(b Rimini, c1600; d Rimini, c1678). Italian composer and author. He was a priest and maestro di cappella of Rimini Cathedral. From 1649 he was librarian of the Biblioteca Gambalunghiana, Rimini. He wrote literary and historical works; all his music dates from his early years. He had some connection with the pseudonymous composer Accademico Bizzarro Capriccioso, to each of whose opp.1 and 2 (1620–21) he contributed a madrigal, one for two voices, the other for three. As a composer he is known mainly for three volumes of sacred music written mostly in a simple style suited to the needs of a provincial maestro di cappella: 14 eight-voice psalms with organ continuo, op.1, a book of four- and five-voice concertato masses, op.2 (incomplete), and four masses and two motets with organ continuo, op.3 (all Venice, 1623). The description ‘a tre voci variate’ of op.3 refers to an unusual arrangement of partbooks – one each for the highest, middle and lowest voices....
(fl 1657). Italian theorist and ?composer. His treatise Regole di musica, divise in cinque trattati (Rome, 1657) indicates that in 1657 he was Predicatore in the Minori Osservanti – an order of strict Franciscans – in the province of Terra Lavoro. In some reference works he is mentioned as a composer of lute music, but there are no known compositions. The Regole di musica deals not only with music but with a range of other subjects as well, including astronomy and astrology. However, Avella’s theories and views failed to impress his contemporaries and fellow theorists: G.F. Beccatelli, for instance, in his Annotazioni (MS, I-Bc ) on the Regole, rightly accused Avella of ignorance of musical history in attributing the Guidonian Hand not only to Boethius but also to Plato and Aristotle, and in making Guido of Arezzo a contemporary of Pope Gregory I.J.-H. Lederer: Lorenzo Penna und seine Kontrapunkttheorie...
William Y. Elias
(b Danzig [now Gdánsk], May 25, 1908; d Magen, Sept 16, 1994). Israeli musicologist. He studied musicology, literature and art history at the universities of Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt and Königsberg (Kaliningrad), where he took the doctorate under Wilhelm Warringer in 1931 with a dissertation on Minnesang. He was prevented from pursuing an academic career in Germany, and turned to publishing Jewish art in Berlin (1932–6). In 1936 he settled as a publisher in Palestine, where research in musicology had barely begun, and he had to carry on his musicological work independently, publishing articles mostly in foreign periodicals. Urged to adapt himself to the demands of a country under war conditions, he developed a chemical production process and worked as a technical manager in industry (1941–8) before joining the Israel Air Force research department. He left the service with the rank of major to take up a research fellowship in musicology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem (...
T. Herman Keahey
[Turmair, Johann; Thurnmaier, John; Thurnmayer, Jean; Thurinomarus]
(b Abensberg, July 4, 1477; d Regensburg, Jan 9, 1534). German historian and music theorist. He studied at Ingolstadt University with Conradus Celtis, at Kraków University, and at Paris University with Jacobus Faber Stapulensis. After the death of Albrecht IV, Aventinus was appointed tutor to the young Duke of Bavaria and his brothers in 1508, and in 1517 became court historian. In this capacity he produced two of the most important and influential historical works of his time: Annales ducum boiariae and Bayrischer Chronicon.
Aventinus was the author of Musicae rudimenta (Augsburg, 1516; ed. in Keahey) sometimes incorrectly ascribed to Nicolaus Faber (ii). The treatise, in ten chapters, was written for the instruction of Ernst, the youngest of the three dukes. In keeping with the traditional approach to music as a part of the Quadrivium, the work deals with speculation about the origins and uses of music, solmization and the mutation of Guidonian hexachords, and the Pythagorean division of the monochord. Problems of current musical practice are only lightly touched on. Aventinus cited many musical authorities, including Plato, Aristotle, Aristoxenus, Cleonides, Boethius, Guido of Arezzo, Ugolino of Orvieto, Johannes de Muris and Gaffurius. He gave a number of terms and phrases in German as well as in Latin....
(b Tonnedorf, nr Erfurt; d Eisenberg, nr Gera, Jan 22, 1617). German writer on music, composer and schoolmaster. In 1579 he was teaching at the Lateinschule at Ronneburg, near Gera, and in 1591 he was Rektor of the Lateinschule at Gera. Later he was a preacher at Bernsdorf, near Torgau, at Munich and at Krossen, near Gera, and from ...
