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Article

Hans-Martin Plesske

German firm of music publishers and printers. It was probably established on 27 January 1719 by the printer Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf (b Clausthal, 2 March 1695; d Leipzig, 23 March 1777), who married into the Leipzig firm of printers and type founders J.C. Müller. In 1725 Breitkopf published a Hebrew Bible, the firm's first important publishing venture. His friendship with the poet Johann Christoph Gottsched led to the expansion of the firm's literary publications, with musical editions initially playing a secondary role. Well-known works produced during this period include the Schemellische Gesangbuch (1736) and second editions of parts of Sperontes's Singende Muse an der Pleisse (1740–41).

Under Bernhard's son Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf (b Leipzig, 23 Nov 1719; d Leipzig, 28 Jan 1794), one of the most versatile figures in the history of German publishing and printing, the firm achieved greater importance. In ...

Article

(b Bar-le-Duc; fl Avignon, 1530–35). French type designer. He designed the first music type with round note heads, used in publications by Jean de Channey of works by Carpentras. Briard’s elegant notes are beautifully proportioned and teardrop-shaped, and he did not use ligatures, fig.7).

Printing & publishing of music, §I, 3(ii): Printing from type: Early history...

Article

Norm Cohen

A single sheet, cheaply printed on one side, sold or handed out on the street or in public places, or posted on walls, containing anything from political messages to advertisements to announcements of the coming end of the world to song texts. In the context of American music it is the latter type that is relevant, and the term “broadside” is often used as shorthand for a song text printed on such a sheet. (See also Sheet music.)

They were also called song sheet, penny ballad, ballet, stall ballad, vulgar ballad, or “come-all-ye,” the latter because of the common incipit. These song sheets consisted of one or several song texts arranged in one or two columns on the page, often with decorative woodcut illustrations and/or borders, publisher’s name and address, and perhaps a price. Only occasionally was an author or copyright acknowledged. Rarely was music included, because of expense; more usual was a brief notation, “To the tune of … .” The editing and assembly (and certainly the printing) of broadsides often took place at well-established print shops, but many sheets were printed at the request of a song’s author or performer, and sold by him (very few, if any, were by identifiable women) on the street, in taverns, at markets, and similar locations; or, especially after the Civil War, by mail. Most broadside printers were not well-known sheet music publishers, but many identified themselves as booksellers....

Article

W. Thomas Marrocco and Mark Jacobs

American firm of music publishers. Founded in New York in the 1930s by Irving and Alexander Broude, it publishes scholarly editions and reference books as well as performing editions of works by modern and older composers. Its projects have included new editions of the collected works of Buxtehude, Lully, Marais, Marenzio and Rameau. It publishes the series Monuments of Music and Music Literature in Facsimile, as well as historical sets such as Tudor Church Music, Masters and Monuments of the Renaissance and Music at the Court of Ferrara. Among 20th-century composers published by the firm are Babbitt, Bacon, Berger, Bloch, Duke, Herrmann, Hovhaness, Krenek, La Montaine, Lockwood, Messiaen, Nin-Culmell and Rózsa. Alexander Broude left the organization in 1954 and established his own firm. Irving Broude’s widow, Anne, took over the firm after her husband’s death in 1973; when she retired in 1979, her son Ronald became president. The Broude Trust for the Publication of Musicological Editions was formed in ...

Article

W. Thomas Marrocco and Mark Jacobs

American firm of music publishers, distributors, importers and exporters. Alexander Broude (b New York, 1 Jan 1909) was originally associated with his brother, Irving, in Broude Brothers, and began publishing music in the 1930s in New York. In 1954 Alexander severed the association and founded his own company, Alexander Broude, Inc. (ABI Music), which from ...

Article

Jerome F. Weber

American record company and label. The company was owned by the firm Brunswick-Balke-Collender of Dubuque, Iowa, which was originally a piano manufacturer but by this time was primarily involved in producing bowling and billiards equipment. Records were first issued in 1916; four years later the company released its first discs manufactured using lateral cutting methods. Among the jazz musicians who recorded with the company during its early years were the Original Memphis Five (under the pseudonym the Cotton Pickers) and Fletcher Henderson. Around November 1924 the company acquired Vocalion from the Aeolian Co.; it operated the two labels separately, but with considerable interchange of material and cataloguing. The resulting confusion of issues and matrix numbers continues to perplex discographers. Although it recorded such vaudeville blues singers as Rosa Henderson and Lena Wilson in 1923–4, Brunswick did not have a race series (see Race record ) as such until the launch of its 7000s in ...

