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José López-Calo

(b Gauteriz de Arteaga, Vizcaya, Sept 25, 1869; d Barcelona, March 19, 1948). Spanish organ builder. He began his career as an apprentice in the workshops of Aquilino Amezúa in Barcelona in 1885 and was active for more than 50 years. In 1895, on the retirement of Amezúa, Alberdi became director of the firm, and in 1896 the owner. His sons, Antonio and Luis Alberdi Aguirrezábal, assisted him in the workshop, which was the most productive in Spain, building nearly 200 organs (in particular those at the monastery of Montserrat, the Jesuit church in Madrid, and the cathedrals of Gerona and Santiago). Alberdi’s construction methods were extremely advanced: he incorporated many of the best techniques of the time and invented others. He always used mixed mechanical systems and was especially noted for systems without sliding valves; later he abandoned troublesome pneumatic machinery and utilized the possibilities of electricity. He always used the best available methods and systems. Organs from his workshop were exported to South America and the Philippines....

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Albert  

Philip J. Kass

Family of violin makers and dealers. John Albert (b Liel, Baden, Germany, 24 June 1809; d Philadelphia, PA, 2 Jan 1900) began as an engineer and inventor. He came to New York from Freiburg, Germany, in 1854 as a refugee of the 1848 revolution, settling in Philadelphia where in 1857 established a shop. His particular interest was in commercial violin manufacture, in which he held several patents; he established the American Star violin factory which, after his retirement in 1887, was run by his son Eugene John Albert (b Freiburg, 1851; d Philadelphia, 1922). The E.J. Albert firm, under other ownership, continued well into the 1950s.

John’s eldest son, Charles Francis Albert (b Freiburg, Germany, 25 Dec 1842; d Philadelphia, PA, 1 July 1901), established his own shop in Philadelphia in 1865. His interest was in fine instruments and repairs, and as such gained wide respect and admiration. His son and successor, Charles Francis Albert Jr. (...

Article

Nicholas Shackleton

(b Brussels, April 26, 1816; d Brussels, May 11, 1890). Belgian woodwind instrument maker. He is known chiefly for his clarinets. His three sons Jean-Baptiste (-Gustav) (1845–99), Jacques (-Emile) (1849–1918) and Joseph-Eugène (known as E.J. Albert; 1860–1931) were also woodwind instrument makers specializing in clarinets. Eugène Albert is recorded as a maker from 1839. He was so successful that the model of clarinet that he made is widely known (especially in the USA) as the ‘Albert System’ although it was basically Iwan Müller's 13-key clarinet augmented by the two rings (brille) added to the lower joint by Adolphe Sax. Albert's instruments were exceptionally well made and finely tuned. They were particularly popular in England, where his agents were Louis Jullien and then Samuel Arthur Chappell; the leading English clarinettist Henry Lazarus owned eight of his instruments. When Boosey and Co. began to make clarinets in about ...

Article

David Fuller

Left-hand accompaniment figure in keyboard music consisting of broken triads whose notes are played in the order: lowest, highest, middle, highest (see ex.1), and taking its name from Domenico Alberti (c1710–1746). Research has suggested that, obvious as this little figure may seem, Alberti was in fact the first to make frequent use of it. The term ought to be restricted to figures of the shape described and not extended loosely to other types of broken-chord accompaniment....

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Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(fl Milan, c1737–63). Italian violin maker. His violins are roughly reminiscent of Giovanni Grancino’s model although without its symmetry. The craftsmanship rarely approaches any degree of refinement, though the tonal qualities invariably rise above these limitations, and authentic examples in good condition command respectable prices. The varnish on the better instruments is a reddish-brown, most of the others being a clear yellow-brown. Alberti took over Grancino’s shop, which is acknowledged on his printed labels: ‘Ferdinando Alberti in Contrada/Larga di Milano a Segno della/Corona F. l’Anno 17 –’ or ‘Ferdinando Alberti fece in Milano/nella Contrada del pesce al Segno/della Corona l’Anno 17–’. (R. Vannes: ...

