181-200 of 216 results  for:

Clear all


Pierre Meylan and Max Peter Baumann

revised by Chris Walton

(Fr. Suisse; Ger. Schweiz; It. Svizzera)

A country in western Europe. It consists of a confederation of 22 cantons. Its musical culture owes as much to the church as to secular influences.

Swiss musical history must be seen against the background of regional differences and of the circumstances which governed the formation of the country. Four languages are spoken, German, French, Italian and Romansh, and there are two religions, Catholic and Protestant. Switzerland was founded in 1291 when three small provinces – later to become the cantons Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden – declared their limited independence from the Holy Roman Empire. Other cantons joined over the following centuries. During the Middle Ages, most of French-speaking western Switzerland was under the rule of the Savoy, then from 1536 to 1798, of Berne. The French invasion of 1798 precipitated the declaration of a Helvetic Republic of all Switzerland. This attempt at unification failed, however, and it was not until 1848...



Scheherazade Qassim Hassan

[Syrian Arab Republic] (Arab. Jumhuriya al-Arabya-as-Suriya)

Country in the Middle East . The territory of modern Syria, with an area of 185,180 km², extends from the Mediterranean coast on the west to the desert on the Iraqi border, and from the Turkish chains of mountains on the north to the Jordanian and Iraqi borders on the south and south-east. The population is estimated at 16·13 million (2000).

Syria has a very ancient civilization, with human presence in the region dating back one million years. The prehistoric period ended in the 4th millennium bce with the establishment of an agricultural and urban society in which flourished various activities – diplomatic, economic and artistic – basically related to those of Mesopotamia. Ugaritic writings, using the first alphabet discovered in this part of the world, reveal the Semitic names of the ‘ūd (short-necked lute), kinnāra (lyre) and ṭb (ṭabl drum), which survive today.

Syria can be divided into three regions (...


Mark Slobin, Alexander Djumaev and Larisa Dodhoudoyeva

(Tajik Jumkhurii Tojikiston)

Country in Central Asia. Tajikistan differs from the other Central Asian Republics in its Aryan-Iranian heritage. For nearly two millennia before the arrival of the Turkic people who now predominate in Central Asia the area was part of a great cultural melting-pot that included the Persians, Sogdians, Seleucid Hellenes and Kushans and the Parthians. At least two branches of the Silk Road passed through the area that became Tajikistan, bringing religions, goods, ideas and music. The arrival of the Huns, Arabs, Turks, Mongols and Uzbeks ensured a rich cultural mix.

It was only in the 1920s that the Soviet neologisms Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were created from the broader geographical area of Transoxania. Consequently, Tajik musicians are traditionally located in both republics. In Uzbekistan, female sozanda and male mavrigi wedding entertainers of Bukhara, Samarkand and Shakhrisyabz have developed special styles that suit these urban contexts (see Uzbekistan, §1).

Uzbek and Tajik musical symbiosis is the result of a long and complex process, which began around 1500 with the Uzbek invasions. The Tajik culture to which the Uzbeks adapted was formed during two periods: that of a Persian (later Tajik) substratum developed before the earliest Turkic incursions (i.e. by ...


Gerhard Kubik

(Swa. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania)

Country in East Africa. It has an area of 945,090 km² and a population of 33·69 million (2000 estimate). Tanganyika, a German colony from 1884 to 1919 and a British trust territory from 1919 to 1961, became independent in 1961. Zanzibar was a British protectorate from 1890 to 1963 when it became independent. In 1964 the two territories united to form one nation. Tanzania's population speaks KiSwahili (Swahili) as a national language, and most speak Bantu languages as their principal language. Exceptions include several communities living in the northern part of the Rift valley, such as the Hadzabe (also known as Hatsa, Kindiga or Tindiga), Sandawe, Iraqw, Gorowa, Burungi or Burunge and Maasai. (See fig.1 for a map of the distribution of ethnic groups referred to in this article.)

Tanzania is a country rich in artefacts that illuminate the past. The Irangi district, in particular, is valued by historians for its rock paintings, some of which depict dance scenes. Even in some present-day Tanzanian traditions, musical traits from the remote past are occasionally displayed, particularly in areas of central Tanzania and near Lake Eyasi....