Article

Jerome F. Weber

Record company and label. The company was owned by the firm Brunswick-Balke-Collender of Dubuque, Iowa (originally a piano manufacturer but by this time primarily involved in producing bowling and billiards equipment). Records were first issued in 1916; four years later the company released its first discs manufactured using lateral cutting methods. Among the jazz musicians who recorded early for the company were the Original Memphis Five (under the pseudonym the Cotton Pickers) and Fletcher Henderson. Around November 1924 the company acquired Vocalion from the Aeolian Co.; it operated the two labels separately, but with considerable interchange of material and cataloguing. The resulting confusion of issues and matrix numbers continues to perplex discographers. Although it recorded such vaudeville blues singers as Rosa Henderson and Lena Wilson in 1923–4, Brunswick did not have a ‘race series’ (see Race record) as such until the launch of its 7000s in March 1927...

Article

(fl 1528–55). Music printer. He joined the chapel of Renée of France, Duchess of Ferrara, as a clerk between 1525 and 1528, and probably travelled with her household from Paris to Ferrara in September 1528. A Ferrarese document of 1549 describes him as a priest of the diocese of Clermont and almoner to Renée, and he also served there as clerk of the chapel and surgeon to Renée until 1555 or later. Together with his associates Henrico de Campis and Antonio Hucher, he was one of the first to use the single-impression method of music printing in Italy, a technique introduced to Paris early in 1528 by Attaingnant, which Buglhat may have learnt before leaving France. Campis, possibly related to the Lyonnaise music printer Jannot de Campis (fl 1504–10), is listed on the rolls of the Ferrarese court chapel as a singer from 1534 until 1549...

Article

French firm of publishers. It was founded in Paris on 22 July 1765 by Antoine de Peters, a Flemish artist, with the violinist and composer Jean-Baptiste Miroglio. De Peters was granted a privilege for the publication of music in September 1765, but a group of influential publishers, including La Chevardière, Bailleux, Le Clerc and Venier, tried to stop his venture in a court battle which lasted two years; their efforts were unsuccessful and De Peters continued to issue new works. In 1783 the firm advertised G.J. Vogler’s La kermesse ou La fête flamande. The firm continued to appear in trade directories until 1789, though De Peters died about 1779 and Miroglio about 1785. Early catalogues of the firm include instrumental works by Wagenseil, J.P.E. Martini and Jommelli. Its most important publications were the first editions of Gluck’s Alceste (second version, 1776) and La Cythère assiégée (second version, 1775) and the second edition of ...

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by Peter Ward Jones

English music publishers. They were active in London in the 19th century. S.J. Button, a bookseller, was a junior partner with Thomas Purday in the firm of Thompson in London. They directly succeeded Henry Thompson in about 1805 as Purday & Button (from about 1807, Button & Purday), and in 1808 the firm was joined by the organist and composer John Whitaker (b 1776; d London, 4 Dec 1847) to become Button & Whitaker. Besides republishing works originally issued by the Thompson family, such as Apollonian Harmony, the firm produced great quantities of popular songs, small volumes of flute music, collections of glees and country dances, and books of sacred music such as the two volumes entitled The Seraph (1818), edited by Whitaker. From about 1814 to 1819 the firm was variously known as Button, Whitaker & Beadnell, Button, Whitaker & Co., or Button & Co., and from ...

Article

Thane Tierney

American record company. It was originally established in New York in 1952 by songwriter and band leader Archie Bleyer, former musical director for Arthur Godfrey. The label’s first signing was Godfrey protégé Julius La Rosa, famous for having been fired on-air in 1953, the same day Godfrey dismissed Bleyer (off-air) from the program. Other notable artists included the Chordettes, the Everly Brothers, Link Wray, Johnny Tillotson, and Andy Williams.

