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Article

Hugh Davies

revised by Anne Beetem Acker

(b Berlin, Germany, Aug 3, 1939). German physicist and experimental instrument builder. He and Ulrike Trüstedt (b Altusried, Allgäu, Germany, 24 Feb 1943) formed a duo, performing on electronic instruments of their own design that Dieter has constructed in Munich since 1970. The music is composed by Ulrike, whose scores Touching (1978), Winterfelder (1980), and Windharfen (1981) contain descriptions and illustrations of the instruments.

In Bewegungs-Hologramm (1974), movements within a defined space affect a specially devised synthesizer by producing changes in an ultrasonic field. The Lambdoma (1976–7) is a square board of 144 touch-plates for changing the frequency of a specially constructed small monophonic synthesizer; the plates (about a third of which are duplications) produce different transposition ratios, which control the signal from the oscillator. Between 1975 and 2012 the Trüstedts developed a series of instruments called Chin, partly based on the ...

Article

Barbara Owen

(b Aichi-ken, Dec 10, 1933; d Shirakawa, December 22, 2005). Japanese organ builder and organist. He graduated in 1958 from the Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku (Tokyo Music School), where he had become interested in the workings of the school’s organ. He served an apprenticeship with the Schlicker Organ Co. of Buffalo, New York, from 1960 to 1963, and with Flentrop Orgelbouw, Zaandam, Netherlands, from 1963 to 1964. He then returned to Japan to open his own workshop in a Tokyo suburb, and later moved to a larger shop in Shirakawa, Kurokawa. In 1971 he began a study of the historic organs of Europe, and built several organs based on north European and Italian models, all of which have mechanical action and classical voicing. He was the first Japanese maker to have undertaken the building of pipe organs. Important instruments include those in the Protestant Church, Yashima (1974), Tokai University (...

Article

Tubbs  

Charles Beare

revised by Philip J. Kass

English family of bowmakers. The family can be traced in London back to the middle of the 1600s, but the immediate forebear of the bowmakers was the weaver William Tubbs of Bethnal Green, three of whose sons, William (b Bethnal Green, 30 Oct 1770), Henry (b Bethnal Green, 27 April 1785) and Thomas (b Stepney, December 1790; d Lambeth, 29 March 1863) took to bowmaking during the years after 1800, most likely in the workshop of the elder Edward Dodd (see Dodd family). The work of the brothers spanned the era of the modernization of the bow, but only Thomas made any quantity of branded works, and so it has not been possible to identify the individual hands in a workshop in which the quality of work was variable.

Thomas considered the most important maker of the first generation of the family. He first became active on his own account in Soho during the early 1820s, ultimately settling in Lambeth where he remained until his death. While many of his bows were marked with his own name, many others were made for the trade, including such noted shops as those of George Corsby, William Davis, and Louis Panormo, much of whose production probably came from Thomas's workshop. His brand-mark was ...

Article

Jane M. Bowers

Flemish family of woodwind instrument makers. Jean Arnold Antoine Tuerlinckx (b Aerschot, 22 Nov 1753; d Mechelen, 19 Dec 1827) was the son of a clockmaker and amateur harpsichordist. He began to make instruments at the age of 18, by copying a new French clarinet. In 1782 he married Catherine Meikens and moved to Mechelen where he established himself as a maker of woodwind instruments (and also of arrows), and soon began to receive important orders from the Netherlands. Following a brief imprisonment in May 1799 during the French revolutionary period, his business expanded and he gained clients in both France and Germany. In 1808 his first wife died, and he married Marie Catherine Clavers in the following year. At the peak of his career he employed 40 workmen in two separate workshops, one for brass instruments and the other for woodwind. He frequently equipped entire military and civil wind bands (...

Article

[Johannes; Hans von Basel]

(b Basle, c1460; d Basle, summer 1519). Swiss organ builder. He was the son of a Basle gunsmith and matriculated at Basle University, 1476–7. By about 1500 he was one of the most important organ builders in Switzerland and south-west Germany. He appears to have worked in Mantua Cathedral in 1503. He built new organs in Basle (1487, 1496–9 and before 1510), Mainz (before 1496, perhaps 1490), Brugg (1493 and the following years), Zürich Grossmünster (1505–7), Colmar (before 1513) and Biel (1517–19). He also rebuilt and repaired organs in Basle (1482), Konstanz Cathedral (1489–90; he may also have built a small organ there in 1490–91), Zürich Grossmünster (1511–13), Mainz Cathedral (1514), Berne Minster (1517–19) and Colmar (1513, 1518).

Tugi should not be confused with the German organist Johannes Gross (...

