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Article

Anne Beetem Acker

Interactive computer network used as an extended musical instrument, played by a San Franciso Bay–area experimental computer network band also called The Hub. The band, founded in 1985 by Tim Perkis and John Bischoff, evolved from the League of Automatic Music Composers (1978–83). The concept of The Hub is to create live music resulting from the unpredictable behaviour of the interconnected computer system. The composer/performers consider their performances a type of ‘enhanced improvisation’.

Initially The Hub provided a custom-built central ‘mailbox’ computer and made use of a MIDI network providing communication between the composer/performers’ synthesizers. With the maturation of commercial MIDI equipment, the band shifted to using the Opcode Studio V multiport MIDI interface for their hub. Since MIDI is designed to allow one player or computer to control a group of synthesizers but not to allow a network of synthesizers to interact, band member Scot Gresham-Lancaster devised a way to program the system so the Opcode Studio V could route messages among all the synthesizers in the network....

Article

British firm based in Surbiton, Surrey, founded in 1995 by Martin Phelps and Alan Kempster to introduce ‘electronic hymnals’ to the UK market. The firm distributes British-made portable devices that can store and play back 3000 or more hymn accompaniments and simultaneously display hymn verses on large screens. The electronic hymnal, known as ‘Hymnal Plus’, has a broader repertory than most organists and can supplement or replace the use of an organ, especially in the increasing number of churches that lack an organist. It is also useful for worship services in schools, retirement homes, prisons, hospitals, ships, and outdoor venues where no organ is available. Additional music can be imported from iPods, MP3 players, and the like. The MIDI-equipped HT-300 model, introduced in 2005, can be pre-programmed for each service and is controlled by the worship leader from a wireless, LCD touch-screen handset. Tempo, pitch, loudness, musical style, choice of verses, and other features are variable; preset musical styles range from traditional, digitally sampled pipe organ accompaniment to ‘happy clappy’ instrumentals. An interactive psalm accompaniment feature is available for Anglican chant. Loudspeakers are built into the unit, which can also be connected to an external sound system. Devices have been sold in Africa, America (with revised repertory list), and Australia, as well as throughout the UK....

Article

Ibach  

Margaret Cranmer

German firm of piano and organ makers. In 1794 Johannes Adolph Ibach (b Klausen bei Lüttringhausen, nr Barmen, 1766; d 1848) founded the firm in Beyenburg and built his first square piano. At about the same time he restored the organ of the monastery at Beyenburg.

In the Westphälischen Anzeiger of 14 October 1800 Ibach advertised ‘all kinds of fortepianos, including grand pianos of the highest quality and in the finest taste, as well as large and small pipe-organs’. The firm grew and by 1816 he had a workshop in the Alleestrasse, Unterbarmen, producing 40 to 50 instruments annually. Ibach's sons, Carl Rudolph Ibach (1804–63) and Richard Ibach (1813–89), joined the firm in 1834 and 1839 respectively; it subsequently became known as ‘Adolph Ibach Söhne, Orgelbauanstalt und Pianofortefabrik’. Richard took over the organ building part of the firm in 1869, and Carl's son P.A. Rudolf Ibach (...

Article

Laurence Libin, Arnold Myers, Barbara Lambert and Albert R. Rice

Musical instruments are collected for many reasons — for use in performance, as objects of veneration or visual art, to furnish ethnological and historical evidence, to illustrate technological developments and serve as models for new construction, for financial investment and sale, and merely to satisfy curiosity. Amateur and professional musicians, wealthy aristocrats, religious and municipal bodies, schools and museums are among those who amass instruments for one reason or another. Criteria distinguishing successful modern collections include not merely size, but also quality and accessibility of holdings, condition and documentation of individual objects, and integrity or coherence of the whole. This article outlines the history of instrument collecting with attention to the motives and conditions that influence collectors, and deals with assemblages of musical instruments gathered intentionally and more or less permanently. Instruments awaiting dispersal (e.g. in a dealer’s or maker’s shop) or accumulated apparently by chance are considered only in passing....

