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Kenny Mathieson

(b Tampa, FL, Nov 25, 1931; d Lakeland, FL, Jan 2, 2000). American jazz cornetist, bandleader, and composer, brother of Cannonball Adderley. He took up trumpet as a child at the suggestion of his father, a cornetist, but switched to cornet in 1950. His career was closely linked with that of Cannonball. They formed their first band as children and played together through school, college, and the Army. Adderley then played with Lionel Hampton (1954–5), before joining Cannonball’s new band after the saxophonist’s Café Bohemia debut (1955). He then worked with J.J. Johnson and Woody Herman (1957–9) while his brother was with Miles Davis, after which he spent 16 years as a member of Cannonball’s successful quintet (1959–75). During this period he played the trumpet part for Sammy Davis Jr. in the film A Man Called Adam (1966). Following Cannonball’s death in ...

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Warren Vaché Sr

(Sylvester)[Bernie]

(bAnnapolis, MD, April 15, 1905; dNew Rochelle, NY, Dec 18, 1990). Americanacoustic guitarist. He began on violin and mandolin as a child. Having moved with his family to Washington, DC, in 1920, he worked in the area as a banjoist, at one point leading a group with Claude Hopkins. In New York he performed and recorded with Louis Armstrong (1930), Benny Carter (late 1932), Fletcher Henderson (summer 1933 – April 1934), and Adelaide Hall (1934) and recorded with Jelly Roll Morton (1930), Bubber Miley (1930), and Coleman Hawkins (1933–4); it was during his association with Armstrong that the guitar became his principal instrument, and he was soon known as an excellent rhythm guitarist. He played a one-night stand at Adrian’s Tap Room as a member of a quartet with Henry “Red” Allen, Buster Bailey, and Pops Foster (late summer ...

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Norbert Dubowy

[L’Adelaide]

Dramma per musica in three acts by Antonio Sartorio to a libretto by Pietro Dolfin; Venice, Teatro S Salvatore, 1672 (libretto dedicated 19 February 1672).

The libretto is based on historical events of ad951 (for a fuller account of these events, see Lotario (‘Lothair’, ‘Lotharius’) , by Handel). Adelaide (soprano), the widow of Lotario, King of Italy, is commanded by Berengario (bass), the second King of Italy, to marry his son Adalberto (soprano). She steadfastly resists all Adalberto’s attempts to force her into marriage and is repeatedly imprisoned. She receives aid from Ottone [Emperor Otto] (soprano), who has come disguised as a fisherman to ask for her hand in marriage himself. He rescues her three times and eventually frees her from Berengario’s clutches. The subplot centres on the imaginary character of Gissilla (soprano), daughter of Adelaide’s uncle Annone (alto), Duke of Canossa; Gissilla is in love with Adalberto. The secondary characters include the courtier, Lindo (tenor), and the old woman Delma (tenor), as well as the shepherd Armondo (bass) and General Amedeo (tenor). Although the main action adheres closely to historical fact, the opera is embellished with a number of stock scenic and dramatic features from Venetian opera, including spectacular scenes such as a leap into a lake, disguises, cases of mistaken identity, attempted poisonings and unexpected rescues. A scene in a marble quarry indicates a realistic tendency....

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Richard Osborne

(‘Adelaide of Burgundy’)

Dramma in two acts by Gioachino Rossini to a libretto by Giovanni Schmidt ; Rome, Teatro Argentina, 27 December 1817.

The setting is 10th-century Italy (as in Sartorio’s Adelaide (opera) ). Lotario, the King of Italy, has been murdered by Berengario (bass). Lotario’s wife, Adelaide (soprano), has survived but is under siege in a fortress waiting for a promised intervention by Ottone (contralto), the German King Otto I, who has a longstanding treaty with the peoples of Italy. In the opera’s first concerted number, Adelaide rejects Berengario’s sly suggestion that his son Adelberto (tenor) should marry Adelaide in return for her restoration to Lotario’s throne. Ottone arrives and is also offered false peace terms, this time by the wily Adelberto. In the Act 1 finale Ottone finds himself immured in the fortress. At the start of Act 2, the fortress is still under siege, though Ottone has fled to rally forces that will eventually rout Berengario. Apart from the closing victory arias by Adelaide and Ottone, Act 2 is notable for the development of Adelberto’s character, caught between his military duties, his growing love for the widowed Adelaide, and his love for his mother, Eurice (mezzo-soprano). Fearful for her husband’s life, Eurice has thrown confusion into his plans and Adelberto’s by proposing a truce and the peaceful exchange of Adelaide and Berengario under Ottone’s auspices. But the plan only causes further confusion and the opera ends with the defeat of Berengario and the crowning of Ottone as the new king. Despite the somewhat grey atmosphere of feudal militarism and the relative anachronism of the ...

