(b Aubignan, Carpentras, July 27, 1721; d Paris, Dec 2, 1784). French man of letters. As a boy he mixed with the many musicians in the service of the Italian prelates, attracted to Carpentras by generous stipends. Arnaud came to Paris from Provence in 1752 as attaché to Prince Louis of Würtemberg. He was Abbé de Grandchamp (1765), librarian to the Comte de Provence and historiographer to the order of St Lazare, and in 1771 became a member of the Académie Française. He was a classical scholar and accomplished linguist and translator, and collaborated with his close friend J.B.A. Suard (whose wife was said to be his mistress) on the Journal étranger, Gazette littéraire de l'Europe, Variétés littéraires and other writings. His humour, historical knowledge and vigorous polemical style make him stand out among the many literary writers on music of the second half of the 18th century....
revised by Manuel Couvreur
(b Zwolle, late 14th or early 15th century; d Paris, Sept 6, 1466). Franco-Flemish physician, astrologer, astronomer and author of a treatise on musical instruments, of which he was presumably also a maker. Even if he did not, as has been assumed, study at the University of Paris, he would have become familiar with much of its curriculum through Jean Fusoris, whom Arnaut called his master. Fusoris, who had received degrees in theology, arts and medicine at the University, was a physician, astrologer, astronomer and prolific maker of astronomical and horological devices. By 1432 Arnaut had entered the service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, as ‘professeur en medecine’, ‘astronomien’ and ‘maistre … en astrologie’. Between 1454 and 1461 he left the Burgundian court in Dijon and entered the service of the French king in Paris (Charles VII, and later Louis XI), where he died of the plague....
revised by Elizabeth Roche
(b Sheffield, Dec 15, 1926; d Budapest, April 28, 1986). English musicologist. He studied music with F.H. Shera at Sheffield University from 1944 to 1948 (BMus 1948). He was awarded the MA for a dissertation on Weelkes in 1950 and was appointed a lecturer at Queen’s University, Belfast, in 1951. He became reader in music in 1960, and in 1964 went to Hull University as senior lecturer. In 1969 he became professor of music at Nottingham University, where he instituted a postgraduate course on the editing and interpretation of Renaissance and Baroque music, and in 1975 Heather Professor of Music at Oxford University. In 1976 he became joint editor of Music and Letters, in 1978 he was named president of the Royal Musical Association, and in 1982 he was elected to the directorium of the International Musicological Society. As a writer of criticism, he contributed regularly to ...
revised by Malcolm Turner
(b Rugby, Sept 6, 1861; d Bath, Sept 24, 1940). English musical scholar. He was educated at Rugby and Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1886 became a lecturer in German at the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire (Cardiff), a post he held for 40 years until his retirement. His lifelong interest in music, particularly as an amateur cellist, led him to make an exhaustive study of the tradition of writing and playing from a figured bass, which culminated in his comprehensive treatise on The Art of Accompaniment from a Thorough-Bass as Practised in the 17th and 18th Centuries (London, 1931/R). He studied an enormous number of sources, both practical and theoretical, and produced his findings authoritatively in this book, which was declared by Newman ‘the greatest work of musicography ever produced in this country’ and is still of value. Arnold's collection of editions of contemporary treatises on figured bass was bequeathed to Cambridge University library....
[Arnulphus de Sancto Gilleno]
(fl c1400). Writer on music. He was presumably from St Ghislain in Hainaut and was possibly a member of its Benedictine community. One work by him is known, the Tractatulus de differentiis et gradibus cantorum, found only in St Paul im Lavanttal ( A-SPL 264/4). Using highly coloured language, it surveys various kinds of musician. These comprise, firstly, those who know nothing about music, and who sing their parts in the reverse of the way they should; secondly, laymen, often ignorant of the art, who cultivate trained musicians so that natural industriousness and practice makes good their deficiencies, including certain clerics who compose difficult pieces for instruments; thirdly, those whose voices are defective but who study music and teach their pupils what they cannot perform themselves; and fourthly, those with fine voices and a knowledge of musical art, singing according to rule with modus, mensura, numerus and ...
(b Düsseldorf, Aug 16, 1930). Israeli and French ethnomusicologist . After studying the french horn with Jean Devémy at the Paris Conservatoire (1951–4), he was first horn in the Israel Broadcasting Authority SO in Jerusalem (1958–63). In 1963 he founded the Musée National Boganda at Bangui in the Central African Republic, and was its director until 1967, and on returning to Paris he undertook musicological studies with Chailley at the Sorbonne (1968–73). He entered the CNRS in 1968 and his subsequent career has been with that institution. In 1993 he was appointed lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. He was an associate professor at Tel-Aviv University (1979–83) and music director of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (1980–82). He has been awarded the Grand Prix International du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros (1971, 1978 and ...