Panya Roongruang

(Thai Prathet)

Country in South-east Asia. It is bordered by Myanmar (Burma) to the west, Laos and Cambodia to the east and Malaysia to the south. The population is a mixture of Thai people from southern China, indigenous peoples of the region and peoples from the kingdoms of Srivijaya (6th–14th century) in the south, Yonok Chiang-saen (8th–12th century) in the north, the Mon kingdom of Davaravati (6th–11th century) in the central region and the Khom (ancient Khmer) tradition. Thai culture is predominantly agricultural and based on Theravāda Buddhism.

Thailand’s first capital city was established at Sukhothai in the north, from 1238 to 1378. Music of this period was highly developed; most present-day instrument types were in use, including the three-string fiddle so ̧̄ sām sāi for court music and an older type of pī phāt ensemble for ritual music. The second capital city, Ayutthaya, was located in the central region and remained the capital for 417 years (...



Gerhard Kubik and Amagbenyõ Kofi

(Fr. République Togolaise)

Country in West Africa. It has an area of 56,785 km² and a population of 4·68 million (2000 estimate). Languages spoken in Togo include French, Ewe, Mina (Gen-Gbe), Dagomba, Tim (Tem) and Kabyè (Kabrais or Kabiyé).

Gerhard Kubik

Like neighbouring Ghana and Benin, Togo can be divided linguistically into two parts: north and south. The southern part is densely populated by people speaking Kwa languages, including Ewe and Fon (Fõ), whereas the north is populated by speakers of Voltaic languages. In the central area of Togo, overlapping with neighbouring peoples in Ghana and Benin, there are 14 ethnic groups speaking so-called Togo-remnant languages: Basilia (Basila), Lelemi, Logba (Lukpa), Adele, Likpe, Santrokofi, Akpafu-Lolobi, Avatime, Nyangbo-Tafi, Bowili, Ahlo (Igo), Kposo (Akposo), Kebu (Akebou) and Animere. Some of these languages are spoken by less than 10,000 people, and little is known about their musical cultures.

Gerhard Kubik...



Country consisting of an archipelago situated off the coast of South America. The two main islands of the republic are the most southerly of the Caribbean islands, lying 12 km off the Venezuelan coast. Trinidad and Tobago gained independence from Britain in 1962 and remains a member of the British Commonwealth. Trinidad's so-called plural society (pop. 1,340,000, 2000 estimate) has two main racial groups: African (43%) and East Indian (40%); minorities include Europeans, Chinese, Venezuelans, Syrians and Lebanese. The indigenous Amerindian population (Arawak) died tragically from European-born viruses during the period of Spanish dominance (1498–1797). Tobago was not settled before the arrival of Columbus (1498). During British rule, slaves from West Africa (until emancipation in 1838) and then East Indian indentured labourers (1845–1917) were conscribed to work on the islands' sugar-cane plantations. These immigrants contributed their languages, religions and musics to the modern cultural mosaic. While English is the official language, French patois (Creole) and Bhojpuri (a Hindi dialect) are still popular in song and colloquial speech, particularly in rural areas. The statistics for religion are as follows: Roman Catholic (32%), Protestant (29%), Hindu (25%) and Muslim (6%). The mixed ethnic composition, the multiplicity of religions and the contrasting cultural backgrounds of the islands' peoples have drawn generations of anthropologists and ethnomusicologists to study these popular tropical tourist resort islands....


Ruth Davis and Leo J. Plenckers

(Arab. Al-Jumhūriyya al-Tūnisiyya)

Country in North Africa. It borders the Mediterranean Sea, flanked by Algeria and Libya, and has an area of 154,530 km² and a population of 9·84 million (2000 estimate). The population is almost entirely Arab-Berber and 98% Muslim. Arabic is the official language, with French reserved for the language of commerce.

Tunisian musical scholarship recognises a basic division between urban music traditions (belonging to the North African branch of Arab music), which are relatively homogeneous, and rural traditions (believed largely to derive from the Arab Bedouin tribes that settled in the individual regions), which are regionally diversified. In reality, the rural-urban divide is not quite so clearcut; migrations of rural peoples to the cities, the mass media and, since Tunisian independence from France (1956), tourism and government patronage have contributed to the widespread transplantation and transformation of previously localized rural traditions. However, with a few notable exceptions, Tunisian music scholars have concentrated almost exclusively on the urban sector and, particularly, on the repertory known as ...



