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Trân Quang Hai

Idiochord tube zither of the Mnong people of central Vietnam. It is made from the stem between two nodes of the giant rlaa bamboo, the strings being cut from the surface along half its length and, remaining attached, raised from the tube by bridges. The six strings have the same names and the same order as the members of the Mnong ...

Article

Don Harrán

[Civita, Davit ]

(fl 1616). Italian composer. He was one of only a few Jewish composers of art music in the 16th and early 17th centuries. It is not clear whether the name Civita refers to his place of birth (Cividale) or his surname, although the latter seems more probable. He appears to have had connections with Mantua and may have lived there. This assumption is supported by the dedication of his only publication, Premitie armoniche (Venice, 1616; ed. D. Harrán, Fragmenta polyphonica judaica, Jerusalem, forthcoming), to the Duke of Mantua, Francesco Gonzaga, and the presence in Mantua of several other Civitas, possibly from the same family, as well as by an archival document that records the death of his daughter, aged six, in 1630. Civita’s name does not, however, appear in court registers. Civita wrote in the dedication to Premitie armoniche that he composed the work while still ‘a young man of little intelligence’. The collection consists of 17 three-voice madrigals, similar in style to canzonettas, but with continuo. Eight works set texts by Ansaldo Cebà, Guarini, Marino, Tasso and Rinuccini....

Article

Chad Stephen Hamill

[sepú‧nmeʔs mítʼip]

End-blown flute of the Native Americans of the Columbia Plateau. It is called č ɫx̣ ʷálq ʷ by the Interior Salish and sepú ‧nme ʔs mít ʼip by the Sahaptin. A heated metal rod is used to push the pith out of a straight section of elderberry stalk 38 to 60 cm long and about 2.5 cm in diameter, and to burn fingerholes (typically six) into the stalk; often an additional non-fingered hole is made near the bottom. A V-shaped slot is cut near the proximal end and partially filled with pine pitch to deflect the air; the slot is covered with a rawhide block to direct the wind over the pitch and against the lower end of the V. Historically it was used by men to court women; nowadays it is more commonly used for personal enjoyment....

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Cochiti  

Article

Bryce Morrison

(b Rio de Janeiro, April 22, 1948). Brazilian pianist of Russian-Jewish extraction. He studied with Jacques Klein (a student of William Kapell) in Rio de Janeiro and later with Bruno Seidlhofer and Dieter Weber in Vienna. In 1972 he won first prize in the Busoni International Competition and made his début at the Wigmore Hall, London. Wary of instant acclaim, however, he declined Deutsche Grammophon's offer of a contract and in 1976 returned to Brazil, where he gave concerts and taught maths and physics. A decisive change of direction came in 1981, when he replaced Martha Argerich at a concert in the Netherlands; his success in Bach's First Partita, Chopin's Four Ballades and Prokofiev's Seventh Sonata prompted his return to Europe. Cohen's distinctive elegance and dynamism create their own ambience, especially in the music of Liszt, several of whose works, including the rarely heard Grande fantaisie sur Les Huguenots...

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Article

Charles Barber and José A. Bowen

(b Bucharest, June 16, 1928; d Oklahoma City, March 5, 2005). Israeli and American conductor of Romanian birth. He studied the violin and conducting at the Bucharest Conservatory, continuing his conducting studies with Silvestri and Lindenberg. After his début with the Romanian State Opera with Faust in 1946, he joined the Bucharest Radio Quartet and the Romanian State Ensemble as a violinist, becoming musical director of the latter (1950–55). He was principal conductor of the Romanian State Opera (1955–9) in Bucharest and won the 1956 conducting competition in Besançon. He emigrated to Israel (becoming naturalized in 1959) and became musical director of the Haifa SO (1959–66) and founder-conductor of the Ramat Gan Chamber Orchestra (1960–67). He made his British début with the LPO in 1960, and his US début with the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1965; his success led to many engagements as a guest conductor, including the Boston SO, Cleveland Orchestra, San Francisco SO, New York PO and the Berlin SO. His musical directorships included the Göteborg SO (...