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Thomas Bauman

Schauspiel mit Gesang in four acts by Christian Gottlob Neefe to a libretto by Gustav Friedrich Wilhelm Grossmann; Frankfurt, Theater in der Junghof, 23 September 1780.

Achmet, Pasha of Tunis, so loves the captive German Adelheit von Veltheim that he has raised her to the status of his sole wife. Her fiancé Karl von Bingen, also a captive, works in the Pasha’s garden. He is the object of the attentions of Donna Olivia, a hot-headed Italian in the Pasha’s harem who is furious over the preferment shown to Adelheit. Karl, intent on abducting Adelheit, plays along with Olivia’s scheme to escape with him. With a ladder she has provided, he and Adelheit flee to a waiting frigate, but the Pasha’s forces overtake them and the Maltese knights on board. Asked to judge Karl’s behaviour, the knights condemn him to death, but the Pasha forgives the couple and frees them and the rest of his harem....

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Simon Maguire

(‘Adelson and Salvini’)

Opera semiseria in three acts by Vincenzo Bellini to a libretto by Andrea Leone Tottola after François-Thomas de Baculard d’Arnaud’s novella Adelson et Salvini: Anecdote anglaise and Prospère Delamarre’s play Adelson et Salvini; Naples, Conservatorio di S Sebastiano, some time between 11 and 15 February 1825.

The action takes place in 17th-century Ireland at the castle of Lord Adelson (bass). While Adelson is abroad an Italian painter, Salvini (tenor), has fallen in love with his fiancée, Nelly (mezzo-soprano). Nelly rejects the infatuated Salvini, who tries to commit suicide. In Act 2 Adelson’s enemy, Struley (bass), enlists the help of Salvini in his plot to abduct Nelly. During the ensuing struggle a shot is heard and Salvini mistakenly believes that Nelly has been killed. In Act 3 (mostly cut in Bellini’s second version) Adelson stages a trial of Salvini, who confesses his guilt. When Nelly revives, Salvini recovers from his infatuation and she prepares to marry Adelson....

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Ademira  

Marita P. McClymonds

Opera seria in three acts by Angelo Tarchi to a libretto by Ferdinando Moretti; Milan, Teatro alla Scala, 27 December 1783.

Ademira (soprano) has fallen in love with her captor, the Roman emperor Flavio Valente (soprano castrato). Her father Alarico [Alaric] (tenor), King of the Goths, has sworn vengeance on the emperor because he killed his son in battle. In an attempt on the emperor’s life, Alaric mistakenly stabs his own ambassador Eutarco (contralto castrato), who reveals that the man whom he thought to be his son had actually been switched at birth with Auge (soprano), Ademira’s sister, now posing as her friend. Alaric then embraces his newly found daughter and blesses the union of the lovers. The opera is innovatory for incorporating large choruses and dance: an antiphonal chorus serves as an introduction, a chorus with central solo section is used in Act 1, and a divertimento with dance and chorus opens Act 2. A conventional duet and a trio conclude each of the first two acts, but a dramatic cavatina ...

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Lesley A. Wright

[Colombeau, Jules-Adenis]

(b Paris, June 28, 1823; d Paris, Jan 1900). French playwright and librettist. He studied at the Collège Bourbon (Lycée Condorcet) and began his career as a dramatist with Le fils du bonnetier (1841), a vaudeville written with Ludger Berton. For the next decade, however, he was employed in business and on the editorial staff of the daily newspaper Le corsaire (1847–9). He began writing more vaudevilles and comedies in the 1850s, usually in collaboration with others. He was a member of the Société des Gens de Lettres and secretary of the Société des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques.

From 1856 onwards Adenis, in collaboration or alone, produced the librettos for more than two dozen opéras comiques, opérettes and opéras. He worked with Bizet, also a good friend, and with Guiraud and Massenet early in their careers. Contemporary critics occasionally judged his work harshly but he seems to have been generally regarded as competent and dependable, if unoriginal. His sons Eugène and Édouard also wrote plays and librettos; their work is sometimes confused with that of their father....

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Adina  

Richard Osborne

[Adina, o Il califfo di Bagdad (‘Adina, or the Caliph of Baghdad’)]

Farsa in one act by Gioachino Rossini to a libretto by Marchese Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini; Lisbon, Teatro de S Carlos, 22 June 1826.