Article

Laurence Libin and Albert R. Rice

Musical instruments are collected for many reasons—for use in performance, as objects of veneration or visual art, to furnish ethnological and historical evidence, to illustrate technical developments and to serve as models for new construction, for financial investment and sale, and merely to satisfy curiosity. This article is an account of public and private collections in the United States; instruments awaiting dispersal (e.g., in a dealer’s or maker’s shop) or accumulated by chance are not considered.

Instruments for use in performance have long been collected in the United States by individuals and by religious, civic, and military institutions, notably since the mid-18th century among the music-loving Moravian communities of Bethlehem, Lititz, and Nazareth, Pennsylvania, where instruments are still cherished and displayed. The large-scale, systematic accumulation of instruments for non-musical purposes, however, began in the United States only in the last quarter of the 19th century, chiefly in connection with ethnographic fieldwork sponsored by schools and government agencies, but also under the auspices of wealthy private collectors. Extensive permanent repositories of exotic instruments originated at research centers, mainly on the East Coast, where musical artifacts were preserved for anthropological comparison and analysis. Smaller, more casual assemblages of attractive instruments often decorated the music rooms of urban mansions; occasionally such domestic collections were donated to local museums, where they might be supplemented by acquisitions of high artistic quality. More recently, instruments have been collected widely not only by investors for eventual profit through resale but by musicians seeking information about the performance practices and tone colors of earlier times and by instrument makers studying antiques as models....

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

[IDRS]

International organization established in 1971, dedicated to double reed players, instrument manufacturers, and enthusiasts. The society aims to enhance the art of double reed playing; encourage the performance of double reed literature; improve instruments, tools, and reed-making material; encourage the composition and arranging of music for double reeds; act as a resource for performers; assist teachers and students of double reed instruments; encourage cooperation and an exchange of ideas between the music industry and the society; and foster a world-wide communication between double reed musicians (IDRS Constitution, 1997). IDRS has over 4,400 members from 56 countries. The society’s website (www.idrs.org) hosts archives of its publications, conferences, and competitions, along with information on double reed performance, pedagogy, and research.

The society grew out of a thrice-yearly newsletter, To the World’s Bassoonists (1969–77). In the second year of its existence, a parallel newsletter, To the World’s Oboists...

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

[IHS]

International organization dedicated to horn performance, teaching, composition, and research, and the preservation and promotion of the horn as a musical instrument. The society was formed in June 1970 at the Second International Horn Workshop, in Tallahassee, Florida. It began publishing a refereed journal, The Horn Call, in Feb 1971; since its inception the journal has grown from a biannual to a quarterly publication. The society holds workshops, lectures, and seminars; awards grants and scholarships; encourages new compositions and arrangements for the horn; and presents honors and recognition for distinctive service related to the horn. It also maintains the IHS Archive, housed in the Sibley Music Library at the Eastman School of Music, as a repository for documents and memorabilia related to the history and development of the society, as well as for specially donated material relating to the horn. Its website www.hornsociety.org contains information on society activities and events of interest to horn players. IHS has over 3500 members from 55 countries, including university teachers, students, horn designers/builders, composers, music libraries, music publishers, internationally renowned touring artists, symphony musicians, and amateur players....

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

[ITG]

International organization established in 1974 by Charles Gorham and Robert Nagel with the mission “to promote communications among trumpet players around the world and to improve the artistic level of performance, teaching, and literature associated with the trumpet.” ITG welcomes professional and amateur performers, teachers, students, manufacturers, publishers, and others interested in belonging to an organization dedicated to the trumpet profession. Its members number more than 5000 individuals from 56 countries.

