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Nigel Simeone

French firm of publishers. It was founded in Paris by Antoine Choudens (1825–88) and is first mentioned in an advertisement in September 1844. From 1888 to 1890 the firm was run by Choudens’s two sons, the second of whom, Paul, continued alone from 1890 until his death on 6 October 1925; after this the leadership was shared by Paul’s sons-in-law, Gaston Chevrier (until 1952) and André Leroy (until 1958), and grandson, André Chevrier. Choudens published three of the most important French 19th-century operas: Berlioz’s Les Troyens (piano-vocal scores of Parts I and II, 1863), Bizet’s Carmen (piano-vocal score, 1875; full score, 1877) and Gounod’s Faust (piano-vocal score, 1859; full score, 1860); the firm also issued works by Reyer, Saint-Saëns and the first editions of Fauré’s early songs. In 1891 Choudens published five of Debussy’s early piano works: Valse romantique, Reverie, Ballade, Marche écossaise...





Ernst C. Krohn

American firm of music publishers. On 21 April 1859 Oliver Ditson of Boston bought the catalogue of Baldwin & Truax (established in 1851 by David Truax in Cincinnati, named Curtis & Truax in 1855 and Baldwin & Truax in 1857), and in association with John Church jr (d Boston, 19 April 1890) founded the firm of John Church, Jr. On 1 March 1869 Church bought the half-interest of Ditson and, in partnership with his bookkeeper John B. Trevor, established the firm of John Church & Co., which became incorporated in 1885 as John Church Co. Church bought the catalogue of George Root & Sons of Chicago in 1872, and at about this time William Sherwin joined the firm. In 1881 James R. Murray became chief director of publications and editor of the firm’s periodical, Music Visitor (1871–97).

Church became notable for publishing the operas and, particularly, the celebrated marches of John Philip Sousa (...




Colette Simonot

Media conglomerate based in San Antonio, Texas, which has encompassed radio and television stations, billboard advertising displays, and related products throughout its history. The investment banker Lowry Mays bought his first radio station in 1972, and by 1975 he had acquired several more and left banking to devote himself to his company, Clear Channel Communications. By the mid-1980s, with 16 stations to his name, Mays had developed a reputation for buying unsuccessful stations and making them profitable. The Federal Communications Commission (1992) and the Telecommunications Act (1996) significantly loosened restrictions on radio station ownership, allowing Clear Channel’s continued expansion. After the purchase of Jacor Communications and AMFM in 1999 and 2000, Clear Channel was the largest radio station owner in the United States. In 2008 it was taken over by CC Media Holdings. At its height Clear Channel managed or owned more than 1,200 radio stations and produced syndicated radio content for more than 5,000 stations. Although they carry a variety of programs, most of Clear Channel’s stations are similar in branding and programming. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Clear Channel was a target of criticism by such media reform groups as the Future of Music Coalition. Free speech activists were angered by Clear Channel’s strict censorship policies. In addition, their reluctance to produce local progamming not only reduced local employment opportunities in the media industry, but left smaller market communities with no local representation....


Roben Jones

[John Henderson ]

(b Whitehaven, TN, April 8, 1931). American singer-songwriter, producer, publisher, and entrepreneur. He began playing bluegrass while in the military and after his discharge in 1952, played at radio stations in Wheeling, West Virginia, and Boston. While enrolled in Memphis State University (from 1954), he worked nights and weekends at the Eagle’s Nest club. After working briefly for Fernwood Records, he was hired by Sun Records, where he recorded Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Johnny Cash, among others. He wrote hits for several of Sun’s artists, including Johnny Cash’s singles “Ballad of a Teenage Queen” and “Guess things happen that way” (both Sun, 1958).

Clement left Sun in 1960 to became a staff producer for RCA in Nashville. In 1963 he moved to Texas, started a publishing company, and produced Dickey Lee’s hit “Patches” (Smash, 1963). After returning to Nashville in 1965, he discovered and produced Charlie Pride and wrote songs for a variety of country artists, including Pride (“Just between you and me,” RCA Victor, ...



Leanne Langley

English firm of printers. It was established in London in 1803 by William Clowes the elder (1779–1847) and achieved success by making accuracy, speed and quantity its chief goals; periodicals and official reports as well as books and catalogues (from 1820 produced by steam machinery) were an important part of its output. By 1843 it operated the largest printing works in the world, with 24 presses, its own type and stereotype foundries, and 2500 tonnes of stereo plates and 80,000 woodcuts in store. It executed major works for the Royal Academy of Arts, the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, the Great Exhibition and the British Museum (General Catalogue of Printed Books, 1881–1900).

William Clowes’s achievement in music printing rests on his advocacy of musical typography at a time when engraved-plate methods predominated. Aiming specifically for the increased efficiency and lower unit costs of type-printed music in large edition sizes, he effected real improvements in this method (better clarity, a more precise junction of staff lines), issuing as his pilot projects, for a variety of publishers, ...


