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David Flanagan

revised by Géza Gábor Simon and Barry Kernfeld

(Cornelius )

(b Visegrad, nr Budapest, June 13, 1927; d Townshend, VT, Jan 26, 1998). Hungarian guitarist. He grew up in a musical family and first studied violin and trumpet; he changed to guitar when he decided to make music his career. After playing in Budapest with Mihály Tabányi’s Pinocchio Ensemble (1946–8) he performed and recorded in Vienna, where he had spent a brief period as a double bass player in a pit orchestra, with Vera Auer (1948–54). In Frankfurt he played bop with Jutta Hipp (1954–5), whose group also included Auer. He followed Hipp to the USA early in 1956, but soon returned to Germany, where he worked with Hans Koller (April 1956–1959) and visiting American musicians, notably Oscar Pettiford (he occasionally played double bass while Pettiford played cello). In 1959 he was awarded a scholarship to the Lenox School of Jazz and moved to the USA. Following a short period with Chico Hamilton (...



Virko Baley

(‘The Golden Ring’)

Opera-drama in four acts by Borys Mykolayovych Lyatoshyns’ky to a libretto by Yakiv Mamontov after Ivan Franko’s novel Zakhar Berkut; Odessa, 28 March 1930 (revised version, L’viv, 29 April 1970).

The opera is set in the Carpathian mountains, where the Tukholtsi live. The son Maxym (tenor) of their leader Zakhar Berkut (bass) rescues, during a hunting expedition, Myroslava (soprano), daughter of the boyar Tuhar Vovk (baritone). The two fall in love. Vovk attempts to take over some public lands and is condemned and banished by the Tukholtsi; he sides with an invading Tatar horde, but is drowned when the Tukholtsi destroy a river barrier and cause a flood. Maxym, their prisoner at the time, perishes too, but is acclaimed as a hero for sacrificing his life for his country.

One of the most significant operas to come out of the Soviet Union in its time, Zolotyy obruch (sometimes known as ...


Howard Rye

Record label. It was founded in 1899 by Frank Seamon and was continued by Victor after that company took over Seamon’s National Gramophone Corporation. After 1910 the name was not used in the USA, but it remained in use in Britain (and was later also adopted in Australia) as the Gramophone Company’s cheap label. Much of the repertory was recorded in Britain and includes some of the most highly regarded British hot dance music of the 1920s; the catalogue also contained American material recorded by Victor. Following the setting up of EMI, Zonophone was merged in ...




William Ashbrook

(‘Zoraide of Grenada’)

Melodramma eroico in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti to a libretto by Bartolomeo Merelli after J.-P.-C. de Florian’s Gonsalve de Cordove, ou Grenade reconquise; Rome, Teatro Argentina, 28 January 1822 (revised version, Rome, Teatro Argentina, 7 January 1824).

The plot deals with the machinations of Almuzir (tenor) to marry Zoraide (soprano), the daughter of the king he has murdered and whose throne he has usurped. His attempts to dispose of his rival Abenamet (contralto en travesti), whom Zoraide truly loves, are ultimately foiled when Abenamet, as an unknown knight, wins a single combat to defend her, whereupon he forces Almuzir to confess his perfidy and then defends the usurper against the wrath of the populace. The grateful Almuzir permits Abenamet to marry Zoraide.

Abenamet was to have been a tenor role, but the singer assigned the part died during rehearsals and Donizetti was forced to recast the part as a ...


Graham Sadler

Tragédie en musique in five acts by Jean-Philippe Rameau to a libretto by (Jean-)Louis de Cahusac; Paris, Opéra, 5 December 1749.

* – original version only † – 1756 version only

Though produced with more than usual magnificence and a cast including Jélyotte (Zoroastre), Chassé (Abramane) and Fel (Amélite), Zoroastre had initially only limited success. Despite 25 performances it proved far less popular than Mondonville’s Le carnaval du Parnasse, staged during the same period. By May 1752 Rameau and Cahusac had begun an extensive reworking affecting the whole character of the work. This version, first given on 19 January 1756, was much more successful. It was revived with minor modifications on 26 January 1770 to inaugurate the Opéra’s Palais Royal theatre, rebuilt after the fire of 1763. The earlier version was staged at Dresden on 17 January 1752 in an Italian translation by Casanova, music by Johann Adam replacing most of Rameau’s.

As Cahusac pointed out, ...