From 1975 through 1982, ITG published the quarterly ITG Newsletter and the annual International Trumpet Guild Journal. In 1982, the newsletter was discontinued and replaced by the quarterly ITG Journal. In additional to its scholarly publications, the ITG hosts an annual conference, the first of which was held in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1975, as well as many competitions and conferences for trumpet players of all levels and interests, including the Carmine Caruso International Jazz Trumpet Solo Competition and the Ellsworth Smith International Trumpet Solo Competition. ITG underwrites scholarly works on the trumpet and sponsors new compositions for trumpet. It has affiliate chapters throughout the United States and in many other countries....

Article

Arian Sheets

American manufacturer of bowed and fretted string instruments based in Columbus, OH. It is significant as one of the first factory-based producers of bowed string instruments to use machine carving for the fabrication of such components as the front, back, and scroll. An announcement was made in Music Trade Review (30 December 1916) that the Guldan Violin Company was established at 171 West Main St., the first known information about the company. Beginning in 1920 advertisements for Jackson-Guldan Violin Company appeared in The Violinist, some of which offered the production of violins for stencil, or secondary company, branding. Some such Jackson-Guldan instruments survive, notably with the decaled logos of music schools on the back, such as the First National Institute of Allied Arts, South Bend, IN, or with the paper label of Slingerland’s Correspondence School of Music, Chicago, the predecessor to the Slingerland Drum Company, inside the body. The establishment of this line of work was related to the end of the dominant supplies of mass-produced violins from Germany, Austria-Hungary, France, and Japan due to World War I. By the time that these foreign suppliers resumed exports to the United States, Jackson-Guldan was sufficiently established to compete with these larger-volume producers. Nevertheless, in the 1930s the company also produced toys in addition to musical instruments. Jackson-Guldan instruments were offered in various grades ranging from machine-carved and spray-finished student instruments to hand-finished examples which, unlike most foreign violins, were still handmade, although often of poor quality....

Article

Hugh Davies

An electronic organ developed by the Dutch designer and organist Johannus Versteegt and manufactured by Johannus Orgelbouw in Ede, near Amhem, since 1967. Versteegt had previously designed the original models of the electronic home organ manufactured by Eminent, Riha, and Viscount. Intended primarily for church use, the Johannus organ combines elements of 18th-century and modern tone qualities; the range of two- and three-manual models includes a couple of two-manual ‘positive’ organs. Some home organ models are also produced, as well as a few four-manual instruments.

From the early 1970s the Johannus organ used between one and seven master oscillators (c2 MHz) to generate sounds; each oscillator, using two stages of frequency division, successively produces the 12 semitones of the highest octave and all the lower octaves. Other features introduced in the 1970s and 80s included digital reverberation and electronic simulation of the ‘chiff’ transient attack found in flute stops on some pipe organs. The multiple loudspeaker systems have different frequency characteristics, and are mounted in cabinets whose appearance is modelled on a rank of organ pipes....

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith and Peter Ward Jones

(fl 1740–62). English music publisher, printer, music seller and possibly violin maker. He began his business in London by 1740, and probably acquired part of those of Daniel Wright and Benjamin Cooke, some of whose publications he reissued from the original plates. Around the mid-18th century the predominance of the Walsh engraving and publishing business began to wane, and Johnson was responsible for publishing some of the best music of the day, including works by Arne, Felton, Geminiani, Nares, Domenico Scarlatti and Stanley, as well as annual volumes and large collections of country dances. Unusually, many of Johnson's editions bore dates; their technical quality was high, some being engraved by John Phillips. A number of fair-quality violins bear the Johnson label, most probably made for rather than actually by him.

Johnson appears to have died about 1762, and from that time to 1777 most of the imprints bear the name of ‘Mrs. Johnson’ or ‘R. Johnson’, presumably his widow. The old imprint ‘John Johnson’ occasionally appears in these years, and may refer to her late husband or to another relative. Johnson's sign from ...