Article

Robert L. Barclay and John R. Watson

Term embracing all efforts to preserve culturally significant objects. (For a discussion of the preservation of skills and traditions, see Sustainability.) Conservation of musical instruments can include examining their condition; documenting their physical and acoustical characteristics; intervening to stabilise, maintain, or restore them; and taking measures to prevent damage and retard deterioration. Conservators aim to preserve instruments as historical documents embodying evidence of design, construction, and function. This approach is sometimes balanced with restoration and maintenance for continuing use. Like all implements used continually over long periods, instruments can pass through phases of wear and repair, changes in fashion, and, in the case of those being restored to presumed previous states, changes in approach and methodology brought about by continuing research and experimentation. The practice of conservation involves a multifaceted approach to the many, often competing, demands placed upon instruments as historical documents and working objects. Further, reliable authentication often involves conservation skills....

Article

[Sarah, Sarra]

(b 1592; d Venice, 1641). Italian poet and amateur singer. In 1614 she married Jacob Sullam, son of the Jewish Mantuan banker Moses Sullam, who, along with his parents, was Salamone Rossi’s benefactor. With her husband and parents, she aided Leon Modena, a relative, in his publications (Modena was the moving spirit behind Rossi’s collection of Hebrew works, Hashirim asher lish’lomo, 1622/3). Copio hosted a literary salon in her home, where she served as patron to aspiring young writers, among them the Christians Giovanni Basadonna, Baldassare Bonifacio and Numidio Paluzzi. After reading Ansaldo Cebà's epic poem Ester (1615–6), she exchanged letters with the author during the years 1618–22; Cebà broke off the correspondence when he realized that he was making little progress in his attempt to convert Sara to Catholicism. Cebà published 53 of his own letters, omitting Sara’s, in 1623. In one, he refers to the pleasure of listening to Sara sing the heroic lament of Andromache from his epic, saying that old age and infirmity prevented him from leaving his native Genoa to hear her. Sara seems to have accompanied herself, on what may have been a Spanish guitar; in this she belongs to the Renaissance tradition of female poets who sang and played, with one difference: she is the only known Jewish female poet to have done so in her own time. Of her own poems, a handful were published among Cebà's letters and 14, some with noticeable musical imagery, were edited in ...

Article

Creek  

Charlotte Heth

[Muskogee]

Native American group of the Muskogean confederacy. They lived in towns along major river courses in Alabama and Georgia (hence the name “Creek”) from as early as 1000 to the 1830s. In the 2010s most were living in Oklahoma, with other groups in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama. Knowledge of the history of Creek music incorporates accounts given in the 18th century by soldiers, travelers, and traders and later by missionaries, ethnographers, and informants.

Music of the Creek people includes songs for public ceremonies and celebrations (both seasonal and cyclical), social dances, and animal dances, and music associated with games, prayers to the Creator, affective magic, and curing. Because missionaries made little impact on the Creeks until comparatively late (the 1840s) the singing of Christian hymns is less pervasive in Creek culture than among some other Southeastern tribes.

The ceremonial season begins in the spring with night-time stomp and social dances. These are held at the square grounds, variously called stomp grounds, ceremonial grounds, or tribal towns. These “towns” are reconstructed versions of those that existed in the Southeast before the forced removal of the Indians to Indian territory in the 1830s. Ceremonial activities include, besides dancing, the practicing of dances, taking medicine, the renewal of the clan arbors around the square, playing ball, and feasting. As time for the midsummer Green Corn Ceremony, or Busk, draws closer, activities increase, culminating when the astronomers determine the two most important days for the start of the ceremony. The Green Corn Ceremony is the highlight of the year, with participants showing respect and thanksgiving to the deities for the ripe corn and the earth’s goodness. Its major dances—the Feather, Ribbon, and Buffalo—occur, along with renewal and purification ceremonies, during daylight hours. Although in the past the ceremony took two weeks, it has recently been held as close to a weekend as possible so that everyone may attend. The dances take place, for the most part, in the center of the square ground around a sacred fire that has logs oriented to the four cardinal directions; the sacred number four and multiples of it control most of the ceremonial activities, including the music and dance. The ceremony is directed from the chief’s arbor, or bed, on the west, but the songleaders usually sit in the south arbor; the north and east arbors, when all four are present, also contain seating, usually for males and arranged by clan. Almost every movement of the dancers, singers, medicine men, fire-keepers, and others is counterclockwise around the fire, the ball-game pole, or the square ground....