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Susan Feder

revised by Michael Mauskapf

[Pop, Promenade]

Orchestral programs modeled after European promenade concerts of the 19th century, in which light classical music was played while the audience was served refreshments. The development of pops concerts in America reflected an emerging emphasis on the audience and an explicitly articulated division between so-called serious and light classical music propagated by conductor Theodore Thomas and others. Such concerts were traditionally structured in three parts, in which lively pieces—overtures, marches, and galops—were played in the outer sections while the middle section typically included waltzes and occasionally more serious works; encores were a regular feature. These concerts often took place in outdoor venues during the summer season, and featured audience promenades during the intermissions. Initially, works by European composers such as Rossini, Grieg, Liszt, and J. Strauss dominated the programs of pops concerts, but excerpts from musicals and operettas by De Koven and Herbert, among others, soon became a significant component. In general these concerts were understood as a vehicle to reach new audiences and broaden the appeal of orchestras and orchestral music....

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Claude Samuel

Annual festival held in Prades, a small mountain village in France, 40 km from Perpignan. In 1939 Pablo Casals exiled himself there as a protest against General Franco's regime in Spain. Ten years later Casals was visited by the violinist Alexander Schneider, who offered him substantial contracts for an American tour; Casals refused, but agreed to the idea of inviting musicians to Prades to perform with him in commemoration of the bicentenary of Bach’s death. The event's success led to its being repeated annually during July and August. The Prades Festival is run by an association whose president is also the town's mayor, and is funded by municipal, regional and national grants. In 1980 clarinettist Michel Lethiec was appointed director. Artists invited have included Rudolf Serkin, Isaac Stern, Clara Haskil, Alexander Schneider, William Primrose, Marcel Dupré, Pierre Fournier and Henryk Szeryng. The programmes, given in the small church of the Romanesque abbey of Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa, have revolved around works by Bach, Beethoven, Mozart, Schubert, Brahms and earlier composers. Contemporary music has, however, begun to appear: in ...

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Benjamin J. Harbert

A term that refers to both music made by inmates and media representations of music in prisons. Although almost any genre outside the walls has found its way into prison, overrepresentation of certain groups—especially African Americans and men—has influenced the types of music brought to and cultivated in prison. Furthermore, institutional policies have both limited and directed musical activity. Inmates have created and adapted music for a multitude of uses of their own, be it to temporarily escape, form communities, communicate, or contemplate the carceral experience. These uses have also affected the types of music and lyrical themes found in prison. Outside the walls, movies, television, and popular music have often developed narratives or characters, drawing upon and perpetuating stereotypes of prisoners and music making.

Early American prisons instituted solitary confinement and enforced silence. That silence—at least in the literature—broke after the Civil War. Documentation of music in prisons in newspapers, trade journals, folk-song collections, and scholarly works reveals unconnected musical activities sequestered in countless institutions. The mention of music in prisons, however, confirms that American prisoners have been prolific. Music-making in prisons has fallen into three general categories: religious music, work songs, and music programs....

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David Gilbert

Name given to a competition that awarded artists and composers with a funded period of study in Rome. Although awards with a similar name have been offered by Belgian, American and other academies, in music the term usually refers to the prize offered by the French Académie des Beaux-Arts.

The contest was held annually from 1803 to 1968, suspended only during the two world wars. It was organized and judged by the music section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts, although during the Second Empire (1864–71) it was administered by the Paris Conservatoire. While prizes in painting, sculpture and architecture had been offered throughout the 18th century, a music prize was authorized only when the Institut National and its constituent academies were reorganized by Napoleon in 1803. The prizes were funded by the French government with the aim of fostering French culture. The Prix de Rome in music endured the revolutions, monarchies, empires and republics of the 19th and 20th centuries, but not the student uprisings of the 1960s, after which it was abolished....

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Informal concerts at which inexpensive tickets are sold for standing room or floor space (although not actually for ‘promenading’ in the manner of the 18th- and 19th-century London pleasure-garden concerts; see London §V 3.). The most famous, the London Henry Wood Promenade Concerts, started in 1895 and have been given in the Royal Albert Hall since World War II. They were anticipated by other informal concerts given from 1838, themselves modelled on those given in Paris by Philippe Musard from 1833. ‘Proms’ have been given elsewhere in Britain, notably in Manchester by the Hallé Orchestra. From 1972 opera and ballet proms were given at Covent Garden, and in 1976 they were introduced at the Scottish Opera in Glasgow. Similar informal concerts are given in the USA, sometimes with refreshments served to the audience; they include the ‘Boston Pops’ and, in New York, proms and the ‘rug concerts’ initiated by Boulez....

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Laura B. Schnitker

A type of radio station operating on a college or university campus that is run by students. Although such stations did not achieve prominent status in the music industry until the late 1970s, when they became stages for up-and-coming artists, college radio is one of the older types of broadcasting in the United States.

The first educational station in the United States was probably WHA at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, which started broadcasting in 1917 as 9XM. After World War I, about 200 broadcasting licenses were granted to educational institutions, which primarily used them as experimental and technical training facilities. Those that later became known as college radio were the stations run mainly by and for students. By this definition, some credit Haverford University with having the first college station because its students built a station in 1923 and by 1926 were broadcasting with nearly 1000 watts.

The rise of national networks in commercial broadcasting, increased competition for frequencies, and the high cost of operations resulted in the loss of all but the most dedicated college stations; by ...

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Gillian Turnbull

Radio that is owned by a private, nonprofit organization and publicly funded, usually by donations from citizens or a local community. Community radio differs from public radio, which is government-supported; college radio, which is university-supported; and commercial radio, which is privately owned. As noted by Howley, community radio should not be conflated with alternative media, which strives to overturn or alter prevailing media systems. Rather, community radio is participatory in nature, drawing involvement from the station’s stakeholders and listeners but maintaining the structures and practices common to public and commercial stations. It is assumed that there is a high degree of accountability to listeners, who predominantly run and fund the station. The often limited amount of advertising time allotted to community stations dictates the need for external fundraising through pledge drives, grants, and donations. Community radio can serve a specific geographical region or a particular demographic or special-interest group. Programming includes music that is not mainstream (for example, independent artists or more obscure genres) and local-interest news and shows. It purports to represent marginalized or social and ethnic groups that are underrepresented in commercially oriented media. In its programming, the aim of community radio is to provide analysis of current events and culture that is otherwise absent from the public and corporate arms of broadcasting....

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Summer festival held in the small town of Round Top, Texas. It was founded in 1971 by the pianist James Dick. About 100 musicians, all on full scholarships, come to Round Top each June and July to study and perform with faculty such as Martin Lovett, Pascal Verrot, Christopher Hogwood and the Dorian Wind Quintet. In addition to a 1200-seat concert hall featuring the woodwork of local artisans, the 200-acre festival grounds comprise a recording studio and a number of restored historic buildings. Among the works that have been commissioned for the festival are three large-scale pieces for piano and orchestra celebrating Hindu philosophy by Malcolm Hawkins, Chinary Ung and Dan Welcher....

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