Elizabeth Forbes

(b Amberg, Bavaria, March 31, 1828; d Weimar, Oct 16, 1899). German bass-baritone . He made his début in 1855 at Nuremberg and was then engaged at Hamburg, Hanover and, in 1865, at the Munich Hofoper, where he remained until 1880. He sang King Mark in the first performance of ...


Ian Mikyska

(b Brno, 13 March 1966). Czech composer, pedagogue, and writer on music, son of zdeněk zouhar. He studied composition at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts (JAMU) in Brno (with Miloš Ištván and alois piňos) and musicology at the Masaryk University, followed by post-graduate studies at the Hochschule für Musik und darstellende Kunst Graz (with Herman Markus Preßl and younghi pagh-paan) and JAMU. He remains an external pedagogue at both these institutions, as well as being active as a researcher at the Palacký University Olomouc (vice-dean starting in 2010), Ostrava University, and Masaryk University.

His brand of postmodernism is surprisingly respectful, using disparate materials in a serious manner, and generally staying with a few pieces of material for the duration of a piece or movement. Often composed in an additive, evolutionary structure, his works are sonically reminiscent of New York post-minimalism, but are very European in their approach to expressivity and emotional intensity. This approach includes both the intense rhythms of ...



Jan Fairley

A popular music genre of the Creole-speaking Caribbean, particularly Guadeloupe, Martinique, St Lucia and Dominica, but also Haiti and French Guiana. These regions share a similar French and British colonial past and are populated mainly by the descendants of African slaves. The term ‘zouk’ originated in Martinique where it was the common expression initially for a party, and later for dance parties. In the 1980s it became associated with the music of the group Kassav, whose members, from Guadeloupe and Martinique, now mostly live in Paris.

In zouk, musical influences can be so intermingled and disguised in complex arrangements that they are difficult to isolate. A music in perpetual transformation, it is a product of what Guilbault has described as the inter-island cross-fertilization of popular and traditional musics over a long period, part of a network of traditions (including African) with the imprint of many foreign influences. It has absorbed elements from Haitian ...


Elizabeth Forbes

(b Berlin, March 29, 1800; d Berlin, July 7, 1876). German bass . He sang in the children’s chorus of the Berlin Hofoper, then in the regular chorus and in 1819 took on small parts there. After an engagement in Budapest, in 1826 he joined the Königstädtisches Theater, Berlin, making his début as Gaveston (...


Walter Ojakäär

(Nikolayevich )

(b Moscow, Nov 15, 1936). Russian saxophonist and composer. Self-taught as a musician, he played clarinet in the brass band of the Moscow M. V. Lomonosov State University, where he studied physics (graduating in 1958), and tenor saxophone in the big band of the Tsentral’ny Dom Rabotnikov Iskusstva (Central house of artists; 1954–7). In 1956 he joined the octet Vosmoyrka, at that time the best jazz group in Moscow. Later he was a member of Oleg Lundstrem’s orchestra (1960–65) and the Kontsertny Estradny Orkestr Tsentral’novo TV i Vsesoyuznovo Radio (Concert variety orchestra of central TV and all-union radio). In 1967–8 he led two groups known by the name Crescendo – a quintet in which the vibraphonist Leonid Garin played in 1968 and a quartet. From 1974 to 1979 he worked with the ensemble Melodiya, and in the 1980s he was active as a freelance and wrote film music. In ...


Pavla Jonssonová

(‘Tooth and Nail’)

Czech rock group. Formed by university students in Prague in 1980 as Plyn (‘Gas’), with Marka Horáková (Míková; b 1959; piano, bass, vocals), Pavla Fediuková (Slabá, Jonssonová; b 1961; guitar, vocals), and Hana Kubíčková (Řepová; b 1961; drums, vocals). All of the members contributed songs in a punk, girl-band, dadaist fashion, playing college clubs and alternative music festivals. After Plyn was blacklisted, they re-formed under a new name as Dybbuk, and were joined by Kateřina Nejepsová (Jirčíková; b 1963) on the flute and saxophone, and Eva Trnková (b 1963) on the lead guitar. Their eponymous EP (Panton, 1987) was released during the communist era. Dybbuk disbanded in 1987.

In 1988 Míková started Zuby nehty with Slabá on the bass, Naďa Bilincová (1959−2011) on the guitar, and Tomáš Míka (b 1960) on the saxophone. In 1991 Dybbuk reunited to record their 1980s material on the album ...


