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William Gradante

[kashwa, kjaswa, kaswa, kachura, kashua, quoshwa]

A courtship circle-dance of the Bolivian and Peruvian Aymara Indians in which fur- and feather-clad dancers imitate movements of animals (a totemic vestige probably of Inca origin). Danced exclusively by adolescents, either male or female may pursue a prospective object of his or her affections. Men often sing amorous verses to which women may respond in kind, while the ...



Eva Badura-Skoda, Andrew V. Jones and William Drabkin

(from It.: ‘cadence’)

A virtuoso passage inserted near the end of a concerto movement or aria, usually indicated by the appearance of a fermata over an inconclusive chord such as the tonic 6-4. Cadenzas may either be improvised by a performer or written out by the composer; in the latter case the cadenza is often an important structural part of the movement. In a broad sense the term ‘cadenza’ can refer to simple ornaments on the penultimate note of a cadence, or to any accumulation of elaborate embellishments inserted near the end of a section or at fermata points. (See also Improvisation, §IV.)

Eva Badura-Skoda, revised by Andrew V. Jones

The term ‘cadenza’ first appeared shortly before 1500 as a synonym for the Latin ‘clausula’, meaning conclusion (the Latin word ‘cadentia’ came into use later). Both terms are derived from cadere (‘to fall’) and originally referred to a descending melodic line before the final note of a section (...


Patrick O’Connor

A place of entertainment, serving food and drink, where songs were performed by professional musicians. The term came to encompass a whole style of French popular song, especially during the second half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th. The history of such amusements is bound up with the laws of censorship. Popular song was often perceived to be subversive, not only because of the content of the lyrics, but also because it served as a cloak to disguise gatherings of radical or revolutionary political groups.

In the late 18th century the fashion for singing gained strength through the Caveau, in the basement of the Café Italien near the Palais Royal. Successive regimes banned public singing houses, or reinstated them. Napoleon is said to have frequented the Café des Aveugles, but it was not until the construction of the Champs-Elysées that the café-concert came into its own. With tables set out under the trees, lit by lanterns in the evening, the tradition gradually developed whereby a group of female singers, sitting in a semicircle, would take turns to deliver their songs, accompanied by an orchestra....



Daniel Heartz, Patricia Rader and Patrick O’Brien

A 16th-century dance. The derivation of the term is obscure, but could be from a region in Transylvanian Romania; from the Italian calare (‘descend’, to ‘lower’, to ‘fall’); from the Spanish calado, referring to figures of the Spanish church dances, in which rows of dancers interweave or intersect each other; from the Italian callota (calotta) (‘skull cap’); or from the Italian calle (‘path’, ‘way’ or ‘narrow street’ in Venice; cf the German Gassenhauer and Spanish passacalle). In a poem of about 1420 Prudenzani cited the playing of ‘calate de maritima et compagnia’, interpreted by Debenedetti as referring to dance-songs of these regions. Solerti mentioned that the calata was danced at the court of Florence as late as 1615. Few musical examples are still extant. They extend in time from the manuscript F-Pn Rés.Vm 27 (c1505; facs. (Geneva, 1981) with introduction by F. Lesure) and Dalza's lutebook of ...



E. Thomas Stanford

A 17th-century villancico written to be sung on Christmas Eve at the traditional reading of Christ’s genealogy. The name itself refers to the section of the Catholic martyrology listing the names and acts of saints, but all surviving villancicos bearing this name seem to be for Christmas. One of these is included in each of the eight cycles of villancicos by the Puebla ...


Nicholas Temperley

(b Kensington, London, Nov 20, 1766; d Bristol, May 15, 1821). English composer and theorist. Entering music as a largely self-taught amateur, he became a popular glee composer and a respected authority on music theory.

He was the son of a builder, Thomas Callcott, by his second wife, Charlotte Wall, and was educated at a private school by William Young; he was a brilliant student of classics, Hebrew and philosophy. Until he was 13 it was planned that he should become a surgeon, but he was so disgusted by witnessing an operation that he gave up this idea. He had learnt something of music from Henry Whitney, organist of Kensington parish church, and he began to practise the organ seriously while continuing to pursue, untaught, the study of languages and mathematics. He also learnt to play the clarinet and the oboe, and began to compose. In 1782 he became acquainted with Samuel Arnold and Benjamin Cooke, who encouraged him to enter the profession; the next year he became assistant organist of St George’s, Bloomsbury. Through Cooke he was admitted as a ‘supernumerary hautboy’ at the concerts of the Academy of Ancient Music. From this time onwards his efforts in composition were mainly devoted to the glee. His first glee, ...


