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Bana  

Geneviève Dournon

[vana]

Three-string fiddle of Madhya Pradesh (Mandla district), India. About 70 cm long, it is made up of a squarish soundbox of mango wood with incurved sides, covered with a soundtable of calf’s stomach membrane, and a bamboo neck. The three horsehair strings are tuned by lateral wooden pegs and played with a bow to which are attached little pellet-bells. In the central Mandla province, bana is the instrument used by the Pardhan to accompany their repertory of epic religious ballads. The Pardhan are the genealogist bards of the Gond, who were once sovereigns of the powerful kingdom of Gondwana and now make up the largest tribal population of India. Other fiddles of the same type but with a less sophisticated construction, called kikir or kingiri, are occasionally found among the Muria Gond, who live in the hilly hinterland of Bastar. Gogia bana is a misnomer for the Pardhan bow harp....

Article

Banam  

Carol M. Babiracki

[bānām, bānom]

Term for single-string fiddles, without frets and with a skin-covered soundbox, played by tribal groups in central India. At least two general varieties have been described in written sources on Indian folk instruments: an inverted fiddle (held upwards) with either a tortoise-shell or a wooden body, and a waisted upright fiddle (held downwards) resembling the sārindā. The inverted fiddle type is particularly associated with the Muṇḍā, Santāl, and related tribal groups of southern Bihar. However, it is possible that for some of these groups banam is a generic term for any bowed chordophone.

Among the Muṇḍā, the banam is considered an instrument of the giti ʔoro ʔ (youth dormitory), and in traditional song texts it is often paired with the rutu (side-blown bamboo flute). It is normally played by men to accompany their own singing as they sit or walk. The Muṇḍāri banam repertory includes communal dancing-songs, but the instrument is seldom accompanied by either drumming or dancing. It has retained a position of respect and symbolic importance in Muṇḍāri villages, even though ...

Article

Hormoz Farhat

(b Tehran, 1911; d Tehran, 1986). Persian singer. He came from an aristocratic background and was raised in a family circle frequented by literati and musicians. His father played the tār and his mother the piano; Banān learnt the rudiments of both instruments in childhood. He had voice lessons from his early teen years and by his mid-20s he had established a high reputation as a singer with a marked command of the radif and a sound knowledge of the Persian classical poetry on which Persian vocal music heavily relies.

In the 1930s Banān was drawn into the circle of progressive musicians led by Ali Naqi Vaziri, becoming closely associated with two of Vaziri’s leading disciples, Ruhollāh Khāleqi and Abolhasan Sabā. He participated in concerts organized by the Vaziri group as the lead singer, specializing in performances of new tasnif compositions. His fame spread after his radio engagements began in ...

Article

Banci  

Patricia Matusky

[bangsi]

Large bamboo flute with five fingerholes, of the Bidayuh people of southern Sarawak, Malaysia. It is often played for entertainment (as background music) but can also be used in rituals, where it is believed to recall the spirit of a girl who has fainted or been in a trance. Young Bidayuh men play the smaller ...

Article

Bandai  

Patricia Matusky

Gong of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is also called bebendai or bandil (among the Iban and other groups in Sarawak) or selegai (among the Kajang groups). The gong is 40 to 50 cm in diameter or slightly smaller, with a rim about 3 cm deep or slightly deeper. Sometimes the area around the central boss is decorated with geometric and dragon designs. It is usually suspended and struck on the boss or rim with a wood beater. This gong is found in the large hanging gong ensembles of the Kayan, Kajang, and Bidayu groups and also in the ...

Article

Bandaw  

Small hourglass-shaped rattle drum of Thailand. It resembles the South Asian Damaru and is played in the same manner. The ball that strikes the heads is connected by a cord to the end of the handle (a tapered post 13-cm long affixed to the waist of the drum). It is used in some rarely seen royal ceremonies....

Article

Natalie M. Webber

Name once used in Sri Lanka for the mandolin. It probably was imported by the Portuguese, absorbed by the artisans of Ceylonese-Portuguese extraction, and used to play their characteristic dance music. The name is now obsolete, but a flat-backed mandolin with four double strings, known in Sri Lanka as the ‘English mandolin’, is still used as the melody instrument for ...