In 1961, Bleyer started a subsidiary label, Candid Records, that focused on jazz and blues; its roster included Otis Spann, Lightnin’ Hopkins, Charles Mingus, Cecil Taylor, and others.

In 1962, Cadence released its most successful album of all time, comedian Vaughn Meader’s sendup of the Kennedys, The First Family, which spent 12 weeks at number one. By September of 1964, Bleyer had wearied of the business and shuttered Cadence, ultimately selling Andy Williams’ masters back to the singer on the condition that Williams purchase the rest of the label’s assets. Williams subsequently leased some of his own masters back to Columbia, for whom he was then recording, and formed Barnaby Records to distribute selected recordings from the Cadence catalog....

Article

Jerome Roche

(b ?Pavia; fl 1609–29). Italian music editor and singer. Since he was known as ‘magister et reverendo’ he must have taken orders. He was a bass singer in the choir of Pavia Cathedral from 1609 to 1626. He is of greatest interest as the collector of four noteworthy anthologies of north Italian church music published in Venice (RISM 16214, 1624², 1626³ and 16295); all contain motets except the third, which consists of litanies. The volumes include eight works by Monteverdi, seven of which are found in no other printed sources, and ten unica by Alessandro Grandi (i) and four by Rovetta (his earliest published works). Other prominent north Italians represented are Stefano Bernardi, Banchieri – who dedicated his Gemelli armonici (1622) to Calvi – Ignazio Donati, Ghizzolo, Merula, Orazio Tarditi and Turini. Calvi himself contributed motets to the first two and included pieces by his ...

Article

Richard Macnutt

revised by Mariapia Rosso

Italian firm of music publishers and copyists. The founder, Giovanni Canti, had previously worked as an engraver for Ricordi in the 1820s. The firm opened in Milan in 1836, at 1042 Contrada S Margherita. After the founder's death (1858) the firm was run by his widow until 1861, when his son Carlo came of age. In 1865 it moved to 11 via Meravigli, also opening a shop at 2 corsia Giardino (later via Manzoni). In 1875 both the printing works and the private house moved to 7 via Borromei; in September 1876 the shop was moved to 3 via Manzoni. Carlo died in 1876, and on 1 April 1878 his sister Anna sold the firm to the widow of Francesco Lucca. Ten years later (1888) Ricordi absorbed the firm of Lucca and the Canti plates.

In the course of its activity, the Canti firm built up a wide network of business connections with Italian and foreign publishers and booksellers. Partners in the real sense were established in Turin and Florence: in Turin, Evasio Bocca, a tradesman in Piazza Castello, followed in ...

Article

Capitol  

David Mermelstein

American record company specializing in popular music. Based in Los Angeles, it was founded in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Glenn Wallichs and B.G. DeSylva. During its first decade it secured success with recordings by bandleader Stan Kenton and vocalists Peggy Lee, Jo Stafford, Margaret Whiting and Mercer himself. The label was among the first to record on magnetic tape; it was also one of the earliest to supply disc jockeys with complimentary recordings, contributing to the growth of an intense promotional culture that continues to characterize the record industry. Capitol reached maturity in the 1950s when its roster of artists included singers Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra, Kay Starr and guitarist Les Paul. In 1955, EMI purchased a majority interest in the firm, effectively making the label its American pop music arm. During the following year work was completed on Capitol's 13-storey headquarters in Hollywood, built to a cylindrical design that has since achieved iconic status. With the release of Gene Vincent's ...

Article

(b Naples; fl 1645–53). Italian music editor and composer. He was a Franciscan monk and on a title-page of 1653 is called ‘maestro di musica’. He edited a small volume of five-part sacred music (RISM 1645¹), which had gone into a fourth impression by 1650 (1650...

Article

Cappi  

Alexander Weinmann

Austrian firm of music publishers. Founded by Giovanni Cappi (b Blevio, 30 Nov 1765; d Vienna, 5 Jan 1815) in the early 19th century, it remained active through most of the century under a succession of proprietors and changes of name. Cappi had been an employee of the Artaria firm before becoming a partner in 1792 (and later, through his sister's marriage, brother-in-law of Carlo Artaria). The dissension within Artaria & Co. around the turn of the century led to Cappi's resignation, after which he opened his own firm. In 1801 he took on his nephew Pietro Cappi as partner, but the latter returned to Artaria in 1805 as joint proprietor.

