame in ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Széplak, April 7, 1799; d Mainz, Oct 4, 1854). Hungarian composer, theatre director and collector of folksongs. He came from a Hungarian noble family and embarked on a career in the civil service; it was not until 1829 that he first appeared on the musical scene, when he and Lajos Menner founded and became directors of the first Pest singing school. Bartay was one of the first to publish Hungarian folksongs: in 1833–4 he published a two-volume collection Eredeti nép-dalok klavir-kísérettel (‘Original folksongs with piano accompaniment’), and in 1834 he brought out one of the earliest Hungarian books on music theory, Magyar Apollo.

In 1837 his comic opera Aurelia, oder Das Weib am Konradstein had its première at the Pest Town Theatre, and in 1839 his comic opera Csel (‘Ruse’) was first performed at the Pest Hungarian Theatre as Ferenc Erkel's benefit performance (Erkel later composed variations on themes from this opera). Bartay was director of the National Theatre in ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Pest, Oct 6, 1825; d Budapest, Aug 31, 1901). Hungarian musical administrator, composer and teacher. The fourth son of the composer and theatre director András Bartay, he read law and also studied the piano and music theory with his brother András (b ?1822; d St Petersburg, 1 July 1846). He worked in the independent Hungarian Ministry of Transport (1848–9) but was forced to earn a living as a piano teacher after the defeat of the Hungarian struggle for independence. About 1850 he completed his musical studies on his own, and a few years later he was a sought-after teacher and a popular composer of piano music. From the 1860s, Bartay played an increasingly important role in Hungarian musical life. He set up an organization to aid musicians living in Hungary (1863), and was its president until his death. As a qualified lawyer, he was responsible for drawing up and presenting to the Hungarian parliament a plan for the organization of the new state music academy (...

Article

Randolph Love

(b Edgard, LA, Dec 24, 1920). American Trumpeter, arranger, producer, songwriter, bandleader, and singer. He started his career as a trumpeter playing with established bands led by, among others, Papa Celestin, Joe Robichaux, and Claiborne Williams before joining Fats Pichon’s ensemble, considered one of the top groups in New Orleans, in 1939. During World War II he played in the 196th AGF (Army Ground Forces) Band, where he met Abraham Malone, who taught him how to write and arrange. After the war, he formed his own band in New Orleans, which made its debut at the Dew Drop Inn and later performed at Sam Simoneaux’s club Graystone where many of the city’s top instrumental players, including the drummer Earl Palmer and the saxophonists Lee Allen and Red Tyler, were showcased.

Bartholomew is best known for his talents as an arranger and songwriter. In the 1950s and 60s he worked with many of the biggest stars of the day, including Smiley Lewis, Lloyd Price, Shirley and Lee, and Joe Turner. By the 1970s he had associations with some of rock and roll’s most established talents, including Paul McCartney, Elton John, and the Rolling Stones. His most productive association was with fats Domino, whom he met through Lew Chudd, the owner of Imperial Records, where he worked as a house arranger, an A&R man and an in-house bandleader. From ...

Article

Hugh Davies

(b Kansas City, MO, Jan 23, 1940). American artist and educator, co-founder in 1989 and artistic director of Inner-City Arts in Los Angeles. He holds a BA from the Kansas City Art Institute and an MFA from the University of Cincinnati. Working in Los Angeles since 1976 he has built several instruments, based on the hurdy-gurdy principle, which he plays in solo performances and in duets with his wife, Gail Bates. The first was a drone instrument (1976), in which a bow operated by a pendulum moves across a string. The Fuser (1978) uses a similar idea: each note on its two 40-note keyboards operates a ‘finger’ at a different point along the length of one of two strings, which are bowed by treadle-operated, rosined wheels. The hollow tubing of the framework adds to the effect of two dome-shaped resonators, one at each end of the instrument. Two people play the Fuser, which measures about 3.5 × 1 × 1.25 metres. The Converter (prototype ...

Article

Owain Edwards and William Weber

(b Halifax, bap. March 19, 1741; d London, June 8, 1799). English organist and concert organizer. He studied music with Hartley, organist at Rochdale, and later, when he was at Manchester Grammar School, with John Wainwright, deputy organist of the collegiate church. A distinguished academic career took him to Eton (1756), where he studied with Edward Webb, and King’s College, Cambridge, where he was elected a Fellow in 1770 and later appointed a tutor. He tutored the second son of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, and is thought to have written a treatise on harmony about this time. Later he held various civil service posts, as commissioner of the Victualling Office, commissioner of the Customs and as director of various hospitals. He invested the whole of his and his wife’s (see Bates [née Harrop], Sarah) fortunes in the Albion Mills project, and was nearly ruined when the mills were destroyed by fire in ...

