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Patrick J. Smith

(b New York, Aug 24, 1956). American director. After graduating from Colgate University she studied with Ponnelle, with whom she collaborated on Rossini’s L’occasione fa il ladro (1987, Pesaro, repeated at La Scala in 1989). From 1985 to 1990 she was co-artistic director of the Skylight Opera Theater in Milwaukee, where she directed the American première of Stephen Oliver’s Mario and the Magician (1989). She has worked extensively in Europe and the USA on productions including The Devil and Kate and Der Templer und die Jüdin (1988 and 1989, Wexford), Cimarosa’s Gli Orazi ed i Curiazi (1988, Rome) and Beatrice di Tenda (1987, La Fenice) and the American premières of operas by Cesti and Rossini. In 1990 she won international acclaim for her Seattle production of War and Peace, which exemplified the fluid grace and style of her work at its best; the next year she directed ...


Leah G. Weinberg

(b Exeter, NH, Nov 8, 1961). American Musician, songwriter, record company founder, and author. Zanes was raised near Concord, New Hampshire, and after attending Oberlin College for one year, moved to Boston. There, Zanes, his brother Warren, the bass player Tom Lloyd, and the drummer Steve Morrell formed the Del Fuegos. The roots-rock band produced five albums between 1984 and 1989, with singles “Don’t Run Wild,” “I still want you,” “Name Names,” and “Move with me Sister.” After the Del Fuegos disbanded and Zanes’s solo album Cool Down Time failed to sell, he began to listen to banjo songs, cowboy tunes, and traditional songs that he remembered from childhood. After his daughter Anna was born, Zanes’s dissatisfaction with the American children’s music market led him to form a family-oriented band that merged folk and rock styles and instrumentation. Initially known as the Wonderland String Band, the New York based-group underwent changes in title and personnel, first to the Rocket Ship Revue, and then to Dan Zanes & Friends. The seven-member band has produced nine albums on Zanes’s label, Festival Five Records, which include original songs as well as folk, traditional, and gospel songs from the United States, Jamaica, Africa, and Mexico. ...


Andrew Clark

[Corsi, Gian Franco ]

(b Florence, Feb 12, 1923). Italian director and designer . After working for the spoken theatre and in films, he turned to opera in 1948. His early stagings in Italy were of Rossini and Donizetti operas, including La Cenerentola at La Scala in 1953. He gave new life to Italian Romantic opera with his production of Lucia di Lammermoor (with Joan Sutherland) at Covent Garden in 1959, and later that year he turned to verismo with Cavalleria rusticana and Pagliacci, also at Covent Garden. Both productions were still running 25 years later. In 1963 he collaborated with Karajan on an opulent, Romantic staging of La bohème at La Scala, which established him as one of the leading Italian opera directors of his generation. His production of Falstaff for the Metropolitan in 1964 was criticized as fussy and un-Shakespearean. In 1965 he worked with Maria Callas on her Tosca at Covent Garden and ...


Andrew Lamb

[Walzel, Camillo]

(b Magdeburg, Feb 11, 1829; d Vienna, March 17, 1895). Austrian librettist and theatre director. At 16 he joined his father’s lithographic company in Budapest, and in 1847 he attended the Wiener Akademie der bildenden Künste. During the civil war of 1848–9 he joined a Tyrolean regiment, became an officer, and in 1851, on account of his artistic ability, was taken into the Military Geographical Institute. He then became a newspaper editor and in 1856 joined the Danube Steamship Company in Pest. As captain of the Mathjas Király he performed a heroic river rescue at Linz in 1868. He meanwhile indulged his interest in writing and translating, before retiring from the river in 1873. His first original theatrical work was a comedy for Carl Anton Friese (the first Frank in Die Fledermaus), after which he teamed up with Richard Genée for the writing of operetta librettos. From ...


Ann Van Der Merwe

(b Chicago, IL, March 21, 1867; d New York, NY, July 22, 1932). American theatrical producer. He was one of the most prolific and influential producers in the history of American musical theater. Ziegfeld began his career recruiting musicians for the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago on behalf of his father. He soon found himself drawn to the world of popular entertainment rather than classical music, however, and spent the next few years promoting various types of acts, ranging from strongman Eugene Sandow to the infamous dancing ducks of Denmark. By the late 1890s, Ziegfeld had moved from vaudeville and variety to the Broadway stage and was producing musical comedies for anna Held , his first wife. Having seen her perform in Paris, he thought she would prove popular with New York audiences. He was right; shows such as A Parlor Match (1896) and The Parisian Model...