Frank Kidson

revised by William C. Smith, Peter Ward Jones and David Hunter

(b ?London, late 17th century; d London, Oct 1728). English music printer and publisher. As early as 1715 he was active in London as a general printer whose production included ballads, chapbooks, labels and shopkeepers’ signs. He soon turned to music printing and issued some of the best engraved music of his period. A considerable innovator, he experimented with new methods of printing both from engraved plates and from music types. Beginning with the printing of the Suites de pièces pour le clavecin in 1720, Cluer had business relations with Handel, publishing in score nine of his operas, the first being Giulio Cesare in 1724, which was issued in the unusual format of a large pocket-size volume. Both this and the later operas are remarkable for their finely engraved title-pages and frontispieces. Other notable publications include the two volumes of A Pocket Companion for Gentlemen and Ladies (...



Craig Havighurst

[Country Music Television]

The oldest and most widely watched country music cable network, CMT has evolved from a forum for music videos into a full-service entertainment brand with original and syndicated programming, specials, and a robust web presence at CMT.com. Launched as CMTV by Video World International of Hendersonville, Tennessee, on 6 March 1983, the channel debuted with a performance clip of Faron Young’s “Four in the Morning.” Renamed CMT, it was acquired in 1991 by Gaylord Entertainment, which by then had been running The Nashville Network (TNN) for nearly eight years. Both networks were sold to Westinghouse in early 1997 in a deal intended to further their longstanding corporate partnership; but following CBS’s takeover of Westinghouse and its subsequent acquisition by Viacom in 1999, CMT became part of MTV Networks. Like its sister networks MTV and VH1, CMT trended away from music videos toward produced programming and reality shows. Among its most praised shows has been ...


Susan Bain

(b Antwerp, 1489; d Antwerp, Aug 17, 1562). South Netherlandish printer. Although active as a printer in Antwerp for more than 40 years, he did not become a member of the Guild of St Luke until 1557, towards the end of his life. In his long and prolific career (more than 170 books) he printed prognostications, ordinances, theology and devotional books, and a number of English heretical texts, printed clandestinely. On 15 September 1539 he received a six-year privilege for printing psalters with music, the first privilege to print music in the Low Countries. On 28 September of the same year he printed the first Dutch metrical psalter, Een devoot ende profitelijck boecxken (ed. D.F. Scheurleer, The Hague, 1889, 2/1977). This was followed, in 1540, by his Souterliedekens – Psalter Songs – which became immensely popular, being reprinted several times by Cock, and later by printers in both the southern and the northern Netherlands. These two publications were printed by double impression, the staves in red and the text and music in black, but with different music notation. The first used a small Roman neume typeface on a four-line staff; ...


W.H. Husk, Frank Kidson and Peter Ward Jones

(b 1798; d London, April 7, 1887). English music publisher. He established his own firm in London in 1823. In 1868 he took his two sons Arthur and Stroud into partnership and retired in 1881, but at his death his grandson Robert M. Cocks became the proprietor and continued until his retirement in 1898 when a sale of stock took place; Augener purchased the goodwill and lease, and retained the name of the firm until 1904.

Cocks was much involved in concert management at the outset of his career and had a long association with the Hanover Square Rooms. He employed resident foreign musicians to compile and edit music. Some 16,000 works were published by the firm, including Bach’s keyboard works edited by Czerny, Beethoven’s quartets, and works by Czerny himself, Rode and Spohr, in addition to the waltzes of Johann Strauss and Lanner and contemporary English music. A number of methods and books on music included translations of important foreign treatises. A short-lived periodical, ...


Mark Alburger

American record label. Cold Blue Music is a Los-Angeles-based new-music label, which focuses on West Coast minimalism, post-minimalism, and maximalism. The company was founded by jim Fox , who produced a series of nine albums from 1981 to 1984. Of these, seven were 10-inch EPs of music by Barney Childs, Peter Garland, Read Miller, Daniel Lentz, Chas Smith, Michael Jon Fink, and Rick Cox; and two were LPs: Lentz’s Point Conception and the anthology album Cold Blue, featuring music from Eugene Bowen, Harold Budd, Michael Byron, Cox, Fink, Fox, Garland, John Kuhlman, Lentz, Ingram Marshall, Miller, Smith, and James Tenney. Reemerging in December 2000, Cold Blue has released three to four new CDs per year, including works by Larry Polansky (Four-Voice Canons, 2002), Byron (Awakening at the Inn of the Birds, 2003), Smith, Fink, David Mahler, Fox (The City the Wind Swept Away, 2004), Cox, Steve Peters (...


Stanley Boorman

(fl London, 1740–60). English engraver. Several engravers of this name flourished in England during the 18th century, though probably only one worked at music. His first work appears in Walsh's publication of J.F. Lampe's Songs and Duetto's in … The Dragon of Wantley (1738) and music from the same composer's Margery (1740). His most important work was for the British Melody, or The Musical Magazine, published in 15 (probably fortnightly) instalments from February 1738. It reappeared as a set, published by Cole, in 1739. This was the first of the many rivals and successors to Bickham's The Musical Entertainer. Cole's work is of a very high standard, though less flexible and imaginative than Bickham's; the latter twice referred disparagingly to Cole in his second volume. As was customary, Cole continued to reissue separate plates for several years. He also engraved the music plates for ...



