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Kenneth Kleszynski

An American style of hip-hop music associated with New Orleans, Louisiana. Bounce is oriented toward dancing, with performers calling out dance steps or prompting replies from the audience. Musical characteristics include call-and-response based upon repeated hooks, chants (influenced largely by Mardi Gras Indians), and brass-band music (regularly used for samples). Bounce features highly syncopated grooves often based on the “Triggerman beat,” which is sampled from sources such as “Drag Rap” by the Showboys, “Brown Beat” by Cameron Paul, and “Rock the Beat” by Derek B. Much. Bounce is tied to specific New Orleans neighborhoods, its most common performance venues being clubs and large, outdoor, working-class parties. Lyrics often refer to these neighborhoods as well as cultural practices and explicitly sexual topics.

The term “bounce” appeared as early as 1968 on the Imperial album Urban Blues: New Orleans Bounce, referencing the city’s long association with dance music. The term’s usage in hip hop, however, can be traced to ...


Meredith Ellis Little

[bourée] (Fr.; It. borea; Eng. boree, borry)

A French folk dance, court dance and instrumental form, which flourished from the mid-17th century until the mid-18th. The word was generally ‘bourée’ in French; the preferred current spelling may in fact be of German origin. As a folkdance it had many varieties, and dances called bourrée are still known in various parts of France; in Berry, Languedoc, Bourbonnais and Cantal the bourrée is a duple-metre dance, while in Limousin and the Auvergne it is commonly in triple metre. Many historians, including Rousseau (1768), believed that the bourrée originated in the Auvergne as the characteristic Branle of that region, but others have suggested that Italian and Spanish influences played a part in its development. It is not certain if there is a specific relationship between the duple French folkdance and the court bourrée.

Specific information on the bourrée as a court dance is available only for the 18th century, whence at least 32 choreographies entitled bourrée, bourée, boree or ‘bouree time’ are extant, both for social dancing and for theatrical use (see Little and Marsh). The bourrée was a fast duple-metre courtship dance, with a mood described variously as ‘gay’ (Rousseau, ...



Matthew Head

(Fr.: ‘jest’, ‘whim’)

A term variously applied in the 17th and 18th centuries to a lively choreographed dance, a capricious poem, an improvisatory solo for viol and a short fantasia for solo keyboard. Pierre Richelet attributed its invention to Jacques Cordier, a dancing-master during the reign of Louis XIII (1601–43), and explained that, as a dance, the boutade was so called ‘because it began in a somewhat abrupt, lively and startling manner’ (Nouveau dictionnaire françois, 1719). The correspondence of Vincent Voiture (Les oeuvres de Monsieur Voiture, 1734) reveals that the boutade was a popular social dance around the middle of the 17th century. As an improvisatory movement in a suite of instrumental dances, the boutade was cultivated by French viol players of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Examples by Marin Marais, Jaques Morel, Jean-Féry Rebel and Louis de Caix d'Hervelois almost invariably avoid binary-repeat structure and consist of dance rhythms and sequential passages of block chords that may have been elaborated in improvisatory figuration. Such pieces correspond to Mattheson's definition of the boutade as a composition or improvisation ‘bound to nothing but the imagination’ (...



(It.: ‘branle’)

Generally, the 16th-century Italian equivalent for Branle. The word also designated a particular kind of social and theatrical set dance only tenuously related to it. Castiglione and G.B. Doni mentioned the brando as a social dance, agreeing that its most important distinguishing feature was that it was best performed in costume. Like the moresca, the brando was often part of a mascherata or intermedio.

The dancing-master Cesare Negri described both social and theatrical brandos in Le gratie d'amore (1602), including ‘la musica della sonata con l’intavolatura del liuto del brando’. Negri consistently referred to brandos together with ‘balletti’ and ‘balli’, all multi-sectional dances reminiscent of or directly incorporating individual dances such as the corrente, pavan or gagliarda; the musical accompaniments to his choreographies are not labelled, so that one must read the dance descriptions to ascertain which sections are thought to be ‘in corrente’, which ‘in gagliarda’ and so on. In addition to describing social brandos for sets consisting of two to four couples with four to nine musical sections, Negri mentioned three theatrical brandos he created. Two were part of a mascherata staged in ...