Article

David Cox

[Berthier, Jeanne-Marie]

(b Paris, June 14, 1877; d Paris, Jan 25, 1970). French mezzo-soprano and producer. She studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Hortense Parent (piano) and the Belgian tenor Emile Engel, whom she married in 1908, and made her début at Nantes in 1900. Toscanini engaged her for the first La Scala performance of Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel (1902), and in Brussels she appeared in opera with her husband. Soon, however, she decided to devote herself to concert work. Her sympathetic and authentic interpretations of works by many French composers of her time – Debussy, Ravel, Chabrier, Satie, Roussel, Milhaud and others – was very important. With Ravel’s Shéhérazade she achieved wide acclaim. She gave the première of his Histoires naturelles (dedicated to her) and of his Chansons madécasses, both occasions creating a sensation.

During World War I Bathori managed the Théâtre du Vieux Colombier, producing such works as Chabrier’s ...

Article

J. Michele Edwards

(b Walla Walla, WA, Aug 15, 1882; d South Hadley, MA, Aug 9, 1955). American composer, teacher and writer on music. She studied in Portland, Oregon, and in Paris and Berlin, her teachers including Boulanger, Gédalge, Huss and Pugno. During twelve Summers between 1919 and 1944 she visited the MacDowell Colony where she produced many of her compositions and met other important women composers including Amy Beach, Mabel Daniels, Miriam Gideon and Ruth Crawford. Bauer taught music history and composition at New York University (1926–51), was affiliated with the Juilliard School of Music from 1940 until her death and lectured widely. Open to various styles, she was a champion of American music and modern composers, as evidenced by her participation in many organizations, e.g. founding member of the American Music Guild (1921), the Society of American Women Composers, the ACA and the AMC. She was secretary for the Society for the Publications of American Music, and a board member for the League of Composers and the ACA. Frequently she was the only woman in a position of leadership in these associations....

Article

Gunter Hempel

(b Gotha, bap. Sept 12, 1753; d Leipzig, Nov 30, 1813). German composer and writer on music. Between 1777 and 1789 he was intermittently active in the Hamburg theatre, first as a singer and later as a violinist and music director. He also visited St Petersburg (c1780), was music director of the newly established theatre in Riga in 1782–3 and appeared in Moscow in 1785. In 1790 he moved to Leipzig, where he wrote the articles on music for J.G. Grohmann's Kurzgefasstes Handwörterbuch über die schönen Künste (1794). At the beginning of his career he composed mainly instrumental chamber works, but in Leipzig he published many songs and small instrumental pieces for amateurs. His song Die Forelle has been cited as a source of inspiration for Schubert's setting. According to Schilling, he was also a respected piano and mandolin player.

all published in Leipzig unless otherwise stated...

Article

Carolyn Livingston

(b Württemberg, Germany, 1835; d Cincinnati, OH, 1912). American music educator and administrator of German birth. She studied piano in Stuttgart before joining her two brothers in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1849, where she studied piano with Caroline Rivé and taught private piano and voice. After studying again in Europe in 1867, she returned to the United States and founded the Cincinnati Conservatory of Music in 1868. The faculty included Baur, Rivé, cellist Michael Brand, and pianist Henry Andres. Housed in Clara Nourse’s School for Young Ladies, enrollment was predominantly female. The Conservatory offered one of the first summer music programs in the United States. Studies included all the arts, literature, foreign languages, and health. Baur’s goals were to prepare students for professional music careers and instill values she believed would enable them to become positive influences on society. Local citizens who disagreed with the Conservatory’s curriculum established the College of Music of Cincinnati in ...

Article

Noël Goodwin

(Mary )

(b London, May 9, 1874; d London, Nov 25, 1937). English theatre manager, originator of the Vic-Wells (later Sadler’s Wells) Opera and Ballet companies . She received early musical instruction from her parents, who were touring concert-party artists; she joined them as a teenager, and formed the St James’ Ladies Orchestra when she was 14. Accompanying her parents to South Africa, she began giving music lessons in Johannesburg, but returned to London in 1898 to help her aunt, Emma Cons, manage the Old Vic Theatre, where she included some opera in English. Baylis took sole charge from 1912, and by the 1920s opera productions were given there twice a week. She then campaigned for and raised £80 000 to rebuild the then derelict Sadler’s Wells Theatre; the house reopened in 1931, and her first opera presentation there was Carmen, on 20 January. An indefatigable social worker in the Victorian temperance tradition, she gradually ensured regular seasons of opera and ballet at ‘popular’ prices without benefit of public subsidy: the basis of what later became the English National Opera and the Royal Ballet. She was appointed CH in ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Norwalk, OH, Nov 26, 1885; d Evanston, IL, Nov 22, 1962). American music educator and administrator. He obtained a degree in history from Denison University (BA 1907), where he directed the glee club, studied voice, and was a founding member of the band. He also attended a Ginn and Company music textbook summer school in Chicago (1907). He was music supervisor in the Xenia, Ohio public schools (1907–11), and a music teacher (1911–2) and supervisor in Grand Rapids, Michigan (1912–24), where he hosted the conference of the Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC) in 1917. He was a song leader with the Y.M.C.A. (attached to the US Army) in France (1917–9), MSNC president (1920–1), and member of the MSNC Research Council (1923–31) and editorial committee of the Music Educators Journal (1932–62). He obtained a degree in educational administration (MA ...