(b London, Jan 28, 1793; d Bologna, Feb 1879). Italian bass. The son of an Italian father and an English mother, he accompanied his family to Italy in 1803 and for a time studied painting. He eventually studied singing with Crescentini in Bologna, and in 1816 made his début at Ferrara, going in the same year to Munich, where he was engaged at the Hoftheater. In 1819 he sang in operas by Rossini and Guglielmi at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna, returning to La Scala for Rossini’s La pietra del paragone, L’italiana in Algeri and La Cenerentola, in which Rossini thought him the best Don Magnifico he had heard. On 26 December 1820 Zucchelli sang in the Rome première of Pacini’s La gioventù di Enrico V. In 1821–2 he appeared in Trieste and in the following season he went to London, where he performed in the English première of Rossini’s ...


Adriano Mazzoletti

(b Spilimbergo, Italy, 1911; d Asti, Italy, c1977). Italian guitarist and leader. He played guitar from the age of six. In 1934 he recorded as an unaccompanied soloist and in 1938 formed a group that later became the Quintetto Ritmico di Milano; this was modeled after the Quintette du Hot Club de France and included three guitars (of which Zuccheri played the lead), a violin (from ...


Sergio Durante

( fl 1678–85). Italian soprano . She sang in Venice in 1678 in Carlo Pallavicino’s Vespasiano for the opening of the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo. Thereafter her name appears only in librettos of Neapolitan productions, including the first performances of Alessandro Scarlatti’s Aldimiro, o vero Favor per favore and Psiche, o vero Amore innamorato...


Zug (i)  

William Drabkin

(Ger.: ‘pull’, ‘draught’, ‘stress’, ‘procession’, ‘progression’)

In Schenkerian analysis (see Analysis, §II, 4), a conjunct diatonic succession of notes, encompassing a certain interval, by which movement from one pitch, register or part to another is established; hence one of the chief methods of Prolongation of a basic musical structure. As a technical term, Zug is usually translated as ‘progression’ or, more precisely, as ‘linear progression’. In identifying these progressions in Schenkerian analyses, the interval forms part of the name, thus Terzzug, Quartzug, Quintzug, Sextzug, Septzug, Oktavzug (‘3rd-progression’, ‘4th-progression’, ‘5th-progression’ etc.).

At the most basic level of an analysis, the background Layer, the function of a Zug is to connect the fundamental upper voice ( Urlinie) with an inner voice. In ex.1, for instance, the Terzzug d″–c″–b′ delays the completion of the Urlinie movement to c″. Because this progression prolongs a note in the Urlinie itself, it is called a Terzzug erster Ordnung (‘3rd-progression of the highest order’)....


Jacques Aboucaya

[Z, Bojan ]

(b Belgrade, Feb 2, 1968). Serbian pianist and composer. He discovered jazz in 1984 and quickly became one of the busiest pianists in Belgrade. After gaining a scholarship to the University of Michigan (1986) he spent time with Clare Fischer, under whose influence he renewed his approach to the piano. In the course of his service in the Serbian army (1987) he directed an ethnic music orchestra, and this supplied further inspiration for his music making. In 1988 he settled in Paris, where in the early 1990s he played in Noël Akchoté’s groups Trash Corporation and Unit and in 1992 founded Quartet Z. He joined Henri Texier’s Azur Quartet (1992) and Sonjal Septet (1996), played in Sylvain Beuf’s quartet, formed an international group including, most notably, Julien Lourau, and appeared at the festival Banlieues Bleues (1997), where he presented ...


John Tyrrell


(b Prague, June 21, 1840; d Prague, April 22, 1894). Czech translator and librettist. He made a living for himself through journalism and translating plays (over a hundred), operas and operettas (about 60). He also wrote original plays himself and some opera librettos, mostly adaptations of foreign sources. His best-known libretto, The Two Widows, was the most professional libretto Smetana ever set. It is basically trochaic (ideal for the polka metres used in the opera) with plenty of contrasting metrical variation. Züngel was poorly paid for his pains, though this did not stand in the way of his providing 28 more pages of additional text when Smetana turned the work into a continuously-sung opera.

Dvěvdovy [The Two Widows], Smetana, 1874, rev. 1878, 1882; Natalie (after W. A. Gerle), J. Hartl, 1885; Cesta oknem [The Way through the Window], Kovařovic, 1886 ČSHS [lists further translations and bibliography]...



Alan R. Thrasher

(‘sitting chime’) [qing]

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.

Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.

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