Article

Bandura  

Sofia Hrytsa

[bandoura]

A hybrid instrument of the Ukraine combining elements of a lute and box zither, possibly derived from the 10th century Arabic and Persian pandura and the kobuz of the Kipchak and Polovtsian peoples. It has a short neck, a shallow oval wooden body and a resonating hole on the upper soundboard. There may be a varying number of strings; four to eight bass (buntï) strings on the neck, plucked by the left hand, and between seven and thirty metal strings (pidstrunki, tuned chromatically) across the soundboard, plucked by the right hand. Older examples are tuned diatonically.

The bandura (also known as the kobza until the end of the 19th century) was widely used by the Cossacks during the 16th and 17th centuries. The performers, called banduristï or kobzari, were itinerant singer-instrumentalists who used the bandura to accompany the epic dumï, historical songs, ballads and other forms. The instrument was also adopted by the Polish gentry. The ...

Article

Martin Clayton

(b Calcutta, Oct 14, 1931; d Calcutta, Jan 27, 1986). Indian sitār player. He was trained initially by his father Jitendra Nath Banerjee, an amateur sitār player, showing such promise that he won the All-Bengal Sitar Competition at the age of nine. He studied briefly with a number of musicians including Jnan Prakash Ghosh (tablā, vocal) and Birendra Kishore Roy Choudhury. Choudhury introduced him to Ustad Allauddin Khan, with whom he stayed in Maihar from 1947 to 1954. Later he studied with Allauddin Khan’s son Ustad Ali Akbar Khan and daughter Annapurna Devi.

He pursued a highly successful career as a concert and recording artist, touring all over the world. He held a number of teaching posts including professor of music at the Ali Akbar College of Music, Calcutta, and visiting professor of music at the Californian Center for World Music (1970–78), the American Society for Eastern Arts, California (...

Article

José Maceda

[pattung]

Wooden percussion bar of the Ifugao people of the northern Philippines. It is yoke-shaped, wider in the middle, tapering towards the ends. Two holes are bored through the upper part at the middle, through which a rope handle is tied. Dimensions and exact shapes differ from maker to maker (usually the player). It is held by the left hand as the right hand strikes one side of the bar with a wooden beater, producing a ringing tone. A set consists of three bars, each played with a different rhythm. Hundreds of ...

Article

Bangsi  

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Andrew C. McGraw

[bansi, bangsing, bengsi, bangsil, bahgseli, bangsiq]

Bamboo flute common in ancient Java and found nowadays in many parts of Indonesia and Malaysia. It exists as a duct flute in Minangkabau, Gayo and Alas (bangsi buluh), Siak (bansi), Halmahera (bangsil), Central Sulawesi (basing-basing), and in North Sulawesi as part of the orkes ensemble; as a ring flute in Minangkabau, Gayo, coastal Aceh, Jambi, North Sulawesi, Sangsihe, South Sulawesi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan (bangsi), Tidore (bangseli), and Alas (bangsi buluh); as a transverse flute in Sulawesi and West Java (bangsi or bangsing); as a rice-straw flute in Alas (bangsi ngale); and as a nose flute in Semang areas of the Malay Peninsula (bangsi). In Luzon, southern Philippines, the bangsiq of the Hanunoo and the bansi of the Negrito in Bataan is an external duct flute. In the Alas area of Aceh, the ring flute is about 30–40 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. It has five or six fingerholes and a thumbhole. Below its top end there are two small holes covered with dried coconut leaf. It is played either solo by a male performer or with a ...

Article

Bangu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Single-headed block drum of the Han Chinese. Ban here refers to the concept of ‘beat’; gu means ‘drum’. Other common names include danpigu (‘single-skin drum’) and xiaogu (‘small drum’). The thick body, about 25 cm in diameter and 10 cm deep, is constructed from wedges of hardwood glued together in a circle (or sometimes carved from a single block) and wrapped at the bottom with a metal band. The body is open at the bottom, and the interior tapers inward to the top, leaving a central circular opening (about 5 cm in diameter) called the guxin (‘drum heart’). This is covered with a piece of thick rigid pigskin or cowhide nailed in several rows around the outside of the body. The drum is supported in a three-legged stand in front of the player and struck on the guxin with one or two slender bamboo sticks. The tone quality is crisp, and the pitch is moderately high....