Article

Claude Conyers

(b Cedar Grove, LA, Dec 22, 1918; d New York, April 29, 1995). American dancer, choreographer, teacher, and company director. Having begun formal dance training with Katherine Dunham in Chicago, he made his first appearance on stage in Ruth Page’s 1934 production of La Guiablesse (The Devil Woman, 1933), with Dunham in the title role. He later performed as a soloist in Dunham’s company and continued his training with Martha Graham and with various ballet teachers in New York City. Recognized as a charismatic dancer in several companies, he formed his own troupe in 1947 and toured widely with a revue entitled Tropicana (1950–55). For this show he made his first significant work, Southern Landscape (1949; music, traditional spirituals), which launched his reputation as a brilliant choreographer. In later years he choreographed more than fifty ballets, some of which, centering on social issues and experiences of African Americans, became classics of the modern dance repertory. Among them are ...

Article

Laurence Libin

(Delmetia )

(b Coleman County, TX, March 18, 1899; d at sea nr Los Angeles, CA, March 30, 1941). American inventor of musical instruments. He was co-founder of the National Stringed Instrument Corporation and the Rickenbacker guitar company. He played the violin and the lap steel (‘Hawaiian’) guitar in vaudeville before settling in Los Angeles, where he worked with John and Rudy Dopyera to develop an acoustically amplified guitar, probably inspired by Stroh models. An early model with a Victrola horn failed, but trials using conical aluminium resonators within a metal guitar body (a prototype of the three-cone Dobro guitar) proved successful and attracted investors. Production of metal-body guitars under the name National soon involved Adolph Rickenbacker’s nearby tool and die shop.

From the mid-1920s Beauchamp also experimented with electrical amplification of guitars (including lap steel and bass guitars) and violins of unconventional shape, without normal resonators but using simple phonograph pickups. After his collaboration with the Dopyeras ended, in ...

Article

Beck  

Rob Jovanovic

[Campbell, Bek David; Hansen, Beck]

(b Los Angeles, CA, July 8, 1970). American rock singer, songwriter, guitarist, and producer. He has recorded and performed songs in a wide range of genres including folk, country, bluegrass, grunge, indie, metal, rock, lounge, Latino, and noise. An obvious contributing factor to his eclectic tastes is his artistic and performer-laden family. His father David Campbell is a string player and arranger who has worked on string parts for some of his son’s more recent albums. His mother Bibbe Hansen worked with Andy Warhol at the artist’s studio the Factory in New York at an early age and was involved in the west coast punk scene during the 1980s. His grandfather Al Hansen was an artist and performer involved in the Fluxus movement. Beck grew up around rockers and in various ethnic neighborhoods which all contributed to his music education. After spending time at the end of the 1980s involved with New York’s anti-folk scene he returned west and began performing as often and wherever he could. These gigs involved him using a leaf-blower on stage, telling stories, setting fire to his acoustic guitar, and rocking out with a boom-box backing tape. His breakthrough came in ...

Article

Christoph Keller

(b Lohn, canton of Schaffhausen, June 16, 1901; d Basle, Oct 31, 1989). Swiss composer and radio producer. After studying mechanical engineering for a short time at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich, and taking private music lessons from Müller-Zürich, he attended the Zürich Conservatory, where his teachers included Volkmar Andreae (composition), Reinhold Laquai (counterpoint) and Carl Baldegger (piano). In 1924 he moved to Paris, where he studied orchestration with Ibert and mingled with the circle surrounding Arthur Honegger, Albert Roussel and Nadia Boulanger, although he was not a pupil. This period proved very stimulating for Beck, awakening in him a life-long affinity for French culture. At the suggestion of Sacher, who promoted his career more than that of any other composer, he relocated to Basle in 1934. During a period of over 50 years, Sacher commissioned his works and conducted their premières with the Basle Chamber Orchestra and the Collegium Musicum, Zürich. From ...