Kurt Reinhard, Martin Stokes and Ursula Reinhard

Republic of (Turk. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti). Country in the Middle East. With a total area of 779,452 km², 95% of the republic is located in Asia Minor (Asia), while 5% is in eastern Thrace (Europe). The population of 65·73 million (2000 estimate) is 99% Muslim, the majority being Sunnis.

Kurt Reinhard and Martin Stokes

The music practised in what is now Turkey has manifold roots. For the pre-Islamic period see Anatolia. Following the Arab conquests of the region in the 8th century, Near Eastern music history became closely intertwined with that of the Arabs and Persians (see Arab music. In the 11th century, groups of Turks made their way westwards from Central Asia, occupying virtually all of Anatolia and founding the Seljuk dynasty. The Turks’ adoption of Islam contributed to a cultural metamorphosis. The development of Turkish art music was further affected by impulses from Persian and, above all, Byzantine culture. Over the centuries, urban and rural Turkish music forms disseminated through the Near East and Balkans; this is especially evident in the present-day musical practice of rural Greece....


Mark Slobin, Sławomira Żerańska-Kominek and Fatima Abukova-Nurklycheva

Country in Central Asia.

Mark Slobin, revised by Sławomira Żerańska-Kominek

Turkmen traditional music culture has a highly distinctive character but also has ties with two large neighbouring areas, the Near East Turkestani region (Azerbaijan to Uzbekistan) and the Kazakh-Kyrghyz zone ( fig.1). Some of the traits shared with the former area are the ghidjak spike fiddle, the use of Arabo-Persian metric patterns, verse forms and imagery, the spread of the Görogly epic and recent romantic tales, and some microtonal scales. Characteristics relating more closely to the Kazakh and Kyrgyz region are the traditionally weak development of the dance, paucity of percussion instruments, use of the qobuz horsehair fiddle (now obsolete), singing contests, and a stress on instrumental music, particularly the high development of polyphonic lute styles with highly esteemed virtuoso performers. Some features of Turkmen music, such as the ÿar-ÿar wedding song, patterns of Turkic versification and use of a metal jew’s harp (...


Peter Cooke

Country in east-central Africa. Situated on the northern shores of Lake Victoria (Nyanja), it has an area of 241, 038 km² (including 43, 938 km² of water). Its population, numbering approximately 22·21 million (2000 estimate), is ethnically diverse, composed of over 30 individual societies distinguished by history, language, geographic location and social and political structures (fig.1 ). The many, varied musical traditions that result from this diversity serve as identity markers themselves.

The Ganda, Masaba (or Gisu), Gwere, Hima and Iru, Hutu, Kenyi, Kiga (Chiga), Konzo (Konjo), Kooki, Nyala, Nyambo, Nyole, Nyoro, Ruli, Sese and Tooro are Bantu-speaking groups who live south of a boundary formed by Lake Albert, the Victoria Nile and lakes Kyoga and Salisbury. Groups speaking River-Lake Nilotic languages live in north-central Uganda to the north of this boundary, which forms part of what is sometimes called the ‘Bantu line’; they include the Acholi, Alur, Labwor and Lango. Another related group, the Padhola, live in a small area in south-eastern Uganda. In the north and east, speakers of Plains Nilotic languages include the Karamojong (Karimojoŋ) and the Teso; in the north-west there are a few groups, including the Madi, that belong to the Moru-Madi division of central Sudanic languages, as well as a few representatives of the Plains Nilotes. In the extreme west of Uganda live a few small groups of ‘pygmy’ peoples: in the mountain rain-forests near the borders with Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the former Zaïre) live numerous bands of Twa. A few groups of Mbuti ‘pygmies’ inhabit the forest around the Semliki river along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (For a discussion of their music ...



Virko Baley and Sofia Hrytsa

Country in Europe. It is located in the Steppes to the south of the central Russian upland, with an area of 603,700 km² and a population of 50.8 million (2000 estimate). Ukraine is a historic land, but historically unrevealed. Its political and cultural history has not enjoyed an extended independent existence for centuries. Consequently, Ukrainian culture has had a series of sporadic emergences, between which it kept its identity welded to each of the societies that controlled Ukrainian politics, whether Russian, Polish or Austro-Hungarian. Discussion of Ukrainian culture has always been in the context of countries and empires that ruled various parts of it and its accomplishments were used as fodder to build other cultures opposed to its development, even its existence. In a sense, Ukrainian culture has lived in diaspora in its own homeland.