Durrell Bowman

(b Frankfurt, 12 Sept 1957). German film composer, keyboardist, and producer. He moved to London in his teens and later wrote jingles there for commercials. He briefly played synthesizers with the British New Wave rock band the Buggles (appearing in the video for Video Killed the Radio Star in 1979), the Italian electronic-pop group Krisma (playing synthesizer on its 1980 album Cathode Mamma), and New Zealand singer Zaine Griff. He also co-formed the band Helden (1980–83, known for two singles and a bootleg album) and worked with the Spanish synth-pop band Mecano (1983–5). While apprenticing from 1982 to 1985 with the British film composer Stanley Myers, Zimmer combined his ’synthetic’ work as a popular music synthesizer player and songwriter with more traditional, orchestral film sounds. Zimmer’s collaborations with Myers included Moonlighting (1982), Insignificance (1985), and My Beautiful Laundrette (...


Rene Macura

Oscar-winning composer Hans Zimmer poses at the keyboard in his Santa Monica, Calif. studio March 6, 2001. The music he wrote for "Gladiator" has so-far produced two best-selling CDs and earned Zimmer his seventh Oscar nomination.

(AP Photo/Rene Macura)


G.J. Cederquist

(Alice )

(b Lincoln, NE, Aug 23, 1960). American Director, adapter, and educator. From a family of academics, Zimmerman received her BS, MA, and PhD at Northwestern University in Performance Studies under the mentorship of Frank Galati. The program focused on how to adapt works of literature for the stage; much of Zimmerman’s later work would reflect such scholarly and text-based influences. Based in Chicago, her career began at Lookingglass Theatre Company, a troupe whose founding members also attended Northwestern. The company’s aesthetic focused on storytelling through strong physicality and breathtaking aerobatics within a highly presentational style, as seen in Zimmerman’s 1990 production of The Odyssey. In 1995 she joined the artistic collective of the Goodman Theatre—a roster of resident directors formed by artistic director Robert Falls—and led a production of All’s Well That Ends Well. Other early notable adapted productions at the Goodman included The Arabian Nights and The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci...


Claude Conyers

(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In 1980 she relocated to New York and continued her studies with Dianne McIntyre. Following her childhood bent for making up dances, she founded her own company, Urban Bush Women, in 1984, and began choreographic explorations of the history and culture of African American women in an urban, multi-ethnic environment. Blending modern and jazz dance, her works range in subject matter from Shelter (1988), a piercing study of homelessness, to Batty Moves (1995), a saucy celebration of the buttocks of black women. Some of Zollar’s dances are evening-length works performed to percussive sounds, a capella vocalizations, music by contemporary composers, and the spoken word, arising from librettos written by poets and novelists. Notable among these is ...


Deane L. Root

revised by Michael Musgrave

(b Mittelhausen, Thuringia, May 17, 1800; d Leipzig, Sept 25, 1860). German choral director and composer. He was first taught music by his father, a schoolteacher, and in Leipzig from 1814 he studied music at the Thomasschule with J.G. Schicht, through whose influence he was appointed singing teacher at the Ratsfreischule (1820). In 1822 with Hemleben he established a private music institute for weekly choral rehearsals, and in 1833 founded in Leipzig a Liedertafel known as the Zöllnerverein, a male choral society modelled on Zelter’s Berlin organization, which became the model for many later groups. He formed new male choruses at Leipzig in 1840 and 1845, and in 1851 became director of the Künstlerverein. In 1854 he organized a weekly singing group from the Leipzig Kunst- und Gewerbeverein and in 1857 formed another male chorus, which (with those founded in 1845 and 1854) was to become the Zöllnerbund. By ...


Geoffrey Norris

(b Venice, c1715; d ?Venice, after 1781). Italian musician. In 1739 his opera Lucio Papirio dittatore was performed in Graz by Pietro Mingotti’s Italian opera company. On 21 November 1745 he was appointed deputy Kapellmeister to the Bonn court of Archbishop Clemens August of Cologne. He held this post until 1752, and then, probably working with Locatelli’s touring opera company, went to Prague, where in 1753 his opera Il Vologeso was performed. In 1757 he arrived in St Petersburg, producing his opera Didone abbandonata in 1758 and La Galatea two years later. He was appointed deputy conductor of the Italian opera under Raupach, and was subsequently promoted to conductor. He is thought to have succeeded to the directorship of the imperial chapel choir after Galuppi left Russia in 1768. In 1781 Zoppis himself left St Petersburg and probably returned to Italy. Among his other works are a setting of Metastasio’s oratorio ...


John Brackett

(b New York City, NY, Sept 1, 1953). American composer, improviser, saxophonist, producer, and record label owner. Zorn is the best known composer and performer associated with the “Downtown” scene in New York City’s Lower East Side in Manhattan. He has composed works for a variety of ensembles including string quartets, orchestras, chamber ensembles, rock bands, and jazz groups, as well as works for solo instruments, voice, and other instrumental and vocal combinations. His compositions often incorporate elements and techniques from a number of musical genres and traditions such as rock and popular music from all over the world, jazz (particularly the post-bop and free jazz traditions), classical music (especially the music of a number of 20th-century avant-garde composers and movements), improvised music, and film music. Zorn’s interest in a variety of avant-garde movements, movies, Judaism and Jewish identity, and occult religious traditions has exerted a powerful influence on his aesthetic of art and composition....