Daniel Heartz and Patricia Rader

[brande, brawl, brall, brangill]

A sideways step or movement in the 15th- and 16th-century Basse danse; a variety of French dances of popular character that were widely cultivated over several centuries. Some branles are still danced in France, and branle-like dances (line and circle dances) are popular in many cultures. A group dance, the branle, involves several couples disposed in a circle, in a single-file line or in a line of couples. Randle Cotgrave vividly defined in his Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues (London, 1611):

Bransle: a totter, swing, or swindge; a shake, shog, or shocke; a stirring, an uncertain and inconstant motion; … also, a brawl, or daunce, wherein many (men, and women) holding by the hands sometimes in a ring, and otherwise at length, move all together.

The music was often provided by the singing of the participants, and the characteristic motion was a step to the side. Visual illustrations of the dance go back to medieval times, but the term ‘branle’ is relatively recent, being rarely encountered before ...


Pauline Norton

(1) A black American folk and spectacular dance characterized by rhythmic patterns created by the feet hitting the floor. It became a theatrical dance in the middle of the 19th century principally through the influence of William Henry Lane, who performed under the name ‘Juba’. The dance often concluded the song-and-dance numbers in late 19th-century minstrel shows, and seems to be related to the ‘break’ sections in these numbers, which consisted of short, two- or four-bar interludes of danced rhythmic patterns between the solo verse and the chorus. Both the dance itself and the idea of performing dance between the sections of a song influenced tap dance in the 20th century.

(2) A riotus dance or gathering (see also Hoedown). The fiddle or banjo music accompanying such dances, particularly in the white-American folk tradition from the late 19th century, often has rapid figurations, arpeggios, and triplets added to vary the melody, suggesting something like the 16th- and 17th-century English practice of ...


Andrew Porter



David Buckley

A term first used in the British music press around 1992 to describe the indigenous talent emerging in the wake of the commercial success of American grunge and ‘slacker’ youth culture. These groups, such as Suede and Elastica, performed playful, indie-inspired guitar-based pop. By 1995 intense media rivalry existed between Manchester’s Oasis and London’s Blur, as the two groups briefly brought back a sense of competition not seen in pop since the days of the Beatles and the Rolling Stones. Indeed, nostalgia was a key element of the Britpop boom, as rock artists reasserted ‘songwriterly’ values and traditional rock instrumentation in the aftermath of the hegemonic influence of acid house in the late 1980s. Significantly Britpop was used almost exclusively to describe white English musicians who played guitar-based, 1960s-influenced pop: Oasis were dubbed Britpop, but the black trip hop artist Tricky was not, despite his mainstream success. By 1996 new and more derivative groups such as Kula Shaker, The Verve and Ocean Colour Scene played what their detractors dubbed ‘Dad-rock’, a less threatening and more complex homage to 1960s and 70s icons such as Traffic and Paul Weller, which demonstrated that the initial energy of the Britpop scene was dying out. By the late 1990s the quintessential Britpop group Blur had taken to recording grunge-inspired music which resembled the sort of American music Britpop had once united against. Significantly none of the Britpop groups really broke into the lucrative American market....


Commercial name for the New York theater district. Few of the theaters are actually on Broadway, but many are in the Times Square area. The “Broadway” designation as a term, according to Actor’s Equity, refers to a theater with at least 500 seats; off-Broadway houses are smaller.

See Musical theater.