Virko Baley

The early history of music in Ukraine is centred on Kiev. However, Kiev, and thus Ukraine, fell in political importance in the 13th and 14th centuries, and between the 14th and 17th centuries the principal purveyors of formal music instruction were the church brotherhoods, who were particularly active in Lwów (now L′viv), Peremyshl (now Przemyśl), Ostrog (now Ostrih) and Luzk (now Lutsk), as well as Kiev. Although set up primarily for religious education, music instruction was a significant part of the curriculum. An important development in music occurred when the Polish-Lithuanian union of ...



Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley Diamond, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

Country composed of 50 states, 48 of them contiguous and bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to the east and west, and by Canada and Mexico to the north and south. The 49th state, Alaska, is located at the extreme north-west edge of the North American continent, and the 50th, Hawaii, comprises a group of islands in the North Pacific Ocean, c3800 km off the western American coast (see also Polynesia, §II, 4). The total area of the USA is c9,370,000 km², and it has a population (2000 est.) of 274·63 million.

American music has been most strongly influenced by the cultures of Europe and Africa. Indigenous Amerindian culture (see Amerindian music) remains isolated, and little Asian impact was felt until the 20th century; contributing currents from Latin America have been mainly Afro-Hispanic, diffusing from the Caribbean. African slaves were brought to Virginia in ...


Gerard Béhague, Leonardo Manzino and Coriún Aharonián

(Sp. República Oriental del Uruguay)

Republic in South America. It is on the east coast of the continent, bounded to the south and east by the estuary of the river Plate and the south Atlantic, to the west by the River Uruguay and Argentina and to the north by Brazil.

Gerard Béhague, revised by Leonardo Manzino

The colonization of Uruguay began in the 16th century and developed fully from the late 17th, when Spaniards occupied the territory to contain Portuguese expansion towards the river Plate. Few mission settlements had been established, and the capital city, Montevideo, was founded only in 1726; colonial music did not flourish until the late 18th century. The music archives of S Francisco in Montevideo contain about 215 works (some incomplete) by composers active in Uruguay from the colonial period to the late 19th century, including the earliest known Uruguayan polyphony, the four-part Misa para Día de Difuntos (1802) by José Manuel Ubeda (...


Theodore Levin, Razia Sultanova and F.M. Ashrafi

Country in Central Asia. The musics of Uzbekistan, an independent nation since 1991, draw on several ancient traditions within its own rich heritage. The Soviet republic of Uzbekistan, created in 1924 from the remains of Russian Turkestan, the Bukharan Emirate and the Khivan Khanate, bequeathed geo-political borders reflecting the political exigencies of the early Soviet era rather than deeply rooted ethnic or linguistic boundaries. Therefore, Uzbekistan's traditional musics are best understood in the context of broader regional patterns and affiliations, particularly those of the Tajiks (see Tajikistan, §II, Turkmenistan, §II, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan).

Prior to 19th-century Russian colonization, Uzbek traditions included court music played in cities by professional musicians, and the musics of nomadic steppe and rural peoples, performed by both professional and non-professional musicians. During the Soviet era (1924–91), European-style venues for traditional music, such as concerts, festivals, competitions, radio and television, became widespread and western European art music was developed. In addition, traditional musics were cultivated by Soviet cultural strategists as a means of reinforcing national identity and socialist political consciousness. During the 1950s, however, the classical music tradition, formerly associated with the patronage of the feudal nobility of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand, was discouraged in favour of music glossed as ‘folk music’....


Regula Qureshi, Harold S. Powers, Jonathan Katz, Richard Widdess, Gordon Geekie, Alastair Dick, Devdan Sen, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Peter Manuel, Robert Simon, Joseph J. Palackal, Soniya K. Brar, M. Whitney Kelting, Edward O. Henry, Maria Lord, Alison Arnold, Warren Pinckney, Kapila Vatsyayan and Bonnie C. Wade



Allan Marett



Simon Cook