The opera was written in 1818, to a libretto adapted from Felice Romani ’s Il califfo e la schiava, as a private commission for a Portuguese patron. The Caliph of Baghdad (bass) plans to marry the beautiful young slave-girl Adina (soprano). She, for reasons which are not immediately evident, is not unsympathetic to the Caliph but the reappearance of her one-time lover Selimo (tenor) puts her in a dilemma. Aided by his servant Mustafà (buffo bass), a gardener in the royal palace, Selimo persuades Adina to elope with him; which is just as well for it turns out that Adina is the Caliph’s longlost daughter. The abduction goes awry, however, leading to a vivid little scene among the fishermen of the Tigris as the lovers are arrested. Selimo is sentenced to death and Adina faints, but a medallion round her neck happily reveals her true identity to the Caliph. This eminently stageable work is a pen-and-ink sketch rather than a full-scale drawing, notable for the tender, elaborate music provided for Adina (the only woman in the cast), for the crystal-clear orchestration, and for a mood which is prevailingly sad. There is no overture, nor is there any evidence that Rossini ever heard the piece in performance....

Article

David Cummings

[Chapman, Adele ]

(b Boston, 1855; d Dieppe, Feb 1924). American soprano . She studied with Pauline Viardot and Giovanni Sbriglia in Paris. Her début role was Meyerbeer’s Dinorah, at Varese in 1876. She appeared with the Mapleson Company in New York and after returning to Europe sang at the Opéra from ...

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John Stanislawski

(b Springhill, LA, Jan 13, 1962). American country music singer. In line with country “hat acts” and neo-traditionalists such as Toby Keith and Tim McGraw, Trace Adkins has forged a working-class image and hard-driving sound by merging honky-tonk with Southern rock, gospel, and blues. His masculine bravado and allegiance to a blue-collar ethos has solidified his position as one of country’s top acts.

After time spent working on an oil rig, Adkins moved to Nashville in 1992 to pursue his musicalcareer. There he met producer Scott Hendricks, who signed him to Capitol Records. His 1996 debut album, Dreamin’ Out Loud, yielded the successful singles “Every Light in the House,” “I Left Something Turned on at Home,” and “(This Ain’t) No Thinkin’ Thing,” which became his first number-one country hit. Despite problems with alcoholism and a drunk-driving charge, his 2001 album Chrome reached the top five on Billboard’s Country Albums chart. In ...

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Paul D. Fischer

(b Chicago, IL, Dec 13, 1933). American record producer, songwriter, artist manager, label owner, and entrepreneur. He was most active in the popular-music industry from the 1950s to the 1970s. He held jobs in publishing and became co-manager of Jan and Dean with Herb Alpert. Under the pseudonym Barbara Campbell, the pair co-wrote “Only Sixteen” for Sam Cooke. Adler also co-wrote “Wonderful World” with Alpert and Cooke. In 1964 he founded Dunhill Records, which was sold to ABC in 1966. He later brought the songwriter P.F. Sloan and the singer Barry McGuire together for “Eve of Destruction.” While the manager and producer of the Mamas and Papas, he co-produced the Monterey international pop festival in 1967, insisting that the event be filmed and retaining those rights. The following year he founded Ode Records, which is noted for releasing Carole King’s album Tapestry. He also produced records and directed a series of “stoner” films for Cheech and Chong. He also served as an executive producer for and bought the US rights to the film ...

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Admeto  

Anthony Hicks

[Admeto, rè di Tessaglia (‘Admetus, King of Thessaly’)]

Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel to a libretto anonymously adapted from Ortensio Mauro ’s L’Alceste (1679, Hanover) after Antonio Aureli’s L’Antigona delusa da Alceste (1660, Venice); London, King’s Theatre, 31 January 1727.

Admeto was Handel’s tenth full-length opera for the Royal Academy of Music, and the second of the group of five operas in which the leading roles were designed for the rival sopranos Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni; they sang Antigona and Alcestis. The other singers were the alto castratos Senesino and Antonio Baldi (Admetus and Thrasymede), the contralto Anna Vincenza Dotti (Orindo), and the basses Giuseppe Boschi and Giovanni Palmerini (Hercules and Meraspes). The opera achieved an excellent opening run of 19 performances to 18 April (during which period the act giving Handel British nationality was passed); two new arias seem to have been provided for Faustina during the run.

The opera was revived for six performances at the King’s Theatre from ...

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John Rosselli

The circumstances governing admission to opera houses before the 19th century are ill documented; full understanding awaits more research. Conditions varied; no theatre, however, met those looked for today – common access for all operagoers by means of tickets entitling them to specific seats, priced according to seating area.

Theatres were rarely full, save on special occasions; some court theatres were extensions of the ruler’s palace; in France, before the Revolution, nobles came attended by retinues of servants: hence a vast, sometimes amorphous list of persons entitled to free admission, and much giving out of free tickets to singers and staff, in part as a means of eking out wages. Even those who paid to get in did not all pay the same price for the same seats: nobles might pay more than ordinary citizens, army officers and civil servants less.

