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Damba  

Hourglass drum of the Dagomba, Gonja, and Wala peoples of northern Ghana.

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Dambak  

Single-headed earthenware drum of the Swahili/Nguja people of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

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Trân Quang Hai

Vietnamese single-headed flat drum. The name of the instrument has varied according to its use: it was called trống cái in the folk orchestra of the 18th century, cái cồ in the 18th-century court orchestra; ba ̾ng cồ or trồng ba ̾ng in the royal orchestra of the Nguyển dynasty (...

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Dang  

Root term in the Chadic and Adamawa language groups for double-headed cylindrical drums of north-eastern Nigeria. Examples are the dang (Fali, Sukur, Jen, Gola, Munga, some Wurkun groups, and Kilba peoples), danga (Bata, Gudu), dangga (Mboi), and idara (Libo). Little is known of these drums, though it may be assumed that in construction, method of performance, and use they bear some relation to the Kilba ...

Article

K. A. Gourlay

Large, slightly barrel-shaped, double-headed drum of the Kilba people of north-eastern Nigeria. It is approximately 75 cm long and 45 cm at its widest diameter. The drum is distinguished by having two snares on the upper head and bracing cords arranged in sets of three, without a central ligature. It is used on both ceremonial and social occasions, being the principal instrument in all death-dance ceremonies and for the communal bearing of a corpse to the grave. It is also played with the ...

Article

Open, variable-tension hourglass drum of the Kilba people of Nigeria. It is played under the arm and struck with a hooked stick. The narrowest part of the waist is nearer the head than the open end. The dang fokku is traditionally associated with the warrior class and used only in their dances and those of the hunters; it allegedly has the power both of inspiring courage and of enticing leopards out of hiding....

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Single-headed goblet drum of medieval Armenia. Examples have been discovered dating back to the first millennium bce.

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Ḍaph  

Alastair Dick

South Asian name for the frame drum. It derives from the Arab daff and is found in various Indianized forms, such as ḍaphrī (ḍaph ṙā), ḍh ȧplā (ḍaphlī), damphu, and ḍamphā. The name, and a frame drum of Middle Eastern type, entered India with the Muslim Turko-Afghans who established the Delhi sultanate in the late 12th century (it is mentioned in the works of the 13th-century court poet Amir Khusrav). This type, a medium-size shallow frame drum about 30 to 60 cm in diameter, can be found with or without jingles (interior metal rings or bronze discs set into the frame), with the skin pasted or tacked to the frame (without lacings), and played by hands or sticks; it is common in many parts of the subcontinent. The Middle Eastern pattern linking this instrument either with women or with Muslim dervishes and mendicants (...

Article

Jonathan Katz

Small wooden frame drum of Gujarat and Maharashtra, western India. Like the larger ḍaph it has jingling metal discs suspended on pins in slits in the frame, which is about 15 cm in diameter. A head of lizard skin is stretched on one side. The ...

Article

William J. Conner, Milfie Howell and Tony Langlois

A single-headed goblet drum (fig.1). It is made from pottery, wood or metal; the bottom is open and the skin head is directly attached by nails, glue or binding. Traditionally the head of the drum was goatskin, although the skins of dogs and rams were also used. During the 20th century plastic heads became popular; these can be tuned with a key and retain their pitch regardless of temperature and humidity....

Article

Daula  

Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed cylindrical drum of Sri Lanka. It is suspended horizontally from a hemp sling around the player’s waist and beaten with one hand and a stick. The body of the drum is made from jak, or some other hardwood, usually painted red and gold. The length varies, but is usually about 51 cm, and the diameter is 38 to 46 cm. The heads are made from deerskin or calfskin, secured by cane hoops. Hemp braces are stretched between the two hoops, passing through 12 sliding thongs, or metal rings, which are used for tuning. The curved stick, formerly of ivory, is now made from the hardwood shrub ...

Article

Natalie M. Webber

Double-headed hourglass drum of Sri Lanka. It is somewhat similar to the u ḍākki, but longer and without the snare. Sliding leather thongs, used for tuning, encircle the tensioning braces. The drum is slung from the left shoulder so that it hangs vertically and it is played with a stick and the flat of one hand, on the upper head only. The ...

Article

Alastair Dick and Andrew Alter

Small, shallow hourglass drum of Uttarakhand in northern India. Like many other hourglass drums in India, the ḍauṅr is associated with the god Shiva. For this reason it is often equated with the ḍamaru, though the instruments are of different sizes and are played differently. The ḍauṅr is usually found in the western area of Uttarakhand (Garhwal) where it is used almost exclusively for indoor shamanic rituals. It is about 16 cm tall and has a diameter of 20 cm at the heads and 13 cm at the waist; its body is made of copper, brass, or wood. The goatskin heads are lapped on hoops and braced by cotton V-lacings tightened at the waist with a cross-lacing. The bracing is not used to vary the tension of the heads during performance. The musician plays while seated, holding the instrument between his knees or under his leg; the right/upper face is struck with a curved stick, the left/lower with the hand and fingers. Thus the playing technique resembles that of the much larger ...

Article

Davul  

A large thong-braced, double-headed cylindrical drum of Turkey and many other countries of the Middle East and South-eastern Europe where it is known by related names, including daouli (Greece), daule (Albania), dohol (Iran), dhol (Armenia), doli (Georgia) and ṭabl turkī (Arab countries). The Turkish davul...

Article

José Maceda

Goblet drum of the southern Philippines. The heavy wooden coconut palm or jackfruit tree body, more than 60 cm high and 30 cm in diameter, is often elaborately carved. The head of animal or snake skin is tightly lapped on wire and rattan hoops. It is played with a pair of light bamboo sticks. Among the Maguindanao people it is known as ...

Article

Delbek  

Double-headed frame drum of Turkey. Both heads, of sheep- or goatskin, are nailed to the rectangular wooden frame and are beaten by the hands. Primarily an instrument for indoor entertainment, the delbek is known only among the Turkmen of the Silifke region.

Article

Natalie M. Webber

Small double-headed barrel drum of Sri Lanka. It is found mostly in the coastal region of the south-west. The drum was brought to Sri Lanka from Tamil Nadu with the genre in which it is most often used, the folk drama ṭṭukūttu. It is almost identical with its Indian counterpart, the ...

Article

Ḍerā  

Jonathan Katz

Type of friction drum, used in folk dance in Maharashtra, west India. It consists of an earthenware pitcher with a goatskin head; the pitcher contains water, and the head is pierced by two long palm leaves which pass into the inside. The instrument is held by one person sitting and played by a dancer, who moves the fingers and thumbs up and down the leaves, the sound being amplified by the resonating pitcher. The ...

Article

J. Richard Haefer

Generic term for drum among the Ojibwa Indians of the Great Lakes area of North America. It specifically refers to the large powwow-style drum that is a recreation of the historic war drum. The drum is made from a large log or from a staved washtub about 50 to 60 cm in diameter and 35 cm deep. Traditionally it was double-headed, but modern washtub drums have a circular wooden piece attached to the base to hold the staves in place, with a circular opening cut in the middle of the circular piece and a single cowhide head on the top. Leather straps attached to each side are used to mount the drum to the ...

Article

Dhāḥ  

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Double-headed barrel drum of the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The body, about 40 cm long and 21 cm maximum diameter, is usually made of wood but occasionally of brass. The lower-pitched head, made from cowhide, is struck with a wooden stick; the higher-pitched head, of goatskin, is 1 or 2 cm smaller and struck by the hand. The drum is played together with ...