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Zug (i)  

William Drabkin

(Ger.: ‘pull’, ‘draught’, ‘stress’, ‘procession’, ‘progression’)

In Schenkerian analysis (see Analysis, §II, 4), a conjunct diatonic succession of notes, encompassing a certain interval, by which movement from one pitch, register or part to another is established; hence one of the chief methods of Prolongation of a basic musical structure. As a technical term, Zug is usually translated as ‘progression’ or, more precisely, as ‘linear progression’. In identifying these progressions in Schenkerian analyses, the interval forms part of the name, thus Terzzug, Quartzug, Quintzug, Sextzug, Septzug, Oktavzug (‘3rd-progression’, ‘4th-progression’, ‘5th-progression’ etc.).

At the most basic level of an analysis, the background Layer, the function of a Zug is to connect the fundamental upper voice ( Urlinie) with an inner voice. In ex.1, for instance, the Terzzug d″–c″–b′ delays the completion of the Urlinie movement to c″. Because this progression prolongs a note in the Urlinie itself, it is called a Terzzug erster Ordnung (‘3rd-progression of the highest order’)....

Article

Jacques Aboucaya

[Z, Bojan ]

(b Belgrade, Feb 2, 1968). Serbian pianist and composer. He discovered jazz in 1984 and quickly became one of the busiest pianists in Belgrade. After gaining a scholarship to the University of Michigan (1986) he spent time with Clare Fischer, under whose influence he renewed his approach to the piano. In the course of his service in the Serbian army (1987) he directed an ethnic music orchestra, and this supplied further inspiration for his music making. In 1988 he settled in Paris, where in the early 1990s he played in Noël Akchoté’s groups Trash Corporation and Unit and in 1992 founded Quartet Z. He joined Henri Texier’s Azur Quartet (1992) and Sonjal Septet (1996), played in Sylvain Beuf’s quartet, formed an international group including, most notably, Julien Lourau, and appeared at the festival Banlieues Bleues (1997), where he presented ...

Article

John Tyrrell

(František)

(b Prague, June 21, 1840; d Prague, April 22, 1894). Czech translator and librettist. He made a living for himself through journalism and translating plays (over a hundred), operas and operettas (about 60). He also wrote original plays himself and some opera librettos, mostly adaptations of foreign sources. His best-known libretto, The Two Widows, was the most professional libretto Smetana ever set. It is basically trochaic (ideal for the polka metres used in the opera) with plenty of contrasting metrical variation. Züngel was poorly paid for his pains, though this did not stand in the way of his providing 28 more pages of additional text when Smetana turned the work into a continuously-sung opera.

Dvěvdovy [The Two Widows], Smetana, 1874, rev. 1878, 1882; Natalie (after W. A. Gerle), J. Hartl, 1885; Cesta oknem [The Way through the Window], Kovařovic, 1886 ČSHS [lists further translations and bibliography]...

Article

Zuoqing  

Alan R. Thrasher

(‘sitting chime’) [qing]

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.

Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.

See also...

Article

Ken Rattenbury

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[Robert Albert; Zukowski, Bogusław Albert]

(b Detroit, Jan 17, 1912; d Los Angeles, Feb 16, 1944). American pianist and composer. At an early age he displayed a precocious talent for playing piano in an assertive, confident style influenced by the blues. He worked in Philadelphia as a member of an orchestra led by the pianist Oliver Naylor, recording in 1925 and appearing at the Palace d’Or and the Orient restaurant in the late 1920s and early 1930s; he also spent a period with the Playboys, led by the double bass player Thelma Terry (recording in 1928). After performing with the singer Seymour Simons and at Smokey’s Club in Detroit he came to prominence as a member of Bob Crosby’s band (late 1936 – mid-1939), in which he was Joe Sullivan’s replacement; while with Crosby he gained recognition as a leading exponent of the boogie-woogie style, and in 1939 he was named “best pianist” by ...

Article

Helena Havlíková

Opera in five acts by Jiří Pauer to his own libretto after Jan Bor’s play of the same name; Prague, National Theatre, 30 December 1958.