O.W. Neighbour

The name most commonly applied by contemporary scribes to instrumental settings of an English 16th-century popular tune. It resembles an eight-bar galliard strain and was sung to various texts. The words, beginning ‘Browning my dear’, are otherwise lost, though they may be echoed in Ravenscroft’s round on the tune (in Deuteromelia, 1609) which starts ‘Browning Madame, browning Madame, so merrily we sing, browning Madame’. Two alternative titles, The leaves be green, and The nuts be brown, derive from a couplet underlaid to each statement of the tune in one source of Byrd’s Browning: ‘The leaves be green, the nuts be brown, they hang so high they will not come down’ (Byrd Edition, xvii, 39). One consort version is called Hey down, and Danyel’s lute variations (EL, 2nd ser., rev., viii, 72) are headed Mrs Anne Green her leaves be green.

Like Taverner’s somewhat earlier ‘Western Wynde’ mass, the mid-century Browning settings consist of continuous variations on a tune that moves freely from one part to another. One distinctive characteristic, shared by only two or three other pieces, is the use of these migrations as a formal principle. Thus Henry Stoning, in his five-part Browning (MB, xliv, 70), composed five variations with the tune occurring once in each part; Clement Woodcock (MB, xliv, 72) doubled these proportions (though the bass has only one variation); and Byrd quadrupled them, as the composer of the fragmentary anonymous ...


David Tunley

A species of song popular in France during the late 17th century and the 18th. It has been claimed that the name derives from the refrain (‘Ah, petite Brunette! Ah, tu me fais mourir’) of the song Le beau berger Tirsis, which became very popular (see GMB, no.217). Such airs, usually in bipartite form (generally for one to three voices with or without accompaniment), are characterized by tender sentiments and references to young brunettes, although the latter are not mentioned in every piece of this name. Melodic variations, often introduced into the later verses, were sometimes included in publications of brunettes, as in those issued in Paris by the firm of Ballard between 1703 and 1711. Chambonnières and D’Anglebert made some use of brunette melodies in their harpsichord pieces.

The brunette bore the same relationship to the Italian Baroque aria as did the romance to the lied in the 19th century; in its simplicity and elegance it was regarded as quintessentially French. Its many champions (including Montéclair and L’Affilard) regarded it as the perfect means of developing ‘taste’ because of the sensitivity demanded from the performer. A number of brunettes were also reworked as instrumental pieces, especially for teaching purposes. The brunette remained popular until well into the second half of the 18th century. Pierre de La Garde, for example, published in Paris in ...


Jonas Westover

[bubblegum pop; bubblegum rock; teenybopper sound]

A genre of American music which flourished during the late 1960s and early 1970s, with some commentators claiming the specific dates of 1967 to 1972. It was exemplified by a light, airy pop style often created and organized by a corporation. A second period of bubblegum music came in the 1990s and into the 2000s with a new group of boy bands and “innocent” girl artists. Specifically engineered by producers to appeal to preteens and ’tweens, bubblegum music was packaged as part of a marketing strategy that was aimed at a young demographic that could be sold a plethora of extra-musical paraphernalia, especially children’s cereals and bubblegum itself. The music was purposefully naive, mostly making use of light voices and soft, gentle, although upbeat, melodies. Some of the groups that were considered part of the genre were the Archies, the Monkees, Josie and the Pussycats, and the Jackson 5. The term itself was coined by the producers Jerry Kasenetz and Jeff Katz, the founders of Super K Productions, who suggested to the Buddah Records executive Neil Bogart that the analogy was a perfect way of reaching younger listeners. Bogart took the idea and began applying it to newly released records and it became immediately popular....



William Gradante

A circle-dance performed by couples among Afro-Hispanic communities of the Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador, often in the context of the currulao or chigualo rituals. Secular and Afro-Christian religious themes are sung in responsorial style by an entonadora (female leader) and respondedoras (female chorus). Instrumental accompaniment is played on reed flutes, ...



(It.: ‘jest’)

A term used occasionally during the 18th century, together with its diminutives Burletta and burlettina, to indicate comic Italian operas. In about 1720 the buffo singer Francesco Belisani used it to distinguish between comic operas and the intermezzos inserted between the acts of serious operas. It has been suggested that ...


