(b Oberellenbach, Bavaria, April 12, 1840; d Regensburg, Sept 5, 1910). German musicologist and church musician. A schoolmaster's son, he was educated in Passau, ordained priest there on 12 August 1862, and was subsequently head of music in the episcopal seminaries and deputy choirmaster at Passau Cathedral. From 1867 to 1870 he was organist of S Maria dell'Anima in Rome, and pursued musicological research in Italian libraries and archives. In Rome he met Liszt and became acquainted with the Roman plainchant movement headed by Cardinal Domenicus Bartolini. In 1871 he was appointed cathedral Kapellmeister and inspector of the Dompräbende in Regensburg. In 1874, encouraged by Liszt and F.X. Witt, he founded a school of church music in Regensburg that soon acquired an international reputation. Pope Leo XIII made him an honorary canon of Palestrina Cathedral in 1879, the year in which Haberl founded a Palestrina society and became editor of the first complete Palestrina edition, which Breitkopf & Härtel had begun in ...
(b San Francisco, CA, Nov 7, 1875; d Flintridge, CA, Dec 25, 1954). American folklorist, writer, lecturer, music patron, and singer. Born into a wealthy family (her father James Hague was a prominent geologist and mining engineer), she used her inheritance to support her research into Latin American music, particularly Mexican American and Mexican folksong. Prior to moving to Pasadena, California, in 1920, she lived in New York and Stockbridge, Massachusetts. She studied music privately in France and Italy, was a member of the New York Oratorio Society, and directed church choirs in New York before she began work as a folklorist and folksinger by the early 1910s (she gave guitar-accompanied folksong recitals in that decade). Hague published numerous collections and studies of Mexican American, Mexican, and other Latin American folksongs; translated (with Marion Leffingwell) Julián Ribera y Tarragó’s Historia de la música árabe medieval y su influencia en la española...
Wayne D. Shirley
(b Norwich, VT, March 5, 1854; d Boston, MA, Nov 30, 1934). American music critic. After graduating from Yale (1876) he studied in Europe with Carl Haupt, Bargiel, Rheinberger and Guilmant (1882–7) and settled in Boston in 1889. He was music critic for the Boston Post (1890–91) and Boston Journal (1891–1903), Boston correspondent for the Musical Courier (1892–8), music and drama critic for the Boston Herald (1903–33) and editor of the Musical Record (1897–1901), the Musical World (1901–2) and the two-volume collection Modern French Songs (Boston and New York, 1904).
Hale is best known for his programme notes for the Boston SO; written between 1901 and 1934, these are scholarly, witty and ample, and became the model for American programme annotators. His insistence on evaluating each work as it appeared to him, and the quotableness of his negative opinions (he once said of Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto that ‘the finale, with the endless repetitions of a Kangaroo theme, leads one to long for the end’) have caused him to be represented as a crabbed reactionary, cringing at Brahms. In reality he was a fair-minded and forward-looking critic, one of the first American champions of Debussy and an often shrewd evaluator of later music. Selections from Hale's criticism and programme notes were published as ...
revised by Janna Kniazeva
(b Moscow, April 5, 1886; d Basle, Nov 25, 1955). Swiss musicologist and organist of Russian birth. He received his early education and organ lessons in Moscow. Despite his promise, he was sent by his father to a school of commerce at Neuchâtel; by completing the three-year course in 18 months he managed to return to Moscow for further study. He entered Basle University in 1905 to study history and mathematics, and in the same year went to Munich to study not only history, mathematics, philology and national economics, but also theory and the organ with Reger, which led to a final breach with his parents. When Reger moved to Leipzig, Handschin followed him on foot. A few lectures there by Riemann and a short spell with von Hornbostel in Berlin were the only musicological instruction he ever received. He was also an organ student of Karl Straube (...