(b Riga, July 2, 1899; d Vienna, Dec 14, 1985). Estonian musicologist. He studied musicology in Vienna, where he took the doctorate in 1928 with a dissertation on music in Estonia in the 19th century. In 1933 he was appointed to a chair of musicology and also taught Slavonic studies at the German Luther Academy in Tartu, Estonia. He moved to Germany in 1939; in 1955 he was teaching at Heidelberg and after 1968 in Kiel. From 1959 he was involved in establishing the Ost-Europa Institut, first at Freiburg and later in Kiel, where it was renamed J.G. Herder Forschungsstelle für Musikgeschichte. Subsequently he moved to Vienna where he founded the periodical Musica slavica, of which only one volume appeared in 1977. Arro was one of the finest and most erudite scholars of Russian music history and musical life. Before he moved to Germany he published a number of studies on the history of music in the Baltic countries; while in Kiel, he established a superb collection of publications dealing with the history of music in eastern Europe, particularly the history of Russian chant. He was the founder and editor of the first four volumes of ...
Marita P. McClymonds
(b Moraleja de Coca, nr Segovia, Dec 26, 1747; d Paris, Oct 30, 1799). Spanish aesthetician and opera historian. After entering the Society of Jesus (1763) he studied in Madrid, Corsica and Italy, after which he abandoned the Society (1769) and attended Bologna University (1773–8). There at Padre Martini’s behest he wrote the first critical history of opera, Le rivoluzioni del teatro musicale italiano dalla sua origine fino al presente (Bologna, 1783–8/R, 2/1785), which met with immediate success and was translated into German (1789) and French (1802). He moved to Venice and to Rome, where he prepared works on ideal beauty (1789) and ancient and modern rhythm. His last years were spent in travel.
The original edition of Le rivoluzioni began with chapters on opera aesthetics and on the suitability of Italian as a language for music. His somewhat muddled history did not get beyond the advent of Metastasio: he viewed the early 18th century as the Golden Age of Music, singling out the composers Vinci and Jommelli as exemplary and crediting Metastasio with having raised opera to the greatest perfection possible. The second, ‘enlarged, varied and corrected’ edition of ...
Claude V. Palisca
(b c1540; d Bologna, Aug 18, 1613). Italian theorist, polemicist and composer. He was one of the leading Italian theorists in the years around 1600, specially notable for his criticisms from a traditional viewpoint of certain modern tendencies in the music of his day.
Except for becoming embroiled in several musical polemics, Artusi led a quiet, studious life as a canon regular in the Congregation of S Salvatore at Bologna, where there was an important and sumptuous library of Greek and Latin manuscripts and books. He entered the order on 14 February 1562 and professed on 21 February 1563. He studied for a time in Venice with Zarlino, to whom he always remained devoted, honouring him during his lifetime with a compendium of Le istitutioni harmoniche and after his death with a learned eulogy by way of an explication of his teacher's emblem or device, Impresa del molto rev. Gioseffo Zarlino...
Larisa Georgievna Danko
(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...
(b Philadelphia, Jan 28, 1922; d Denver, March 31, 2009). American scholar and musicologist. He received the BA from the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 and the MA from Harvard University in 1947. He taught humanities at Stephens College (1949–55) and was a member of the English department at Indiana State University (1955–74). From 1974 to 1984 he was professor of opera at the Philadelphia College of the Performing Arts. Although trained as a teacher of English literature, Ashbrook also had a lively interest in Italian opera and contributed numerous articles on the subject to numerous periodicals. He was editor of the Opera Quarterly from 1992. His books on Donizetti (1965, 1982) and Puccini (1968, 1991) are particularly valuable for the careful presentation of biographical material, the discussion of the literary and dramatic aspects of the operas and the description of the various revisions....
revised by Roberta Montemorra Marvin
(b Correggio, nr Reggio nell’Emilia, Aug 30, 1769; d Correggio, May 18, 1832). Italian composer and theorist. Born into a family of musicians, he was essentially self-taught although he studied briefly with Giovanni Battista Lanfranchi, the assistant maestro di cappella in the basilica. At the age of eight he had already written complex sacred pieces and chamber music. He studied in Parma with Angelo Morigi (called ‘Il Merighi’) during 1780–81 and in 1782 stayed for a time in Bologna (where he visited Paudre Martini) and Venice, where he had great success as a harpsichordist and improviser. Having returned to Correggio, at the age of 14 he taught the harpsichord, flute and cello at the Collegio Civico and in 1786 was appointed maestro di cappella. La volubile, performed in Correggio in 1785 with the intermezzo Il ratto di Proserpina, marked the beginning of his career as an opera composer. In the retinue of the Marchese Gherardini, he moved to Turin (...
(b Artanuji, nr Artvini, 10/March 23, 1896; d Tbilisi, Dec 13, 1981). Georgian musicologist. After graduating from the Tbilisi State Conservatory (1927), he studied at the Leningrad Conservatory with Yury Tyulin and Khristofor Kushnaryov (1927–30). He taught music theory at the Tbilisi College of Music (1924–7) and at the Conservatory (from 1930). He established and headed the department of music theory at the Conservatory (1937–73), and was head of the ethnomusicology section of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography in Tbilisi (1946–50). He conducted fieldwork expeditions throughout Georgia (1927–50), on the basis of which he introduced a course in Georgian harmony at the Conservatory. His work formed the basis for further theoretical studies in Georgian musicology, both concerning folk music and Western music. He was awarded the doctorate (1964) for his book on Georgian folksong, and was the recipient of the Z. Paliashvili award (...