(b Malïy Nesvetay, Rostov district, 10/April 22, 1886 (elsewhere 10/12 June 1886); d Moscow, May 19, 1944). Russian composer and theorist. He studied theory at the music school attached to the Moscow Philharmonic Society with I.N. Protopopov and A.M. Koreshchenko (1908–11) and took private composition lessons with Sergey Taneyev. From 1910 he was active as a music critic under the pseudonym Ars and, having refused to fight in World War I, fled abroad in 1914 and worked, among other occupations, as a stoker and as a circus artist. Returning to Russia in 1917 he was appointed arts commissar of the RSFSR branch of Narkompros (1917–18) and took part in the formation of the Proletkul′t organization. 1923 found him working in Dagestan but in 1926 he returned to Moscow where he became involved in a number of activities: he participated in the creation of the first Russian films with sound (...
Jan Trojan and Geoffrey Chew
(b Rataje u Kroměříže, June 3, 1887; d Prague, Jan 25, 1949). Czech composer and musicologist. He studied at Prague University under Nejedlý and Hostinský, receiving the PhD in 1912 for a dissertation on Moravian folk opera in the 18th century. He studied composition under Novák (1908–10) and counterpoint under Ostrčil (1920), and he devoted himself to composition after his appointment as head of the musical archive at the National Museum in Prague (now the Muzeum české hudby) in 1915, though his contemporaries always regarded him as a Moravian composer. In the 1920s he was an official in the Society for Modern Music. Passing from late-Romanticism into a distinctive modernism after World War I, his music remained broadly lyrical, with traces of Moravian folk influence, and with mainly triadic (though often non-functional) harmony. Most of his numerous works are cast in extended forms. His vocal works remained in the repertoire long after World War II, especially the choral works....
(b Montevideo, July 9, 1913; d Montevideo, July 22, 1966). Uruguayan musicologist and ethnomusicologist. He studied in Montevideo at the Larrimbe Conservatory and at the school of law and social sciences of the university. In 1937 he was appointed professor of choral music and music history at the teachers’ training institute; subsequently he became director of the division of musical research of the Instituto de Estudios Superiores, professor of musicology at the University of Montevideo (1946) and head of the musicology section of the National Historical Museum of Uruguay. He was also active as a music critic for several newspapers and as artistic director of the state broadcasting system, SODRE. Ayestarán was equally interested in music history and ethnomusicology. His first study of Hispano-American Baroque music (1941) dealt with the activities in Argentina of the Italian composer Domenico Zipoli. During the 1940s he did field work for the National Historical Museum, making some 4000 recordings of Uruguayan folk music and publishing his studies of them. He received (among several prizes) the national award Pablo Blanco Acevedo for his major work, ...
revised by Edward Garden
(b Moscow, 24 March/April 5, 1839; d Moscow, 12/Jan 24, 1881). Russian composer and scholar. In 1858 he resigned from the civil service and went to Leipzig, where he studied music theory with Richter and Hauptmann. Later he took lessons from Liszt in Rome. While in Paris in 1886, he bought the extensive collection of music which had belonged to G.E. Anders. On his return to Russia in 1870 he was appointed honorary librarian to the St Petersburg Conservatory, and in the following year became its director. Unlike his predecessor Zaremba, he was favourably disposed towards the New Russian School, and one of his first acts as director was to appoint Rimsky-Korsakov as professor of practical composition and instrumentation. This bold step had a profound effect on the history of composition in Russia, and the conservatory soon became as important in the field of composition as it had already become in producing excellent instrumentalists and singers (one of its graduates during Azanchevsky's time was the great bass Fyodor Stravinsky, whose son Igor later became a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov). Tchaikovsky referred to him as ‘a good and kind person’. Ill-health forced him to resign in ...
(b Rio de Janeiro, Dec 13, 1905; d Paris, Nov 10, 1992). Brazilian musicologist. At the Instituto Nacional de Música he studied the piano with Alfredo Bevilacqua (1924–5) and Charley Lachmund (1926–7) and harmony, counterpoint and fugue with Paulo Silva; initially he was a composer, but by the late 1920s had turned to musicology and music criticism. He became librarian of the Instituto Nacional de Música (1932) and in 1934 founded the Revista brasileira de música, which was under his editorship until 1941 and performed a valuable service to nascent Brazilian musicology. While professor of music at the conservatory (1937–47) he held the post of titular professor at the Escola (formerly Instituto) Nacional de Música; he developed there the ethnomusicology curriculum and founded the Centro de Pesquisas Folclóricas, which produced important publications based on fieldwork throughout Brazil. He served as a consultant to the Organization of American States in Washington, DC, for its newly established Music Division (...