Christopher Doll

Record company. Formed in 1958 by Columbia Pictures, Colpix originally aimed to market soundtracks and spin-off recordings of Columbia’s movies and Screen Gems’ (another Columbia subsidiary) television shows. Colpix’s catalog featured scores by such illustrious film composers as Bernard Herrmann and a young John Williams, although the company’s biggest movie-derived success came in 1962 with Maurice Jarre’s Oscar-winning score for Lawrence of Arabia. On the television side, the company’s focus was split between animated characters (the Flintstones, Huckleberry Hound), comedians (George Burns, Woody Allen), and comely young actors-turned-singers (Paul Petersen, Shelley Fabares, both from The Donna Reed Show). Other notable acts included the celebrated singer Nina Simone (at Colpix from 1959 to 1964) and the Marcels (“Blue Moon”). In late 1962 Colpix began to shift more attention toward the pop market, acquiring Aldon Music and, with it, the recording label Dimension and its crop of successful Brill Building pop songwriters. Yet this new direction did not yield much commercial interest, and Colpix folded in ...


Ray Burford and Dave Laing

American (and sometime British) record company. The name is probably the longest-standing title of any record company, dating from the foundation in 1887 of the American Graphophone Company in Washington DC. At first the company used patents of Charles Sumner Tainter and Alexander Graham Bell and engaged, in association with Edison, in the manufacture and sale of cylinder machines for business use. The project soon failed, but the subsidiary Columbia Phonograph, active in the District of Columbia and the surrounding region, was still profitable and the name was used increasingly by the parent firm, which turned to entertainment when the sale of ‘graphophones’ for business proved unsuccessful. By 1891, a ten-page catalogue of entertainment cylinders was issued. The US Marine Band recorded for the firm as did the new Sousa Band in 1893. In 1894 the company produced clockwork playing machines (the collaboration with Edison, who favoured electric motors, had ceased). It moved to New York in ...


Howard Rye

American record company. It was established in New York in 1938, although at first its recordings were produced and manufactured by the American Record Company. Its catalogue contained much Chicago jazz, but recordings in swing styles also figured prominently. Issues included items by the Kansas City Five and Six, Coleman Hawkins and Hot Lips Page, a series by Billie Holiday and reissues of some of Jelly Roll Morton’s last recordings for General. Although intensive activity ceased in the 1940s, the label remained operational intermittently into the following decade.

Material from the catalogue was reissued on Mainstream in the 1960s and on London in the 1970s, as well as under its original label name. In the late 1970s the label was revived and a series of LPs with much previously unreleased material was sold in the USA and Germany; the latter series continued into the late 1980s. Mosaic reissued the entire catalogue from about ...


Jerome F. Weber

American, later European, record company. It was founded in 1945 by David Josefowitz, a violinist and conductor, to sell 78 r.p.m. vinyl records of unfamiliar repertory by mail-order subscription. The first 18 sets, consisting mostly of two or three discs, appeared during 1946 and offered 20th-century music as well as varied classics. The performers were mostly chamber ensembles (Stuyvesant Quartet) and soloists (the pianist Robert Goldsand). A big success of the first year was Vivaldi's Four Seasons conducted by Henry Swoboda (one of the first two recordings of the work). A separate retail catalogue was developed on LP in September 1949, and the LP format was extended to the subscription series the next year. Most of the subscription discs, which were issued until 1951, eventually appeared in the retail series. Swoboda, Clemens Dahinden and Victor Desarzens conducted the Winterthur City Orchestra in the early years. A new low-priced mail-order series aimed at a more general audience and partly drawn from the existing catalogue was begun as Musical Masterpiece Society in ...



Thane Tierney

American record company. It was established in 1969 by businessman and concert promoter Carl E. Jefferson. Named for the California city in which Jefferson once promoted a jazz festival, Concord first came to prominence as a jazz label, releasing mainstream recordings by the likes of Herb Ellis and Joe Pass, later attracting such artists as Rosemary Clooney and Dave Brubeck, and in later years broadening their horizons to include Paul McCartney, Ray Charles, Kenny G, and Michael Feinstein, among many others. Label imprints include Concord Records, Concord Jazz, and Concord Picante. They have operated the Hear Music label as a joint venture with the coffee conglomerate Starbucks, and they distribute a number of small labels.

In 2004 the Concord Music Group was formed when the firm merged with Fantasy Records (which, at that time, also controlled the Contemporary, Good Time Jazz, Milestone, Pablo, Prestige, Riverside, Specialty, and Takoma imprints as well as a portion of the Stax/Volt Records catalog). Subsequent label acquisitions include Telarc in ...


Frances Barulich

Firm of music and book publishers. Concordia Publishing House was founded in St. Louis in 1869 by immigrant German Lutherans for the purpose of printing their hymnals and other church literature, and takes its name from the Lutheran Book of Concord (1580). Its catalog, which has included music since ...