Article

Laurence Libin

[Kong Hsue Sheh]

Manufacturer and distributor of musical instruments, headquartered in Taiwan. The company, part of a conglomerate that also includes K. H. S. Investing Co., Ltd, K. H. S. Trading Co., K. H. S. Audio Co., Ltd, Aeolus Music Corp., and Musix Co., Ltd, was founded in 1930 by Chien-Chung Hsieh and his brothers in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The company, originally named Wan-Wu (‘everything available’), was renamed Kong Hsue Sheh (‘contribute to schools and society’) after World War II; it was registered in Taipei in 1950. K. H. S. has operations in Taiwan, Japan, China, the Netherlands, and the USA (Mt Juliet, Tennessee), and a worldwide distribution network for products ranging from motorcycles to wind and string instruments and drums, mostly of student grade. In 2010 the parent company of K. H. S. had about 4200 employees and declared corporate revenue of about US$590 million, some US$295 million from instrument production and sales. Among its brands is M. Hohner, of which K. H. S. bought a majority share in ...

Article

Sabine K. Klaus

Firm of brass instrument makers in Cincinnati, Ohio. Franz Gotthold Kaiser (b Schöneck, Germany, 30 Aug 1825; d Cincinnati, 25 May 1890) trained with Carl Heinrich Beuthner, the brother-in-law of Carl August Zoebisch, in Neukirchen (today Markneukirchen); he emigrated to the USA in 1852 or 1853 and is first listed as musical instrument maker in Cincinnati in 1855. William Kohler (b Saxony, c1823, d Cincinnati, 13 Jan 1894) is first listed there in 1858. The partnership apparently began in 1859 and the company name Kaiser & Kohler appears from 1860 to 1890.

Kaiser initially made brass instruments in the European style. By 1860 Kaiser & Kohler had adopted rotary valves with string linkage, employing a special system with arched push rod that is otherwise not recorded. During the American Civil War the firm switched to producing standard string-rotary-valve instruments in over-the-shoulder, bell front, and turning bell configurations. It is likely that Kaiser & Kohler mainly supplied unmarked instruments to the trade, notably to the Wurlitzer firm. Rudolph Wurlitzer (...

Article

Article

Karn  

Barbara Owen

Canadian firm of reed organ, piano and organ manufacturers. Dennis W. Karn (b North Oxford Co., Canada West, 6 Feb 1843; d Toronto, 19 Sept 1916), an amateur musician, joined the reed organ firm of John M. Miller around 1867, buying out his employer in 1870 and continuing under the name of Karn & Miller in Woodstock, Ontario. The firm was also known at various times as the Woodstock Organ Factory and the Woodstock Church Organ Co. In the late 1880s the firm began making pianos, and after a merger in 1896 with the firm of Warren continued the latter's pipe organ business in Toronto under the name of Karn & Warren. The first Karn player piano was made in 1901, and by the first decade of the 20th century the firm had branches in several major Canadian cities as well as London and Hamburg. Karn retired in ...

Article

Kemble  

Anne Beetem Acker

English piano manufacturing firm. It was founded in 1911 by Michael Kemble (1884–1962) in partnership with the Jacobs family in Stoke Newington. In the 1950s Michael Kemble’s eldest son, Robert (1919–2003), assumed co-directorship with Denzil Jacobs (19212013), while Stanley Kemble (b 1922) was responsible for running the factory. Shortly thereafter, to increase production the firm moved to a larger factory near Milton Keynes. The firm’s bestseller in the 1940s was the 90-cm-tall drop-action ‘Minx’ upright. In 1964, Kemble bought the Brinsmead and Cramer piano lines from J.B. Cramer & Co., and from 1970 to 2000 they took over production of Chappell pianos, but few of these brands were actually made. Other brands made by Kemble have included Kirkman, Collard & Collard, B. Squire, Squire & Longson, Rogers Eungblut, Moore & Moore, Renn, and Schmidt-Flohr.