In opera houses of the Italian type the audience was physically divided into the owners or renters of boxes, the stalls audience, and the gallery (if there was one): each area had separate access (an arrangement that survives for the gallery of older theatres), but only the boxes had numbered seats; this meant a rush to get into the stalls on special occasions, and into the gallery on most nights. In Italy, each section of the audience might buy its tickets from a different source: boxholders were often entitled to re-let their boxes in competition with the management, and the gallery was generally sub-let to a separate impresario. A separate charge was made for admission to the building (...

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Julian Budden

Opera in four acts by Francesco Cilea to a libretto by Arturo Colautti after Eugène Scribe and Ernest Legouvé’s play Adrienne Lecouvreur; Milan, Teatro Lirico, 6 November 1902.

Adriana Lecouvreur was commissioned by the publisher Edoardo Sonzogno following the success of Cilea’s L’arlesiana. Cilea chose the subject for its mixture of comedy and tragedy, its 18th-century ambience, the loving intensity of its protagonist and the moving final act; three other operas use the story of Adrienne Lecouvreur (by Edoardo Vera, Tommaso Benvenuti and Ettore Perosio). Colautti reduced the intricate mechanism of Scribe’s plot to a serviceable operatic framework, occasionally at the expense of clarity. The première, however, was outstandingly successful, with a cast that included Enrico Caruso (Maurizio), Angelica Pandolfini (Adriana) and Giuseppe De Luca (Michonnet). The conductor was Cleofonte Campanini. The first London performance took place at Covent Garden in 1904 in the presence of the composer with Rina Giachetti (Adriana), Giuseppe Anselmi (Maurizio) and Mario Sammarco (Michonnet), again under Campanini. Three years later the opera arrived at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, with Caruso (Maurizio), Lina Cavalieri (Adriana) and Antonio Scotti (Michonnet). Since then ...

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Don Neville

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Libretto by Pietro Metastasio, first set by Antonio Caldara (1732, Vienna). The title Farnaspe was used for a later version of this libretto

In Antioch, the Emperor Hadrian has conquered the Parthian king Osroa [Osroes] and, in spite of being betrothed to Sabina, a Roman noblewoman, has fallen in love with Emirena, Osroes’ daughter. He has invited several Asian princes to Antioch, but his invitation to Osroes is refused. Osroes, however, has come in disguise, as a follower of Farnaspe [Pharnaspes], the Parthian prince to whom Emirena is betrothed.

Hadrian consents to Emirena’s departure with Pharnaspes if she so chooses. But Aquilio [Aquilius], Hadrian’s confidant, because he himself loves Sabina, desires a marriage between Emirena and Hadrian; he warns Emirena of Hadrian’s supposed anger, cautioning her to conceal her true feelings for Pharnaspes, who is astounded by Emirena’s subsequent coldness. Hadrian’s hopes for Emirena are thus revived, and he is confused when Sabina arrives unexpectedly. Meanwhile, Osroes sets fire to the palace, and Pharnaspes is blamed. He and Emirena reaffirm their love....

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Brian W. Pritchard

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Dramma per musica in three acts by Antonio Caldara to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio ( see Adriano in Siria above), with ballet music by Nicola Matteis; Vienna, Hoftheater (Teatro Grande), 9 November 1732.

Caldara’s 13th opera for the name-day celebrations of the Habsburg emperor Charles VI has the Roman emperor Adriano [Hadrian] (tenor) as its nominal hero. The plot deals with his amorous dalliance with Emirena (soprano), a captive Parthian princess, his arrogant dismissal of Farnaspe [Pharnaspes] (alto), Emirena’s lover, and his deception of his wife Sabina (soprano). In the lieto fine Metastasio’s allusion to the incorruptible position of the Holy Roman Emperor is obvious, as Hadrian rises above temptation to impart further dignity to his imperial role.

Caldara’s setting, however, emphasizes the three characters most affected by Hadrian’s illicit desires. Hadrian himself is drawn rather shallowly in arias that (apart from the tender ‘Dal labbro che t’accende’, 1.i) are mostly stereotyped but superficially impressive gestures of rage and revenge, such as ‘Tutti nemici’ (2.ix). The two minor characters, Osroa [Osroes] (tenor), Emirena’s father, and Aquilio [Aquilius] (bass), Hadrian’s treacherous confidant, likewise react conventionally to their situations, although the former’s ‘Sprezzo il furor del vento’ (1.iii) and the latter’s ‘Saggio guerriero antico’ (2.v) include clever pictorialisms. In contrast, Caldara acords Emirena, Sabina and Pharnaspes a series of intimate arias that capture moods of estrangement, abandonment and desolation, as well as reconciliation and optimism, and maintain a level of lyricism rarely surpassed in his other operas. Sensitive scorings, with relatively few contrapuntal devices in the accompaniments, enhance the emotional tension, especially in Pharnaspes’ ‘Doppo un tuo sguardo’ (1.v) and Sabina’s ‘Numi sì giuste siete’ (1.xi)....