Erich Schwandt, Fredric Woodbridge Wilson and Deane L. Root

(Fr.; It. burlesca; Ger. Burleske)

A humorous piece involving parody and grotesque exaggeration; the term may be traced to folk poetry and theatre and apparently derived from the late Latin burra (‘trifle’). As a literary term in the 17th century it referred to a grotesque imitation of the dignified or pathetic, and in the early 18th century it was used as a title for musical works in which serious and comic elements were juxtaposed or combined to achieve a grotesque effect. In England the word denotes a dramatic production which ridicules stage conventions, while in 19th- and 20th-century American usage its principal meaning is a variety show in which striptease is the chief attraction.

Erich Schwandt

J.G. Walther (1732) described burlesque music as ‘jocular’ and ‘amusing’ (‘schertzhafft’, ‘kurzweilig’) and referred to ‘burleske Ouvertüren’ as pieces in which ‘laughable melodies, made up of 5ths and octaves, appear along with serious melodies’. This probably referred to the comic effects achieved by composers of Italian ...


Nicholas Temperley

A type of English operatic comedy that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The term was one of several used for Italian comic operas of the light intermezzo variety: for instance Pergolesi’s La serva padrona was so described at its first London performance in 1750. Several Italian burlettas were played at Dublin with great success in the 1750s, and Lord Mornington commissioned Kane O’Hara to write an English imitation of one. The result was Midas, the first English burletta, performed privately near Belfast in 1760, and publicly at Dublin in 1762 and at Covent Garden in 1764. It was a burlesque on classical mythology; the music was a pasticcio, partly folksongs and partly tunes from Italian and English operas, with recitative. Its compiler is unknown.

Midas was a great success and was imitated both in Dublin and in the London patent theatres. These early burlettas, in verse throughout and all-sung, satirized the mythological and historical conventions of ...




Julian Budden


A term probably of Spanish derivation, first encountered during the second decade of the 19th century, and defined in Pietro Lichtenthal’s Dizionario (1826): it denotes the second, usually fast movement of a double aria in an Italian opera, consisting of a melodic period of two stanzas which is repeated with decorations added by the singer after an orchestral ritornello, often accompanied by choral or solo pertichini and followed by a matching coda designed to stimulate applause (e.g. ‘Non più mesta’: La Cenerentola, Rossini, 1817). Only rarely does a cabaletta occur in isolation, without a preceding ‘cantabile’. In early examples only the second half of the period is repeated, a procedure found as late as ‘No, non udrai rimproveri’ (La traviata, Verdi, 1853), and certain cases have a brilliant coda for the voice, as in ‘Vien diletto, è in ciel la luna’ (I puritani, Bellini, ...





Kurt von Fischer

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

Poetic and musical genre, in use in Italy during the 14th and 15th centuries.

The earliest reference to the caccia in theoretical writings is found in an early 14th-century Venetian treatise (see Debenedetti, 1906–7, 1922). In this a genre called cacie sive incalci is discussed, whose text consists entirely of five- or seven-syllable lines, and which can be performed by several (up to five) singers in the manner of a voice-exchange canon (see Voice-exchange). Although there were indeed attempts to increase the number of canonic voices beyond the normal two in certain cacce (see Toguchi, 1970), there is no evidence of voice-exchange (whose structural principle is common in the rondellus) among Trecento cacce. It appears from this that the cacie sive incalci belonged to a type no longer used at the time when the caccia was fully developed.

Both literary and musical elements contribute to the definition of a caccia. Textually, Italian cacce are often descriptive pieces in dialogue, sometimes involving hunting scenes. They may be linked with the pastime of hunting cultivated by the nobility at that time, as literature and paintings also show. The hunting scenes are often replaced by allegorical amatory texts or by market or fishing scenes. 11 of the 25 surviving texts are in the form of a madrigal and one is in that of a ballata: their texts consist of eleven- or seven-syllable lines of verse. When not in the form of a madrigal the texts consist of a random number of syllables, as is also the case in the contemporary genres of the frottola and ...