In 1968, Kemble and Yamaha acted as partners to sell Yamaha electronic organs in the UK. In ...

Article

Kemper  

Hans Klotz

German firm of organ builders and string keyboard instrument makers. Adolf Kemper (1811–80) became a citizen of Lübeck in 1839. His son Emanuel (1844–1933) took over the workshop of Theodor Voigt in 1868 and founded the present firm, which has remained under the control of the original family, from Kempringen, Westphalia. Emanuel’s son Karl Reinhold (1880–1957), well known for his collaboration with H.H. Jahnn, took over the firm in 1910. Karl’s son Emanuel Magnus (b Apenrade, 30 Sept 1906; d Lübeck, 17 March 1978) entered the firm in 1944, and greatly broadened its interests to include clavichords, spinets and harpsichords. On 1 January 1974 Emanuel Reinhold (b Lübeck, 8 Jan 1947), son of Emanuel Magnus, became head of the firm. It is uncertain whether Peter Kemper (b Menden, bap. 18 April 1734; d Bonn, 24 Oct 1820) was a member of this family. He was an organ builder in the tradition of Balthasar König, and his work included the organs in Bonn Minster and Aachen Cathedral....

Article

Andrew C. McGraw

[tek-tek]

Processional ensemble of Banyumas, Central Java, Indonesia. The ensemble, developed since 2000, includes up to 20 kentongan (tek-tek) consisting of two tuned lengths of bamboo from 50 to 80 cm long cut in the manner of the calung bar, screwed onto a square frame of bamboo, and carried on a rope strung around the player’s shoulders. The bars are struck with a padded wooden mallet. Up to five musicians play beḍug, large homemade drums constructed from plastic barrels and rubber or plastic heads ranging from 30 to 45 cm in diameter and struck with large padded mallets. A single musician plays several small, one-headed drums and cymbals arranged in the manner of Western marching tom-toms. The melody is played by a single musician on a diatonic set of angklung rattles and doubled on a gambang xylophone. A small suling flute is added along with maracas and Western marching cymbals. The ensemble is played by youth groups in parades, at community centres, and sometimes in organized competitions in which female dancers and MCs are included. Its repertoire includes material adapted from Javanese ...

Article

Kilgen  

Barbara Owen

American firm of organ builders. It was founded in New York by George Kilgen (b Merchingen, nr Osterburken, Germany, 19 March 1821; d St Louis, MO, 6 Dec 1902), who had been apprenticed to Louis Voit (1802–83) in Durlach, Germany. Kilgen emigrated to the USA with a group of political refugees in 1848, finding employment with the Jardine firm before he established his own firm in 1851. In 1873 he moved his company to St Louis, where it prospered. In 1886 the firm became George Kilgen & Son when Charles Christian Kilgen (b New York, 22 April 1859; d St Louis, 6 May 1932) joined as a partner. The firm's most distinguished work dates from the period of the latter's presidency, and includes instruments for St Patrick's Cathedral, New York (1928), and St Justin's Church, Hartford, Connecticut (1932).

After the death of Charles Christian, dissension broke out between his sons Alfred (...

Article

Kimball  

Barbara Owen

American firm of reed organ, piano and organ makers. It was founded in Chicago in 1857 by William Wallace Kimball (b Rumford, ME, 22 March 1828; d Chicago, 16 Dec 1904), the firm becoming known as the W.W. Kimball Co. Sensing the growing commercial importance of Chicago, he moved there in 1857; a chance purchase of a consignment of pianos at an auction shortly afterwards launched his career as a piano dealer. A few years later he added reed organs to his stock, but for over 20 years he purchased his instruments from East Coast manufacturers. In 1865 Kimball married Evalyne Cone, whose brother Albert (d 1900) soon entered the firm, eventually becoming treasurer. The fire in Chicago (1871) destroyed the Kimball store but this was only a temporary setback, and in 1880 Kimball opened his first factory, for the manufacture of reed organs. In ...