Sarah Caissie Provost

A collection of noisy instruments usually assembled for a celebration. These are usually re-purposed items such as cowbells, tin cooking pans and utensils, copper wash boilers, saws, and small unloaded firearms, including shotguns and occasionally small cannons. Tin horns have often been used as well. These bands, popular in the 19th century, usually followed parades on such celebratory occasions as July 4th and New Year’s Eve. As their homemade instruments indicate, callithumpian bands were not organized musical ensembles but rather rowdy mobs intent upon creating discord.

The origins of the term “callithumpian” are unknown, but are thought to be related to the mythological Greek muse Calliope, who was also the namesake of the musical steam engine, the calliope, which originated around the same time. “Callithumpian” may have been produced by combining the sweet-voiced muse’s name with the more lowly verb “to thump.” Although “callithumpian” is the most reproduced form of the word, it also appears in forms such as “callathumpian,” and all variants are often combined with “band” or “party.” Because of the unfamiliar beginning of the word “callithumpian,” it is also sometimes seen as “cowthumpin,” which indicates its rural popularity. In the East, particularly in Philadelphia, callithumpian bands appeared costumed, usually as women or African Americans, and mocked military music groups such as the fife and drum corps. A callithumpian band would sometimes accompany “fantasticals,” or men who mocked the militia. In the Northeast, callithumpian bands were sometimes called “serenades.” A related ensemble is the ...



Jan Fairley

A style of music, dance and song of the southern and eastern Caribbean. Its main development has been in Trinidad alongside the evolution of Carnival celebrations there. Its origins go back to the gayup, a West African work song brought to the West Indies by plantation slaves, with a call and response structure and a lead singer called a chantwell (chantuelle, shantrelle, shantwell). When sung at competitive events the gayup often had two sections, the first celebrating victory and the second pouring scorn on the losers; both features are still found in calypso performances, as is the call of ‘kaiso’, a West African cry of encouragement (the word cayso was used for early forms of calypso).

A history of territorial struggle and the defiance of colonial authority lies within calypso. In the days of slavery Carnival was a time of rival celebrations among planters and slaves; the French planters maintained the Catholic tradition of celebrating Lent with masquerade balls and processions, while the slaves, with their permission, set up alternative processions based on West African end-of-harvest celebrations. From this came the tradition of a torchlit procession called ...


Dana C. Gorzelany-Mostak

Music used by candidates, political parties, celebrities, or voters to enhance a political campaign. From the 1800s to the 1970s, US presidential campaigns included campaign songs that typically paired newly written texts with well known melodies or newly composed music. Political organizations and their affiliated glee clubs performed these ephemeral ditties at meetings, parades, and rallies. Scholars point to “The Son of Liberty” (composed for Thomas Jefferson’s 1800 campaign) as one of the earliest examples of a US campaign song; however, the genre did not gain momentum until the presidential election of 1840, the first to include widespread popular participation. Political parties distributed campaign songs such as “Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” in songsters, which typically provided text only, but indicated the appropriate tune. The songs laid out the candidate’s stance on a particular issue, derided his competitor, or reassured the public of his noble character. By the middle of the century sheet music publishers jumped on the bandwagon, and starting in the late 1880s, Tin Pan Alley produced newly composed songs, marches, and even polkas dedicated to particular candidates for home consumption....


E. Thomas Stanford



Richard Hudson

revised by Meredith Ellis Little

(Fr. canarie; It., Sp. canario)

A form of dance and music popular in Europe from the mid-16th century to the mid-18th. Two main types of music existed, an early Spanish and Italian canario and the later French canarie.