Article

[Karl]

(b Wallerstein, Feb 24, 1753; d Berlin, Nov 1, 1797). German cor basse player. He studied under his father Johann Türrschmidt (b Leschgau, 24 June 1725; d Wallerstein, 1800), a renowned primo horn player in the orchestra of the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein. From 1770 Carl Türrschmidt and the cor alto player Johann Palsa appeared as duettists in Paris, where they were also appointed to the private orchestra of the Prince of Guémené. The pair became one of the most famous horn duos of the 18th century, playing together for more than two decades. During the years 1773–81 they performed together on at least 14 occasions at the Concert Spirituel, playing at times with J.J. Rodolphe and Punto (Pierre, 367–8). In 1783 they joined the orchestra of the Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel. After their appearance in a double concerto by Antonio Rosetti at Koblenz (1785) the elector ordered four horns of the ...

Article

Uhlmann  

Rudolf Hopfner

Austrian family of wind instrument makers and musicians . The firm was founded by Johann Tobias Uhlmann (b Kronach, Upper Franconia, 8 June 1778; d Vienna, 12 May 1838), who was granted a licence to trade in Vienna in 1810; he took the oath of citizenship in 1817. In addition to his instrument-making activities he was an oboist at the Theater an der Wien. In 1831 his sons Leopold and Jakob entered the firm, which already had become one of the most important in the Austrian lands, producing wind instruments of all kinds and exporting them to the rest of Europe as well as to Egypt, Persia and Brazil. Jakob Uhlmann (bap 19 Dec 1803; d 18 Nov 1850) received his licence to trade in 1830 and was also an oboist in the Hofmusikkapelle from 1843. He died of typhoid. His son Jakob (b 1837) is recorded at the same address during the following years. The fact that Jakob Uhlmann junior (...

Article

Ukulele  

Thomas J. Walsh

[‘ukulele; ukulele]

A small four-string instrument of the guitar family. The ukulele is derived from a pair of Portuguese instruments first brought to Hawai’i in the late 1870s by immigrants from the island of Madeira. The ukulele (or ‘ukulele, a Hawaiian term meaning “jumping flea”) developed from the machete, a four-string Madeiran instrument. However, its tuning is taken from the first four strings of the five-string Madeiran rajão.

Ukuleles were first built in Hawai’i by three Madeiran cabinetmakers, Augusto Dias, Manuel Nunes, and Jose do Espirito Santo, all of whom arrived in Hawai’i in 1879. After serving their agricultural contracts, all three eventually settled in Honolulu. By 1885, each was advertising the various instruments he was building. Machetes and rajãoes quickly became known on the islands by a number of other names, most commonly “taro-patch guitars” or “taro-patch fiddles.” By 1888, the four-string instrument was becoming known as the ukulele, and soon the term “taro-patch fiddle” primarily was used to describe the larger five-string instrument. By the early 1890s, the original machete tuning of d’-g’-b’-d” was falling out of favor. Instead, the reentrant tuning of the Madeiran ...

Article

[Marc, Max]

(fl ?mid-16th century). German lute maker, active mainly in Italy. He was a cousin of Luca and Sigismondo (i) Maler and married Angela, the daughter of Giovanni Gisoli (also known as Batilori), with whom Luca Maler made a contract in 1527. In 1530 Maler's son Sigismondo (ii) was apprenticed to Unverdorben for a year, and Unverdorben is mentioned as a beneficiary in Luca Maler's first will, also dated 1530. Shortly afterwards he appears to have moved to Venice, although legacies to the daughters of ‘Marco Oserdoni, lute maker of Venice’ in Maler's second and last will of 1552 suggest that the family connection was maintained.

The Fugger inventory of 1566 (see Stockbauer, and Smith) includes ‘Eine grosse alte Lauten von Max Unverdorben’. A few of his instruments survive, though none are in original condition. These include a fine multi-rib yew instrument (in Fenton House, London), labelled ‘Marx Unverdorben in Venetia 158…’, which was rebuilt as a 13-course baroque lute by Buchstetter of Regensburg in ...

Article

Charles Beare and John Dilworth

(fl London, c1650–80). English or Scottish violin maker. He was probably a pupil of Jacob Rayman, and was more or less a contemporary of Edward Pamphilon. Urquhart was the most accomplished craftsman of the three. An early, small-sized violin bearing a label with the date 166– (last digit illegible) is of extraordinary delicacy, with a golden varnish of the highest quality. Later instruments are slightly more robust, but excellently finished, and often have a fine red varnish of almost Italian character. These instruments are capable of very fine tone, and can often be distinguished from provincial Italian work of the period only by the intriguingly worked scroll, which is incised at the chin and marked with small prickings around the volute. Unfortunately many of the scrolls and labels were removed by unscrupulous dealers and replaced with more Italianate substitutes. It is likely that some of his work was relabelled and sold in his own lifetime by John Shaw, an eminent instrument dealer and music publisher of the period, who was appointed ‘instrument maker to his Majesty’ in ...

