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Bofu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Barrel drum of the Han Chinese. The wooden body is about 40 to 45 cm long, with two tacked heads between 20 and 25 cm in diameter. It rests horizontally on a low rectangular frame. As with other instruments used in imperial Confucian rituals, its body is usually lacquered red, a colour associated with ritual and ceremony, and it may be further decorated. The ...

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Bogongo  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Obscure three-string harp-zither of the Binga of the Central African Republic. It probably resembles the mvet, a stick with a notched bridge in the middle but no added resonator. It is played resting on the thighs of a performer seated on the ground, to accompany hunting and other songs.

See also...

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Bokenza  

K.A. Gourlay

[bonkenza, bonkenja, bonkendja]

Cylindro-conical double-headed drum of the Konda and Nkundo peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Konda drum is about 58 cm tall and the Nkundo about 44 cm. The cone is narrow and elongated, giving a goblet-shaped appearance without a supporting base, and the upper head is fastened by parallel cords which, at the point where the cylinder gives way to the cone, take the form of a net covering the cone. Traditionally the bokenza was a war drum, beaten in battle to encourage the warriors. The drums have leather carrying straps and often contained small rattling pebbles. The Lia lokiru (116 cm) (cf. Nkundo lokiro and Sengele lokilo) was of the same type and served the same function. The Nkundo term for a large drum (140 cm) of this type, bondundu, would appear to be cognate with the Yembe and Konda ndungu and the Dia and Sakata ...

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Bokio  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[bonkeli]

Single-headed drum of the Kota and Kutu peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The footed wooden body is about 80 cm tall. The head can be of antelope, snake, or crocodile skin, usually laced to the body with leather thongs. It is beaten by the hands.

O. Boone...

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Bokuka  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Trapezoidal slit drum of the Mongo, Nkundo, and Kota peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made of wood and averages about 50 to 70 cm tall and 75 to 90 cm long. It is wider at the bottom than at the top. Larger examples have been reported. The Mongo also call it ...

Article

Bol  

Timkehet Teffera

Flute of the Berta people of western Ethiopia and southern Sudan. It is an end-blown one-note bamboo pipe without fingerholes. 12 to 25 bols of different pitches are played in hocket in ensemble (called bol negero and variant names) with a wooden kettledrum (negero) struck with two wooden beaters. During the 19th century this ensemble was a status symbol of the royal court. The instruments were kept in the royal palace and used only at private and official events of the court. Each bol had its own name: al meshir al awel, al meshir atani, tego bala, aqidare, amadine, asholfa, bolmoshan, etc.; nowadays the names differ according to locale and dialect. The pipes are made in sets from 9 to 80 cm long and 2 to 5 cm in diameter, with a sharpened blowing edge and slightly conical tube stopped at the bottom by a natural node. The ...

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Bolange  

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Bolima  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

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Bolo  

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Konin Aka

Single-string harp of the Senufo people of the Ivory Coast. The string extends from a curved neck and is plucked by one hand while the other strikes the skin-covered calabash resonator. An ensemble may consist of nine harps, eight tuned in unison, the ninth a fourth higher. The music played by ...

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Bolu  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

K.A. Gourlay

Nose flute of the Nkundo and Konda Bowele peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from a hollow pawpaw stem; the ends are sealed with resin and a small hole pierced in each. A thumb hole is made 2 cm from one end on the dorsal side and opened or closed as the instrument is blown with a nostril. The players are mainly children who use the nose flute for amusement. The ifonge na ndzulu of the Mongo is similar except that a small leaf is placed over each end to seal it and there is no thumb hole. Other nose flutes reported from the Democratic Republic of the Congo include the Bali, Mbo, and Ndaka aduteli, Bira bukanga and Kumu and Lega kabili.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960) G. Knosp: Enquête sur la vie musicale au Congo belge 1934–1935...

Article

Margaret J. Kartomi

Indonesian aerophone. It is made from a stout piece of bamboo, closed with a node at one end, inside which is placed a much thinner open bamboo tube. The player blows into this tube, producing a low-pitched sonorous sound. The instrument was described by Jaap Kunst as a ‘blown gong’ because its sound somewhat resembles that of a gong, for which it can act as a substitute in flute ensembles or small ensembles of bamboo instruments. In the Lio area of Flores it is called a ...

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Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

David Font-Navarrete

[kongkong, kabombolon, elembele, ebereng]

Slit drum of the Jola people of Senegal and the Gambia. A bombolon can range from 40 to 150 cm long and often has a roughly cylindrical extension carved at each end of the hollowed log beyond the longitudinal slot. It is usually placed horizontally, resting on four small feet. The two sides of the slot produce different pitches. The instrument is played exclusively by males, using wooden sticks or bare hands. It is played in wrestling music (kongkong; also sometimes the name for the associated drum), funerary music, and during male initiation/circumcision ceremonies. Bombolon is also often used as a generic term for several Jola wooden slit drums; while all these instruments appear similar, they are used for different purposes depending on whether they are consecrated or not.

L.-V. Thomas: ‘Les Diola: Essai d’analyse fonctionnelle sur une population de Basse-Casamance’ (Dakar, 1959).

See also Kabisa ; Slit drum ...

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Bompete  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Burmese double-headed barrel drum. It is suspended horizontally across the chest of the musician who strikes both ends with his hands. Bon-gyì are usually played in pairs, for rice planting festivals, or for pagoda festivals. The term also refers to the ensemble in which these drums are played. This consists of a ...

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Bonang  

[kolenang, kromong, renteng]

Gong chime used in various gamelan in Southeast Asia. It consists of small bossed gongs resting horizontally on cords in a single-row frame or an L-shaped or U-shaped frame. In the Central Javanese gamelan the gongs are mounted in two parallel rows on a wooden frame. There are three sizes. The lowest-pitched is the bortang panembung, about 170 cm long, which is used only in some large gamelan, especially in Yogyakarta; the pelog instrument ranges from pitch 13 (i.e. pitch 1 in the third lowest octave) to pitch 74, and the slendro from pitch 23 to 15. The bonang barung measures about 135 cm long and has a range of 14 to 75 in pelog, and 24 to 16 in slendro. The Surakarta slendro bonang has 12 gongs instead of the ten of the Yogyakarta bonang, and has a range of pitch l5 to 26. This difference is also true of the ...

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