(b Lequeitio, Biscay, Aug 5, 1864; d Bilbao, Nov 9, 1951). Basque composer, ethnomusicologist and philologist. He studied at the seminaries of Vitoria and Salamanca, was ordained priest (1888) and took a doctorate in theology. In addition he studied music with Sáinz Basabe and then at the Paris Schola Cantorum, in Brussels and at the Cologne Conservatory. He was subsequently professor of Basque language at the Instituto de Bilbao for 30 years. In Bilbao he founded a Basque school, the Basque review Euskalzale and a Basque opera house, for which he composed works to be performed by pupils of his school. He was a great folklorist: he collected some 2000 folksongs of his native region and published around 1000 of them; he gave numerous lectures and he helped to compile the Diccionario de la música Labor (Barcelona, 1954). From 1918 he was president of the Basque Language Academy, and he was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Real Academia Española de la Lengua....
Joseph Vella Bondin
( b Rabat, May 5, 1748; d Rabat, Feb 6, 1809). Maltese composer, organist and theorist . After early studies with Michel'Angelo Vella, he entered the Conservatorio di S Onofrio a Capuana on 15 Oct 1763 as a convittore to study under Carlo Contumacci and the German Joseph Doll. He left in 1767 but stayed on as maestro di cappella in Naples and continued to study with Niccolò Piccinni, who is said to have esteemed him greatly. In summer 1774, following an advantageous offer from Mdina Cathedral, he returned permanently to Malta as Cathedral organist with the right to succeed the then maestro di cappella, Benigno Zerafa. His growing interest in pedagogy resulted in Il musico prattico on the art of the counterpoint, published in the form of French translations and introduced as a textbook in Paris by A.-E.-M. Grétry: Cherubini based the 19th chapter of his treatise Cours de contrepoint...
(b Barasoain, c1491; d Rome, 1586). Spanish churchman and jurisconsult. He taught in Salamanca and Coimbra and spent his last 19 years in Rome, revered for his learning and piety. His numerous Latin writings were published throughout Europe in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Forkel, Fétis and others credited him with a musical treatise, De musica et cantu figurato, but no such work apparently exists; reports of it may stem from a misunderstanding of Walther's Musicalisches Lexicon. Azpilcueta's known writings on church music occur in Commentarius de oratione horis canonicis atque aliis divinit officiis (Coimbra, 1561) and the brief Commentarius de silentio in divinis officiis (Rome, 1580; Spanish and Italian translations soon afterwards). He justified music not for God's benefit but man's, as it contributed to man's ability to worship; all excesses and abuses worked against this end. Well-executed plainchant was much to be preferred, but neither polyphonic music nor instruments were inherently improper if they enhanced the attitude of reverence and did not obscure the text. His discussion of specific abuses in the liturgy of his time is of particular interest....
revised by Martin Brody and Judith Crispin
(b Philadelphia, PA, May 10, 1916; d Princeton, NJ, Jan 29, 2011). American composer and theorist. He contributed extensively to the understanding and extension of 12-tone compositional theory and practice and was one of the most influential composers and teachers in the United States since World War II.
Brought up in Jackson, Mississippi, he started playing the violin at the age of four and several years later also studied clarinet and saxophone. He graduated from high school in 1931, having already demonstrated considerable skills in jazz ensemble performance and the composition of popular songs. His father’s professional involvement with mathematics (as an actuary) was influential in shaping Babbitt’s intellectual environment. In 1931 Babbitt entered the University of Pennsylvania with the intention of becoming a mathematician, but he soon transferred to New York University, concentrating on music under marion Bauer and ...
(b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 11, 1911; d Los Angeles, Feb 18, 1982). American musicologist and violinist. He was largely self-taught after leaving high school. His violin teachers included Carl Flesch and Marcel Chailley; his interest in performing practice was aroused by the writings of Arnold Dolmetsch and encouraged by Igor Stravinsky, whose string parts Babitz edited for many years. From 1933 to 1937 he was a violinist with the Los Angeles PO, then, until 1952, he played with Hollywood studio orchestras. From 1941 to 1962 he was an editor for International Musician. In 1948 he was a co-founder of the Early Music Laboratory, an organization which promotes historical accuracy in performance through the publication of bulletins and demonstration tape recordings. Babitz was concerned with a number of aspects of performance which he believed contribute to an accurate 17th- and 18th-century style. These aspects include clear articulation, use of metric accents, rhythmic freedom within the beat and a lighter tone. He also worked for the modernization of violin fingering to facilitate the performance of works by such contemporary composers as Schoenberg and Stravinsky....