Giovanni Cappi began his plate number series at 873, the point which Artaria's own numbering had reached by that time; he kept Artaria's original numbers for all the works that had fallen to him after the division of the firm, adding only his own imprint (which enables these to be identified as earlier editions with new title-pages). A catalogue of ...

Article

Alexander Weinmann

(fl c1790–1830). Austrian music publisher, nephew of Giovanni Cappi. Through his uncle’s influence he was engaged by the firm Artaria in Vienna in 1793. He was subsequently a partner of the new firm Giovanni Cappi (1801–5), and then of Artaria. On 30 July 1816 he was granted a licence for his own fine art business. His firm’s publications appeared with the plate sign ‘P: C:’; part of the catalogue later passed to the Mechetti firm. On 8 August 1818 he made over his premises to Daniel Sprenger and on 10 December 1818 he combined with Anton Diabelli to form the firm Cappi & Diabelli. On 27 September 1824 Pietro Cappi ended this partnership and, with his cousin Carlo Cappi, established the firm Cappi & Comp. but this only existed until 1 April 1826, when Pietro Cappi made over his deed of partnership to Joseph Czerný, and ceased his activity as a publisher....

Article

David L. Crouse

revised by David W. Music

(b Tennessee, Oct 13, 1792; d Franklin, TN, Oct 18, 1859). American singing-school teacher and tunebook compiler. Nothing is known of his early activities or training, but by 1817 Carden was an established singing-school teacher in the Tennessee area. He taught a singing school in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1820, but probably returned to Tennessee shortly thereafter. In September 1822, Carden advertised a singing school in Nashville; he apparently continued to live in the Nashville area until 1850, when he moved to Williamson County (probably Franklin). His first tunebook, The Missouri Harmony, “published by the compiler” in St. Louis but printed in Cincinnati (1820, 2/1850/R 1975, 1994; modern revision, 2005), was the most popular fasola shape-note tunebook of the South and West until the Civil War, achieving at least 24 editions and reprints through 1857; however, Carden seems to have given up his interest in the book after the first edition, and subsequent issues were apparently the work of the Cincinnati printers. Carden procured shape-note music type and published two more tunebooks himself: ...

Article

Carisch  

Stefano Ajani

Italian firm of publishers and dealers of music and instruments. It was founded in Milan in 1887 by Giovanni Andrea Carisch (b Poschiavo, Switzerland, 14 March 1834; d Milan, 1 May 1901) and Arturo Jänichen (b Leipzig, 24 May 1861; d Leipzig, 21 Dec 1920). Music publishing began in earnest when Otto Carisch (d 1895) and Adolfo Carisch (b Tirano, 18 Nov 1867; d Poschiavo, 2 Oct 1936), sons and successors of Giovanni Andrea, took over the firm. In 1905 it absorbed the music publications of Genesio Venturini’s publishing firm in Florence and in July 1915 altered its title to Carisch & C., headed by Adolfo and Otto’s son Guido (b Milan, 8 Feb 1892; d Milan, 9 July 1935). The new Carisch joint-stock company came under the management of a different group in 1936, with the musician Igino Robbiani (...

Article

Carli  

Richard Macnutt

French firm of music publishers. It was founded in Paris about 1805 by Nicolas-Raphaël Carli (b Naples, 1764; d Paris, 15 April 1827). The earliest publications do not bear his name, the imprint reading ‘A la Typographie de la Sirène’ or sometimes ‘Tipografia della Sirena’ (the former retained for his signboard). By January 1807 the firm was at the Péristyle du Théâtre Favart (or sometimes Théâtre Italien), Place des Italiens; an address at 1 rue Favart, used in 1809, was perhaps Carli’s residence. In about December 1817 the main premises removed to 14 boulevard Montmartre, opposite the Jardin Frascati, but for a while the Péristyle des Italiens address was also maintained. In 1827 and 1828 an alternative address, 14 boulevard St Martin, was used. Launer acquired the firm in 1828 (the year after Carli’s death), probably in June, and operated at the boulevard Montmartre premises; Launer’s widow was succeeded on her death in ...