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Stuttgart, May 12, 1938; d 1984). German organ builder. Born into a family of organ builders once active in the vicinity of Waldhut, he was trained by the firm of Walcker, followed by Rieger in Schwarzach (Vorarlberg), for whom he didSeit 1960 war er bei Montage- und Intonationsarbeiten für Rieger ua in den USA, Kanada und Haiti tätig. installation and voicing. From 1962 to 1964 he worked for Verschueren Orgelbouw in Heythueysen, Netherlands, then again at Rieger, where he worked on organs for the Freiburg cathedral and the Jakobskirche in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. 1966 folgte die Meisterprüfung und 1969 schließlich die Gründung der eigenen Werkstatt in Lindau/Bodensee. He then studied at the Meisterschule in Ludwigsburg, where he passed his examinations in 1966. After working in Austria, Switzerland, Holland, and the USA, in 1969 he founded his own business in Lindau (Lake Constance) under the name of Albiez-Orgelbau. He built organs exclusively with slider chests and tracker action, using solid wood, never plastic. The firm built more than 60 new organs, including those at the Catholic church, Bischofszell, Switzerland (...

Article

William Waterhouse

( b 1872; d Switzerland, Jan 1938). Italian flute maker, flautist and composer . He was a flautist at La Scala, Milan, from 1897. In 1910 he invented his ‘Albisiphon’, a vertically-held, Boehm-system bass flute in C, with a T-shaped head, which he described in his Albisiphon: flauto ottava bassa (Milan, 1910). It was used by, among others, Mascagni in Parisina (1913), and Zandonai in Melenis (1912) and Francesca da Rimini (1914). The Dayton Miller Collection (Library of Congress, Washington, DC) possesses two models of an ‘albisiphon baritono’ in C and a tenor in F. There is also an example of another invention which Miller termed ‘half flute in C’ (that part of a regular flute played by the left hand, with a wooden handle for right hand) for which Albisi composed a concerto. He also made flutes in collaboration with the Milanese maker Luigi Vanotti in about ...

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Article

Alboka  

Sabin Bikandi Belandia

Basque double-pipe hornpipe similar to the pibgorn and the Scottish stockhorn. The idioglot single reeds are cut into small, removable cane tubes that fit into the upper ends of the parallel cane pipes. The pipes share a cowhorn bell and a second horn at the upper end that serves as a wind cap. A decoratively carved wooden yoke supports both the pipes and the horns. Circular breathing is used. Old instruments vary in size and tuning. In the late 20th century the scale was standardized, producing in the five-holed left-hand pipe the notes ...

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Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American firm of piano makers. Charles Albright (Albrecht by 1864) is listed in Philadelphia city directories from 1863. He was in partnership with Frederick Riekes (as Albrecht & Riekes, 1864–5), with Riekes and Richard T. Schmidt (as Albrecht, Riekes & Schmidt, 1866–74), and with Riekes and Edmund Wolsieffer (as Albrecht & Co., ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American firm of piano makers. Charles Albright (Albrecht by 1864) is listed in Philadelphia city directories from 1863. He was in partnership with Frederick Riekes (as Albrecht & Riekes, 1864–5), with Riekes and Richard T. Schmidt (as Albrecht, Riekes & Schmidt, 1866–74), and with Riekes and Edmund Wolsieffer (as Albrecht & Co., ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Germany, 1759/60; d Montgomery, PA, June 28, 1848). American piano maker of German birth. He was active in Philadelphia as a piano maker by the 1790s, probably arriving there on the ship Hamburgh in October 1785. (His marriage to Maria Fuchs is listed in the records of St Michael′s and Zion′s Lutheran Church, Philadelphia, for 17 June 1787; they had no children.) His name appears in tax records, census entries and city directories from 1788 until his death in 1848. First described as a “joiner,” he is listed in newspapers and real estate documents as “Musical Instrument Maker” at the address of 95 Vine Street from 1791 to at least 1824, when he retired from piano making but continued to purchase property in Philadelphia and the surrounding counties. Albrecht made some of the earliest surviving American square pianos, over 20 of which are still extant (four are at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; the date of ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Hanover, Jan 6, 1788; d Philadelphia, PA, March 1843). American piano maker of German birth. He immigrated to the United States, arriving in Philadelphia on 17 October 1822, and from 1823 to 1824 ran a business there at 106 St John Street; from 1830 to 1843 his address was 144 South 3rd Street. On his death his small business was bequeathed to his wife Maria. His pianos exhibit excellent craftsmanship; pianos by him (one upright and one square) at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, are in empire style and have six octaves. No relationship between Christian Albrecht, Charles Albrecht, and Albrecht & Co. has yet been established....