Covarrubias Horozco described the canario in his Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española (1611) as a type of ‘saltarelo gracioso’ that came to Spain from the Canary Islands. A piece called Endechas de canaria appeared in Pisador’s vihuela book of 1552, and the dance was mentioned by Diego Sánchez de Badajoz in the Farsa de Sancta Bárbara (published in his collected works of 1554), and by Cervantes, Lope de Vega and many other Spanish writers throughout the 17th century. Discussing its origins and character, Arbeau (Orchésographie, 1588) noted that its ‘passages are gay but nevertheless strange and fantastic with a strong barbaric flavour’.

This earlier canary often employs a short, two-phrase scheme that is relatively fixed melodically and harmonically (...



Andrew Lamb


A dance that came into vogue in the music halls of Paris in the 1830s, apparently originating in Algeria. It is usually performed by a line of girls in frilly dresses and involves a good deal of high kicking and the splits. Because of the considerable display of female leg it was often considered disreputable. The music is in a lively 2/4 time, being derived from the quadrille or galop. The best-known example is in Offenbach’s ...


Jack Sage

revised by Susana Friedmann

(Sp.: ‘song’)

A term used by poets and musicians up to the 15th century more or less interchangeably with ‘cantiga’, cantar, the Galician-Portuguese canson, etc., and from the 17th century to the 19th with cantar, oda, poema etc. From about 1450 to about 1530 its meaning tended to be restricted to a refrain song, like the villancico in its characteristic ABBA musical form but often more contrapuntal and usually based on a more serious poetic theme. Encina's contention that the Villancico refrain had fewer than four and the canción refrain more than four lines of poetry is true of most of his own pieces but noticeably less true of other compositions in his day. The compiler of the table of contents of the Cancionero Musical de Palacio, working about 1500, apparently abandoned an initial plan to place canciones in a different category from villancicos, thereby reflecting a general tendency to look on so-called ‘fixed’ forms as flexible. From the 1530s, Spanish poets often turned to Italian forms in their various combinations of seven- and 11-syllable lines, including the canzone, and Spanish musicians such as Mudarra and Daza soon began to use the word ‘canción’ to designate a setting of an italianate poem in Castilian. Some 16th-century instrumental composers, for example Luys de Narváez and Venegas de Henestrosa, labelled arrangements or intabulations of French chansons ‘canción’ as well. In the 16th century and occasionally in the 17th ‘canción’ was sometimes used synonymously with ...



Jack Sage

revised by Susana Friedmann

(Sp.: ‘songbook’; Port. cancioneiro)

The term has in practice been used from the 15th century more often to designate a collection or anthology of poems without music, whether intended for singing or not. Indeed, the words ‘cancionero’ and ‘cancioneiro’ did not begin to appear in the titles of songbooks with music until the 19th century. Hence, some Spanish scholars now use the term ‘cancionero musical’ for a songbook with music.

The earliest Castilian collections now designated ‘cancioneros’ are two 15th-century anthologies of learned poems, one compiled in 1445 by Alfonso de Baena primarily for Juan II of Castile, the other a similar compilation made by Lope de Stúñiga for Alfonso V at the Spanish court of Naples about 1458. Neither was originally entitled ‘cancionero’, but the compilers must have had the classical link between poetry and music in mind since some of the poems are expressly described as having been set to music. The word ‘cancionero’ was first printed in a title in the ...



Scott Henderson

Canadian content regulations for commercial radio that were enacted in 1971. These introduced a requirement for commercial AM stations to play a percentage of Canadian songs each day, including set percentages for prime listening hours to prevent stations from limiting Canadian tracks to less lucrative overnight hours. Subsequent regulations have been put in place for FM stations with some flexibility on the established percentages based on the mandate of each licensee. For mainstream, commercial radio, the percentage was established at 25% in 1971 and then increased to 30% in 1986 and to 35% in 1998. The 1986 extension of Cancon to Canada’s music video television station, Much Music, gave Canadian acts a national presence as opposed to the more regional impact of regulations on local radio.

Songs that qualified as Canadian under the Cancon regulations had to meet a minimum of two of four key criteria: music must be composed entirely by a Canadian, the artist must be Canadian, production must take place in Canada, and lyrics must be composed entirely by a Canadian. The system is commonly referred to by the acronym MAPL; pronounced Maple to ensure an added Canadian “flavor.” This designation led to controversy in ...