The opera, set during the years 1587–1620, deals with the love between Petr Vok (baritone), head of the powerful Rožmberk family, and the lowly country girl Zuzana (dramatic soprano). Refusing to be bound by convention, Zuzana gives Petr an heir. Vok’s wife (contralto) secretly kidnaps the child; meanwhile the situation has angered and alienated Zuzana’s former lover and betrothed, Ondrej (tenor). After Vok’s death Zuzana is driven out of the castle, but at the end of her life she sees Ondrej and her son again and finds lasting peace.

Composed between 1954 and 1957, Zuzana Vojířová is based on a highly successful historical play written during the German occupation. Pauer completely revised the work in 1978, and it was one of the most frequently performed Czech operas until the end of the 1970s. Pauer viewed opera within a socialist culture as a means to provide a social forum and platform on which to play out the ethical and ideological struggle for the improvement of humanity. In this sense, ...

Article

Zvans  

Valdis Muktupāvels

[govju zvans, pulkstens]

Cast and forged metal bells of Latvia. Small cast bronze bells are known from the 7th century, found by archaeologists attached to shawls, belts, and other parts of female costume, usually grouped in threes. The diameter of the opening is 15 to 30 mm, and the clapper in a form of a lamella is attached inside. Cast church bells are known in Latvia from the 12th century. The bell was hung in a church tower or a separate bell tower and rung for ecclesiastic rites, for special events such as weddings and funerals, and also to sound alarms. The church bells were thought to offer protection from evil influences.

Forged bells, govju zvans, were made of thin folded brass plates, with riveted edges. A wire with an iron weight—screw-nuts or similar—was fastened inside. Such bells were hung around the necks of farm animals while grazing, especially at night.

Ī. Priedīte...

Article

Zvonce  

Ivan Mačak

Bells of Slovakia. There are many forms: zvonce drevené (wooden bells), zvonce liate (cast metal bells), plechové zvonce or spiežovce (bells of folded sheet metal), and zvonce hlinené (ceramic bells). Herders hang differently tuned bells on their animals so that in rough terrain they can locate them and know which animals are in front, behind, or in the middle of the group. Herders also pay attention to the harmony of the bells and sometimes say that they are ‘making a symphony.’...

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Article

Andrew Lamb

[Mariel]

(b Pistyán, Hungary, July 13, 1876; d Vienna, 14/June 15, 1947). Austro-Hungarian soprano. She sang soubrette roles at the Carltheater in Vienna from 1901 to 1920, also appearing at the summer theatre in the Prater, the Raimundtheater and the Theater an der Wien. She was the original Franzi in Straus’s ...

Article

Alfred Clayton

(‘The Dwarf’)

Opera in one act, op.17, by Alexander Zemlinsky to a libretto by Georg Klaren after Oscar Wilde’s novel The Birthday of the Infanta; Cologne, Neues Theater, 28 May 1922.

The origins of Der Zwerg lie in Zemlinsky’s obsession with ugliness. Significantly, Alma Mahler referred to Zemlinsky himself in her memoirs as ‘a horrible dwarf’. He may first have come across Wilde’s story in 1908, when Schreker’s pantomime Der Geburtstag der Infantin was first performed in Vienna. Three years later Zemlinsky commissioned Schreker to write a libretto on the subject of ‘the tragedy of the ugly man’. This crystallized in Die Gezeichneten, which Schreker decided to set himself; its principal character, Alviano, bears a striking resemblance to the Dwarf. Zemlinsky’s involvement in the origins of Die Gezeichneten goes some way towards explaining why Klaren’s libretto differs significantly from Wilde’s story. In Klaren’s version the Infanta is no longer a girl but a young woman whose cruelty is premeditated. The Dwarf is no longer a charming natural monster but a much more complex and indeed civilized being. Zemlinsky’s emotional identification with the hero also suggests why the work seems so highly charged. In a letter to his publisher Emil Hertzka he confessed that it differed from ...

Article

Elizabeth Norman McKay

(‘The Twin Brothers’)

Posse in one act by Franz Schubert to a libretto by Georg von Hofmann after a French vaudeville Les deux Valentins; Vienna, Kärntnertortheater, 14 June 1820.

