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[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

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( b Sparneck, Upper Franconia, Oct 1, 1730; d Hof, Jan 8, 1782). German critic and writer on organ building . He was a postal clerk in Hof and, after 1764, accountant at the Vierling bookshop. He was a member of several scientific and economic societies and his contact with distinguished organ builders (such as J.A. Silbermann) enabled him to acquire a thorough knowledge of organ building. Ludwig was a friend and business partner of G.A. Sorge (whom he supported in his polemical arguments, interspersed with personal insults, with F.W. Marpurg), and probably wrote the pamphlet Eine helle Brille für die blöden Augen eines Albern Haberechts zu Niemandsburg, which was published anonymously during these polemics. His writings contain valuable information about J.J. Graichen (1701–60) and J.N. Ritter (1702–82), pupils of Gottfried Silbermann working in Franconia.

Versuch von den Eigenschaften eines rechtschaffenen Orgelbauers (Hof, 1759) Gedanken über die grossen Orgeln, die aber deswegen keine Wunderwerke sind...