Hendrik van der Werf

revised by Stephen Haynes

[canzo, chanzo]

One of several Old Provençal words literally meaning ‘song’ (others include chan, chantar, chantaret, son and sonet). From the end of the 12th century it was used by the troubadours primarily, but not with complete consistency, for strophic songs about courtly love, in contrast to the political or moralizing songs known as ‘sirventes’. These two terms gradually replaced the word ‘vers’ which was used by the earliest troubadours for strophic songs of almost any content, and it appears that the only substantial difference between vers and canso is that the canso is restricted to topics about courtly love. The vida of Peire d’Alvernhe observes that ‘he did not make a single canson, for at that time no songs [ cantars] were called cansos, but vers; it was Giraut de Bornelh who made the first canson that was ever made’. Troubadours in the period of transition (e.g. Bernart de Ventadorn and Peire Vidal) used both terms for songs very similar to one another in form and content....



Colin Timms, Nigel Fortune, Malcolm Boyd, Friedhelm Krummacher, David Tunley, James R. Goodall and Juan José Carreras

(It.; Fr. cantate; Ger. Kantate)

A work for one or more voices with instrumental accompaniment. The cantata was the most important form of vocal music of the Baroque period outside opera and oratorio, and by far the most ubiquitous. At first, from the 1620s in Italy, it was a modest form, but at its most typical it consists (notably in Italy in the later 17th century) of a succession of contrasting sections which by the early 18th century became independent movements, normally two arias, each preceded by a recitative. Most Italian cantatas of this period are for a solo voice, but some were written for two or more voices. Up to the late 17th century the cantata was predominantly a secular form, but the church cantata, which included choral movements ranging from simple chorale harmonizations to complex, extended structures, was a major feature of Lutheran music in early 18th-century Germany. The standard form of accompaniment gradually expanded from continuo alone in the mid-17th century to an orchestra, including obbligato instruments, in the 18th. Cantatas, mainly secular, were also fairly widely cultivated elsewhere, especially in France and Spain and to a lesser extent in England. Both the secular and the sacred cantata sharply declined in importance after the middle of the 18th century. In contrast to the previous 100 years and more, the cantata has enjoyed no consistent independent existence since then, and the term has been applied, somewhat haphazardly, to a wide variety of works which generally have in common only that they are for chorus and orchestra....


J.B. Trend

revised by Israel J. Katz

(Sp.: ‘deep song’)

A generic term encompassing the purest and oldest strata of songs of the flamenco tradition, which originated in the provinces of Andalusia in southern Spain. While cante hondo (or, in its aspirated, Andalusian form, jondo) refers, more appropriately, to a particular vocal timbre, the term has been used erroneously to designate a form. Hondo connotes a deep or profound feeling with which the singer expresses his or her innermost thoughts, emphasizing the tragic side of life.

Cante hondo includes the following song types: cañas, carceleras, deblas, livianas, martinetes, polos, saetas, serranas, siguiriyas, soleares and tonás. Although they vary in style and structure, they constitute an important sub-category of flamenco known as cante grande and are further distinguished by their textual stanzas, melodic strophes, microtonalism, tempo, metre, phrase lengths, ornamentation, restricted tessitura and characteristic vocal timbre. Several cante (i.e. the caña, polo and soleá) enjoyed an independent evolution while others derived from the basic ...


Frank A. D’Accone

(It.: ‘carnival songs’)

A generic term encompassing several kinds of partsong, notably mascheratas, carri and trionfi, that were performed at festivals in Florence during the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The festivals were held during the pre-Lenten Carnival and the Calendimaggio, a season celebrating the return of spring that began on 1 May and ended with the Feast of St John, the city's patron saint, on 24 June. The groups of masqueraders from all classes of society who, singing, dancing and jesting, made their way through the crowded streets and squares of the city were typical of the festivities. There were also torchlight processions featuring elaborately decorated floats in which tableaux vivants were accompanied by appropriate songs. Some of the floats and costumes were designed by famous artists, and the song texts, written by noblemen and commoners alike, were set to music by well-known composers, foreign and native. The festivals thus provided ample opportunity not only for merrymaking and the expression of popular wit but also for artistic inventiveness and display. In this respect they were uniquely representative of the Florentine character....