Article

Pascale Vandervellen

[Henrique ]

(bap. Tournai, Southern Netherlands, Nov 19, 1722; d Brussels, Southern Netherlands, June 7, 1790). Flemish harpsichord and piano maker, active in Portugal. He married Catherine-Joseph Pierre in Lisbon on 3 July 1757. A beautiful grand piano dated 1763 survives (P.L. mm), the second oldest extant Portuguese grand. It is constructed like a Portuguese harpsichord but its action is modelled on Cristofori’s and the soundboard ribbing recalls the Flemish harpsichord tradition. This might indicate that Van Casteel learned his craft in the Low Countries, perhaps in Tournai beside the harpsichord maker Albert Delin, though this is speculation. Because in 1760 the Lisbon harpsichord maker Manuel Antunes received an exclusive privilege to make and sell pianos for ten years, Van Casteel’s 1763 piano might have caused legal problems, resulting in his move to Brussels in 1769. There between 1770 and 1777 Van Casteel published advertisements in the Gazette des Pays-Bas...

Article

Van Dam  

Adri de Groot

Dutch family of organ builders. Lammert [Lambertus] van Dam (i) (1744–1820) first trained as an organ builder in Gouda from 1764, presumably with Hendrik Hermanus Hess. As early as 1768 he worked for Albertus Anthoni Hinsz. In 1777 he set up a workshop in Leeuwarden, the capital of Friesland. The house he bought there in 1779 remained in the family as a workshop until 1917. He completed his first organ in Oldeboorn in 1779. This move to Friesland proved to be fortuitous, not only for the firm, but also for the province, in which organs had been scarce, and which gained about 125 organs from the four generations of Van Dam builders. Lambertus (i)'s enlargement of the Hinsz organ of Wassenaar, near The Hague, with a Rugwerk helped the firm to receive regular work in the western provinces as well.

Although Lammert did not make many large organs (his largest was Voorburg, ...

Article

Adri de Groot

Dutch firm of organ builders. Jan Leendert van den Heuvel (b5 Nov 1946) learnt organ building with the Flentrop firm. At the age of 20 he set up his own business in his father’s painting workshop in Dordrecht. His first ten-stop organ was well received and this led to a contract for a three-manual, 32-stop instrument for the Singelkerk, Ridderkerk, completed in 1972. In 1975 he was joined by his brother Peter Aart van den Heuvel (b13 Feb 1958); the firm became known as J.L. van den Heuvel-Orgelbouw B.V. in 1979.

The Van den Heuvels’ love of French Romantic organs and their music inspired a study tour of Cavaillé-Coll instruments with Michelle Leclerc and Daniel Roth. Much of the knowledge gained from this tour was applied to the construction of the four-manual, 80-stop organ behind an old case for the Nieuwe Kerk, Katwijk-aan-Zee, in ...

Article

Barbara Owen

(bWeert, Netherlands, Feb 20, 1851; dMishawaka, IN, March 9, 1932). American organ builder of Dutch birth. His father, Mathieu H. Van Dinter, was an organ builder, and his mother, Elizabeth Vermeulen, the daughter of an organ builder. Louis received his training in the Netherlands with the Vermeulen firm, emigrating to Detroit in 1870 or 1871 with his parents and brothers. In 1874 he married Mary Plets, and the following year established his own workshop in Detroit. In 1886 he moved to a small factory in Mishawaka, where he built organs until his retirement in 1930. Van Dinter’s son, John Joseph (1889–1954), sold the factory, but continued to do organ maintenance, rebuilding and piano tuning until 1945. Louis Van Dinter is said to have built 180 organs, a large proportion of them for Catholic churches, including his own church, St Joseph’s, Mishawaka (1884). One of his largest instruments was built in ...

Article

Adri de Groot

(b Breda, Aug 15, 1795; d Harenermolen, 1878). Dutch organ builder, carillon maker, musician and instrument inventor. His father, Cornelis (b 1762; d 29 Aug 1837) was a clockmaker and inventor of musical instruments who worked on carillons and started an organ-building business in 1805. Petrus completed his father’s last instrument. His brothers were also musicians and gifted craftsmen: Johannes Matthias (1787–1860) was a carillonneur and clockmaker in Breda; and Cornelis Jacobus (1798–1865) was a piano maker and the inventor of several unique mechanical musical instruments.