Pierre M. Tagmann
revised by Giovanni Maria Bacchini
[Fra Teodoro del Carmine]
(b Mantua; fl 1588–1607). Italian singer, composer and theorist. Canal erroneously gave his first name as Girolamo. He was a Carmelite priest. While at the Mantuan court, he wrote a treatise, De musica, now lost. In 1588 he published a madrigal, Più che Diana, in Alfonso Preti’s L’amoroso caccia (RISM 1588¹4), a collection consisting of compositions by Mantuan musicians primarily associated with the church. He also published a book of masses, the Missarum quinque et sex vocum, liber primus (Venice, 1589). In a letter dated 26 November 1594 to the vicar-general of the Carmelite order, Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga requested that Bacchini, a ‘musico castrato’, be exempt from wearing his monk’s habit while singing in the court chamber. In 1594 he accompanied the duke to the Reichstag in Regensburg and in the following year, along with Monteverdi, G.B. Marinone, Serafino Terzi and other musicians from the Gonzaga court, took part in the duke’s military expedition to southern Hungary. A Mantuan court secretary, Fortunato Cardi, described musical performances directed by Monteverdi, in which Bacchini took part, on the eve of the Battle of Visegrad. It has been suggested that Bacchini sang the part of Euridice in the first performances of Monteverdi’s ...
Thomas J. Mathiesen
(fl ?4th century
Of music, Bacchius the Elder described
the tonoi, tropoi, melē and consonances.
Echoing him, Dionysius writes.
The all-powerful Emperor Constantine
he shows to be a wise lover of the works of art.
For one who, of every wise subject of instruction,
has been seen as discoverer and giver,
it is most unseemly to be a stranger to music.
The epigram, however, is never found with the first treatise of Bacchius when it appears alone (the earliest instance of which is the marginal text in a 13th-century hand in ...
(b Portland, OR, April 29, 1911; d Los Angeles, Oct 28, 1988). American acoustician. After studying at Reed College, Portland (BA 1932), he undertook postgraduate study at the University of California in Berkeley (MA 1936, PhD 1940). His early research work was in nuclear physics, working under the supervision of Ernest Lawrence in the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. In 1945 he was appointed professor of physics at the University of Southern California, and he continued in that post until his retirement in 1980. An accomplished performer on the piano and the bassoon, Backus was awarded the degree of MMus in conducting by the University of Southern California in 1959. In the later stages of his research career he made major contributions to the study of the acoustics of woodwind instruments, brass instruments and organ pipes. In 1969 the first edition of The Acoustical Foundations of Music...
(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255 he entered the order of friars minor. Guy de Foulques (later Pope Clement IV), then Archbishop of Narbonne, wrote about 1265 asking him to outline a syllabus for the reform of learning – a sign of the high esteem in which Bacon and his teaching were held. Bacon responded by composing the three summaries known as the Opus maius, the Opus minor and the Opus tertium, submitting them to the pope in 1268. Clement died, however, that same year, before he had had time to study or implement them. During the next decade Bacon produced further writings on mathematics, science and language, including Greek and Hebrew grammars and a ...
(b Bucharest, Romania, April 18, 1945). Canadian composer and musicologist of Romanian descent. After musical studies at the University of Music in Bucharest (with Tiberiu Olah, Dan Constantinescu, and Aurel Stroe) she obtained the PhD in musicology from the University of Montreal, under the supervision of André Prévost. In 1987 she immigrated to Canada where she became a professor at the Royal Music Conservatory in Ottawa (teaching harmony, counterpoint, musical analysis, orchestration, composition, and computer-assisted music) and associated composer at the Canadian Music Centre, and founded her own musical publishing house. Maya Badian is a senior theoretical examiner for the College of Examiners. Her catalogue includes compositions for almost all genres: symphonic music (e.g. Holocaust—In Memoriam, Symphony), concertos dedicated to different instruments (e.g. the Piano Concerto, Violin Concerto, Guitar Concerto, Clarinet and Saxophone Double Concerto, Marimba and Vibraphone Double Concerto, and the Concerto Grosso for Timpani, Trumpet and String Orchestra), music for choir and orchestra (e.g. ...