Michael B. Bakan
(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...
(b Tehran, Nov 7, 1915; d Los Angeles, March 5, 1994). Armenian musicologist, folklorist and composer. After moving to Yerevan in 1923 he studied composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. From 1944 he taught harmony at the conservatory and completed a second degree at the Institute of Art of the Armenian Academy of Sciences with Kushnaryov, 1945–8. In 1951 he began taking part in folklore expeditions around Armenia and in 1955 he completed his dissertation at the conservatory on Armenian neumatic (khazer) notation. He joined the staff of the Institute of Arts in 1956 and was appointed professor in 1962 at the conservatory, where he also served intermittently as head of the music theory department until 1991. He was made an Honoured Representative of the Arts of Armenia in 1961. He participated in many congresses both within and outside the former Soviet Union, and was highly regarded as a teacher....
revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen
(b Naucratis, Egypt; fl
Many characters engage in this marathon after-dinner conversation; they include representatives of every profession thought to be consequential, among them musicians, both professional and amateur. It has been rightly noted that the diverse themes are related to the banquet itself with but indifferent success. The unified structure of Plato's ...
Ian D. Bent
(b Paris, Feb 14, 1874; d Dieppe, Aug 31, 1910). French musicologist and philologist. He graduated in philology (1892) and law (1894), and subsequently became archiviste paléographe at the Ecole des Chartes in Paris (1898). He took a diploma in Armenian (1900), and after travelling in Central Asia published articles on Armenian church music and on music of the Tajiks and Sarts in Turkestan. He later taught in Paris at the Institut Catholique, the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales and at the Schola Cantorum, through whose Bureau d’Edition he issued his early articles.
Aubry brought to bear on musical problems the skills of the philologist (comparing concordant sources and establishing the best reading for a text) and of the palaeographer. In this he resembled his contemporary Friedrich Ludwig and others of the senior generation of 20th-century music scholars. He continued the work of Coussemaker and Riemann in the field of 13th-century French music, making texts available in edition and facsimile: his name is closely associated with three major sources, the Roman de Fauvel, the Chansonnier de l’Arsenal and the Bamberg manuscript. He produced much textual criticism in article form, and two series of larger studies, many of them in collaboration with literary scholars....
(b St-Julien-en-Loiret, Oct 28, 1879; d Brussels, Aug 19, 1964). Belgian musicologist of French birth. He was a choirboy in the Maîtrise de St Joseph, Marseilles, where he experienced a large repertory of plainsong and 16th-century polyphony, under the direction of J.-B. Grosso. He became a lay brother of the Salesian order, and (after a year in Paris) taught in Liège from 1905 to 1925. Following a year in Tournai he settled in Brussels, where he lived until his death. Among his many interests was a far-sighted fascination with colour photography; he also first demonstrated the use of microfilms as aids to scholarship at a congress of archaeology at Mons in 1928.
Auda's chief work centred on plainsong, the music of Liège, scales and modes and the concept of tactus in music before 1650. In his tactus work, he gave pride of place to A. Tirabassi, whose doctoral dissertation (...
James W. McKinnon and Joseph Dyer
(b Thagaste, Nov 13, 354; d Hippo, Aug 28, 430). Saint, churchman, and scholar. He was perhaps the most influential figure in the history of Christian thought, rivalled only by Thomas Aquinas and possibly Origen. Born in North Africa to a pagan father and Christian mother, the sainted Monica, he studied rhetoric in Carthage where he lost his boyhood Christian faith. In 373 his reading of Cicero's Hortensius inspired him to pursue the life of a philosopher, which he experienced first as a devotee of Manicheism. He served as professor of liberal arts for several years in his native Thagaste, moving in 383 to Rome and then in 384 to Milan, as professor of rhetoric. In Milan he came under the influence of the Christian neoplatonist Simplicianus and St Ambrose. He was led gradually through Neoplatonism to Christianity and, after a period of retreat at Cassiciacum, was baptized on Easter Eve of ...
(b Lawton, OK, Jan 18, 1920, d Ithaca, NY, March 15, 2000). American musicologist. He was educated at Harvard University, where he received the BA in 1939, the MA in 1940, and the PhD in 1951; his professors included walter Piston, A(rchibald) T(hompson) Davison and A. Tillman Merritt. Austin began his teaching career at the University of Virginia (1945–7). He taught at Cornell University from 1947 until his retirement in 1990; in 1969 he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was a visiting professor at Princeton University during the academic year 1957–8. In 1970 he became a member of the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung.
Austin specialized in the music of Russia and the United States in the 19th century, and in the history of 20th-century music. With Music in the 20th Century (1966) he contributed a broad yet comprehensive survey of music from ...