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

(b Hanover, Jan 6, 1788; d Philadelphia, March 1843). American piano maker of German birth. He emigrated to the USA, arriving in Philadelphia on 17 October 1822, and from 1823 to 1824 ran a business there at 106 St John Street; from 1830 to 1843 his address was 144 South 3rd Street. On his death his small business was bequeathed to his wife Maria. His pianos exhibit excellent craftsmanship; pianos by him (one upright and one square) at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, are in empire style and have six octaves. No relationship between Christian Albrecht, Charles Albrecht and Albrecht & Co. has yet been established....

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

revised by Sylvette Milliot

( b Mirecourt, April 28, 1765; d Paris, 1843). French violin maker . One of the third generation of a Mirecourt family of violin makers, he settled in Paris in 1785, firstly at 16 rue des Arcis, moving to 30 rue de Bussy about 1807, and finally to 71 rue de Seine in 1820. The fine quality of his work places him in the forefront of French violin makers. His instruments are patterned after the Stradivari model but tend towards more fullness in both outline and archings. The varnish, generally of a red-brown colour, can be very attractive, but often falls a little short of achieving clarity and elasticity; heavily varnished instruments have a broad checking, which is not at all unattractive. Those varnished a lighter golden-yellow or orange-brown appear to belong to a lesser category. Tonally, Aldric’s instruments are among the best produced by the French; his cellos are quite outstanding and are much sought after as concert instruments. Aldric used a variety of different labels; the printed ones usually have a decorative border while the manuscript labels are plain and appear rather carelessly turned out. He was the first French violin maker to buy some of the fine Italian instruments that were brought to Paris by Luigi Tarisio in ...

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Alele  

Article

Alembic  

Tony Bacon

American manufacturer of electric bass guitars, six-string electric guitars, preamps, and related accessories, located in Santa Rosa, California. The recording engineer and Ampex designer Ron Wickersham and his wife, the painter Susan Frates, began the company in 1969 as a consulting firm to improve performance and recording audio quality for such bands as the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Crosby Stills Nash & Young. They soon moved to premises in San Francisco and while continuing to provide audio services to touring bands, opened a repair facility, recording studio, and retail store. The firm then turned to providing new components for guitars and basses, designing new pickups, and remodelling instruments. Alembic electronics and pickups were first installed in David Crosby’s 12-string Guild guitar and Phil Lesh’s (Grateful Dead) psychedelic SG bass; next, Lesh’s and Jack Casady’s (Jefferson Airplane) hollow-body basses were retrofitted with new low-impedance pickups and ‘active electronics’, a system that uses a built-in preamp to boost the volume and widen the frequency range. Alembic also renovated Bobby Weir’s and Jerry Garcia’s guitars. This work led the firm, which included Owsley (‘The Bear’) Stanley, the guitar builder Rick Turner, and designer Geoff Gould, to produce its own Standard Series I and II electric guitars and basses, promoted from the mid-1970s by the bassist Stanley Clarke, among other well-known performers....

Article

Ałepa  

Laurence Libin

Term for various instruments among the Choctaw people of Mississippi, USA. Meanings of the term were probably extended to cover non-native instruments by Rev. Cyrus Byington, a 19th-century missionary concerned with translating the Bible into Choctaw. Ałepa chito denotes a large drum or bass fiddle, ałepa chito isht boli is a drum stick, and ...

Article

Christopher Larkin

German family firm of wind instrument makers. The business, located in Mainz, was established in 1782 by Franz Ambros Alexander (b Miltenberg, July 22, 1753; d Mainz, Dec 1, 1802), who was described in a Mainz Cathedral report of the same year as a wood-turner and wind instrument maker. Portraits depict Franz Ambros and his son Philipp (1787–1864) with clarinets. After his death, Alexander's business was continued by his widow and two of his sons, Claudius (1783–1816) and Philipp, later joined by a third, Kaspar Anton (1803–72). Under the direction of Philipp and Kaspar Anton the firm became known as Gebrüder Alexander, the name it still bears. Kaspar Anton's two sons Franz Anton (1838–1926) and Georg Philip (i) (1849–97) became the third generation to direct the company. Woodwind instruments, mainly for military use, were the firm's main products until the mid-19th century. By that time, however, band instrumentation had become more brass orientated; after Philipp's death in ...