In 1810 Petrus left his job as municipal carillonneur in Breda and moved to Groningen, where he learned the craft of organ building with H.H. Freytag (d 11 April 1811) and his apprentice J.W. Timpe. His first organ was built for the Dutch Reform church of Assen (1814, now in Havelte) re-using older parts. His reputation as a repairer and restorer grew, and he adapted the large organs of Groningen's Martinikerk, Aa-kerk and Zwolle's Grote Kerk in accordance with contemporary musical tastes and practices. Petrus also designed the magnificent case for the ...

Article

Adri de Groot

Dutch firm of organ builders. It was founded in Utrecht in 1940 by brothers Rijk van Vulpen (i) (b Utrecht, 11 April 1921; d 15 Nov 1997) and Adrianus (Jos) van Vulpen (b Utrecht, 5 July 1922). They had already built their first organ in their father's plumbing workshop from old parts. On 10 March 1952 the third brother, Evert van Vulpen (b Utrecht, 2 Jan 1929) joined the firm as a salaried worker, and Rijk van Vulpen (ii) (b 3 Aug 1955), son of Adrianus, joined likewise on 1 May 1974. In 1983 Rijk (i) retired, leaving Adrianus as sole proprietor. On 27 March 1997 Rijk (ii) took over the firm and changed the name to Gebr. van Vulpen BV. In 1999 Henk Bouwman (b 1 Sept 1938) and Rijk (ii) led the firm. The firm started to blossom in ...

Article

Luc Rombouts

[Van den Ghein, Gheine, Gein, etc.]

Flemish family of bellfounders, carillon builders and carillonneurs. Willem Van den Ghein (d 1533) from Goorle, near Tilburg, was the ancestor of ten founders who were to produce bells and carillons in Mechelen until 1697. His son Peter (i) (d 1561) was one of the first to make carillons. The bells and original barrel of the one he made for the town hall at Zierikzee (Netherlands) in 1554 were moved to the Zuidhavenpoort (at Zierikzee) in the early 1960s, and is the oldest known carillon still chiming. Although built as an automatic instrument, it was also played manually (although possibly not at first). His grandson Peter (ii) (1553–1618) cast a carillon for Monnickendam (Netherlands), which is now the oldest manually-played carillon in the world. In 1638 Peter (iii) (1607–59), nephew of Peter (ii), cast the 6-tonne ‘Salvator’ bell, which still exists, for Ste Gudule, Brussels, with his nephew Peter De Klerck....

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

revised by Philip J. Kass

(fl cFlorence, Italy, 1740–85). Italian violin maker. He followed the Stainer model then current in Florence. While many sources consider Vangelisti a follower of Gabbrielli, surviving instruments reveal a far closer affinity to the work of the Carcassi family, particularly in their fine edging, narrow model, and closely placed f-holes. The scrolls, with longish tails and rounded eyes, also suggest the Carcassis. Vangelisti used a small written or printed label on which his name is occasionally spelled ‘Evangelisti’....

Article

Charles Beare

(b Paris, Nov 13, 1925). French violin maker and restorer . He began his training in the workshop of his father, Marcel Vatelot, one of Paris's foremost luthiers. From there he went in 1946 to learn to make new instruments under Amédée Dieudonné in Mirecourt, returning to Paris to study repairs with Victor Quénoil. He spent a few months in New York in 1949 before rejoining his father. In 1959 Marcel Vatelot handed over the business to his son, staying on as a consultant and making his almost daily contribution at the shop until his death in September 1970. In the meantime Etienne Vatelot's skill, knowledge and reputation continued to grow; he was president of the French Violin Makers' Society from 1965 to 1969, and was appointed to the Légion d'Honneur in 1972. His opinion as an expert on early instruments has been widely sought and highly regarded, and he has also been especially noted for his expertise in tonal adjustments. He published the definitive work on French bows, ...

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Hanover, bap. Oct 11, 1679; d Hanover, Jan 25, 1756). German organ and harpsichord builder . He learnt organ building from his father, Martin Vater, is known to have worked for Arp Schnitger as journeyman in 1697 and 1700, and he set up on his own in about 1702. He became organist to the court of the Elector of Hanover (later King George I of England) in 1708–9, and court organ builder in 1714. By 1716–17 he had to his credit ‘33 organs, some new-built, some renovated’. Most of his work was done in the electorate of Hanover, the bishopric of Osnabrück and the county of Oldenburg, but he also worked for the landgraves of Kassel and Darmstadt, and in Amsterdam he built a new organ for the Oude Kerk (1724–6) and rebuilt an instrument in the Westerkerk (1726). Like his brother Anton in Paris, Christian Vater was in demand as a builder of harpsichords and clavichords. His son Johannes succeeded him as organ builder to the court of Hanover....