Article

Geneviève Dournon

[bā̃kiā̃]

End-blown trumpet of Rajasthan, north India. It is made of a brass tube about 168 cm long: one part, of cylindrical bore, is bent back in a double U shape; the other, which extends it, widens gradually and terminates in a wide, open bulbous bell shaped like a ‘barbed dish’. It is decorated with engraved or painted floral motifs. In central Rajasthan it is played principally by professional musicians, the ...

Article

Peter J. Pirie

revised by David Brock and Andrew H. King

(Ransome)

(b London, Aug 7, 1868; d London, Oct 16, 1946). English composer, conductor and teacher. Granville Ransome Bantock was the eldest of pioneering gynaecologist and obstetrician Dr George Granville Bantock and his wife Sophia Elisabeth Ransome’s six children. The Bantock name rose to middle-class respectability throughout the 19th century, via increased financial security and opportunities for education, from a family heavily steeped in agricultural occupations to significant and successful careers in medicine, business, local government and, towards the end of the century, recognition in the arts. Showing no aptitude for or interest in music until his late teens, Bantock’s artistic appreciation was developing during a period of domestic unrest and disagreement with his father over the choice of a respectable diplomatic career. He was at first, reluctantly, educated for the Indian Civil Service, and then he studied Chemical Engineering; Bantock was a frequent truant and neither course of study was completed. Following advice from the Principal of the City and Guilds Technical Institute and family friends, Dr Bantock finally conceded, and allowed his son to undertake preliminary studies in harmony and counterpoint at Trinity College of Music. In ...

Article

Kate Stevens

(b Beijing, Nov 18, 1869; d Beijing, Oct 8, 1942). Chinese narrative singer. He was the creator of jingyun dagu (‘Beijing drumsong’) and its Liu style. The son of an itinerant narrative singer from Hejian county south of Beijing, Liu by the age of seven was playing sanxian lute accompaniment for his father. He later accompanied and studied with leading drumsingers such as Song Wu, Hu Shi and Huo Mingliang. By the age of 30 he was established in Beijing, turning countryside drumsong into a sophisticated urban art. He now sang in Beijing speech, and created new and expanded melodies to depict the particular characters and mood of each tale. His sanxian accompanists, and a drumsong aficionado who wrote and revised texts, were vital collaborators, and his lifelong association with Beijing opera and its singers a constant inspiration.

His repertory of 22 pieces, mostly tales of strategy and war, loyalty and valour, drew audiences back time and again; favourites included ...

Article

Ronit Seter

[Berman, Bernhardt]

(b Wiesbaden, July 20, 1923). Israeli critic, composer and musicologist. He moved to Mandatory Palestine in 1936. After studying composition with Paul Ben-Haim, his most influential teacher, Bar-Am attended the Ecole Normale de Paris (1949–51). He studied musicology at Tel-Aviv University (BA 1977), where he became the principal lecturer for courses on Jewish music and Israeli contemporary music (1973–96) and the first director of the Archive of Israeli Music. The secretary general of the Israeli League of Composers (1960–76, 1976–8), he became chair of the organizing committee of the ISCM in Israel in 1980. Though most influential as the music critic of the Jerusalem Post between 1958 and 1995, Bar-Am also wrote many essays on Israeli music in Hebrew, English and German, notably ‘A Musical Gateway between East and West’ (Jerusalem Post, 20 April 1988). He ceased composing in the early 1970s but resumed in ...

Article

Nguyen Thuyet Phong

Article

Bārbad  

Article

Barbat  

Article

Barbed  

Alastair Dick

Term applied chiefly to central, west, and South Asian lutes signifying that the soundbox outline forms sharp points at the waist. When barbs below the waist point upward (as with some historical and extant South Asian types), the shape may be called ‘inverted barbed’. The term ‘barb’ was used by C. Sachs (...