Schubert received this, his first theatrical commission, at the end of 1818 and completed the work in January 1819. The naive plot is a love story in a pastoral setting complicated by problems of mistaken identity: twin brothers, Franz and Friedrich (played by the one baritone soloist), return separately to their village, the first of them expecting to marry Lieschen (soprano), who is already betrothed to Anton (tenor). Schubert was surely incapable of composing the simple, tuneful melodies and light accompaniments customary in the artless verse patterns of plays of this type. He adopted instead the romantic Singspiel style of such composers as Weigl and Gyrowetz, responding more to the love interest than to the farcical element, thus creating an imbalance between text and music. The rhapsodical sentiments of the young lovers drew him to add new if not entirely appropriate dimensions to the play: tender, lyrical melodies, fine tone-painting which includes nature imagery of great charm, and ensembles in which he used some of the techniques of Rossini, whose operas were becoming increasingly popular in Vienna. The finest music comes in Lieschen’s aria (no.3) ‘Der Vater mag wohl immer Kind mich nennen’, in the brilliant little quartet (no.5) ‘Zu rechter Zeit bin ich gekommen’, and in the energetic quintet with chorus (no.9) ‘Packt ihn, führt ihn vor Gericht’....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, May 7, 1955). German pianist, brother of Torsten Zwingenberger. He studied classical piano from the age of six and adopted the boogie-woogie style in 1973. From 1974 he performed at numerous boogie-woogie, blues, and jazz festivals and broadcast frequently on television and radio throughout Europe, and between 1983 and 1991 he made regular appearances on the television program “ZDF-Teleillustrierte.” In addition he toured with Monty Sunshine and Max Collie (both 1978) and Alexis Korner (March 1979), recorded in Los Angeles with Joe Turner (ii) (May 1978, 1981), and toured and recorded with Lionel Hampton (April–May 1980, 1982, 1983) and the blues singer Champion Jack Dupree (October 1980, 1988, 1990). From the early 1980s Zwingenberger toured in the shows Stars of Boogie Woogie and Hot Jazz Meeting, and he made tours of East Asia (1981), Indonesia and Malaysia (...

Article

Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, Jan 12, 1959). German drummer, brother of Axel Zwingenberger. From the mid-1970s he led his own groups and performed and recorded regularly with his brother; in 1978 the two recorded in Los Angeles as accompanists to Joe Turner (ii). In 1983 Zwingenberger made the album Buddy Tate Meets Torsten Zwingenberger (Moustache Music 120159) and formed the Swingburger Quintet, and in the 1990s he led a quartet. He recorded again as a leader in 1989 (with Plas Johnson as his guest soloist) and in 1993 (the album Open Sunroof, Blackbird 41012) and as an unaccompanied soloist in 1991. In November 1992 he played in New York in a hard-bop trio with Peter Bernstein and the double bass player Ari Roland.

ReclamsJ “Jazz News,” JP, 32/7 (1983), 37 A. Geyer: “Buddy Tate und Torsten Zwingenberger Band,” JP, 37/1 (1988), 35 C. Hasenmaile: “Moderner geworden: Torsten Zwingenberger,” JP...

Article

Michael Tilmouth

(Ger.: ‘interlude’)

An interlude or intermezzo. The term has been applied to musical interludes that serve simply to entertain between the acts of operatic works of the 19th and 20th centuries, although ‘entr’acte’ or ‘Entrakt’ has often been preferred even in German-speaking countries. It has also been used of those interludes that contribute to the essential dramatic structure of the whole, e.g. the Zwischenspiel between Acts 1 and 2 of Schoenberg’s Moses und Aron; ‘Siegfrieds Rheinfahrt’ is described as a Zwischenspiel in some editions of Götterdämmerung, though it is doubtful whether Wagner himself so described it.

In writings about music the word is commonly used of the episodes in a fugue or rondo, the orchestral tuttis of a concerto, the purely instrumental interludes in a song accompaniment, organ interludes between the stanzas of a congregational hymn or the passages between statements of the chorale tune in a chorale prelude and, rather loosely, of the ...