Thomas S. Grey
(b Prague, Sept 11, 1825; d Baden, nr Vienna, Aug 6, 1904). Austrian music critic, aesthetician and historian. Sensing his vocation as a critic and writer on musical topics early on, he became one of the first widely influential music critics in the modern sense; he was also among the first to receive an official university appointment in music, as professor of the history and aesthetics of music at the University of Vienna, in 1861. His early treatise on questions of musical form and expression (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen, 1854) challenged a long tradition of aesthetic thought that located the essence and value of music in a loosely defined ‘expression of feelings’, and it has remained a touchstone in musical-aesthetic debates to the present day. As a critic he covered a huge cross-section of musical life in the second half of the 19th century. His journalism – trenchant and entertaining in style – remains of great interest for the historical as well as critical insights it offers....
(b Nagyvárad, Hungary [now Orádea, Romania], Nov 1, 1885; d Paris, Dec 27, 1958). Hungarian musicologist. After studying the piano with Albert Geiger, composition with Edmund von Farkas and musicology in Leipzig and Paris, he taught musicology at Budapest University (from 1917) and served as music critic of several newspapers and journals (Pesti Hirlap, Zenevilág). He was director of the music section of the Budapest National Library (1917) and head of the Budapest Conservatory (1918–27), which he reorganized with Aurelian Kern. In the choral and orchestral concerts that he revived he conducted the first Hungarian performances of works by Janequin, Rameau, Lully and Grétry. In 1928 he was sent as an embassy official to Paris, where he settled after the war, doing research in archives and libraries there and elsewhere.
Haraszti’s main areas of research were Liszt, Hungarian music history and French music; he was particularly interested in the relation between Hungarian and European music during the Renaissance and 19th century. His research on Liszt brought much new thought and information to the subject; in ...
(b Galveston, TX Feb 16, 1874; d Boston, MA Feb 13, 1936). African American music historian, concert pianist, and playwright. She studied piano at the New England Conservatory of Music (1890–95) and privately with Emil Ludwig and Edwin Klabre. After teaching at the Texas Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Institute for Colored Youths at Austin (1897–8), the settlement house of the Institutional Church of Chicago (1900–01), and Prairie View (Texas) State Normal and Industrial College for Negroes (1903–4), she married lawyer William Hare and resettled in Boston by 1906.
Hare enjoyed a reputation as the leading authority on African American music during her era. A product of the Harlem Renaissance, she was music critic of The Crisis (ca. 1910–19) and contributed articles to the Musical Observer, The Musical Quarterly, and Christian Science Monitor. For about two decades, Hare toured the United States with African Canadian baritone William Richardson, giving lecture-recitals. She also traveled extensively throughout Louisiana, Mexico, and the Caribbean, collecting folk songs and musical instruments. This data provided the foundation for her book ...
(b Dresden, Oct 13, 1792; d Leipzig, Jan 3, 1868). German composer, theorist and teacher. After studying the violin and composition with Spohr (1811), Hauptmann worked as a violinist in Dresden (1812–15). From 1815 to 1820 he was the private music teacher to Prince Repnin's household in Vienna. After two more years in Dresden he went to Kassel as court chapel violinist under Spohr and remained there for 20 years. During that time he developed a reputation as composer and theorist. In 1842 he was appointed Kantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, on the recommendation of Spohr and Mendelssohn. The next year he was appointed teacher of theory and composition at the newly founded Leipzig Conservatory. Also in 1843 he was editor of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. In 1850 he became a founder-member of the Bach-Gesellschaft; he edited three volumes and remained president of the society until his death. Hans von Bülow, Ferdinand David, Salomon Jadassohn, Joseph Joachim and C.F. Weitzmann were among his many students....
(b Stuttgart, Aug 27, 1770; d Berlin, Nov 14, 1831). German philosopher. He was the son of a civil servant and began his education at the Stuttgart Gymnasium, after which he joined the seminary at the University of Tübingen in 1788. Having decided not to enter the clergy, he became a private tutor, firstly in Berne (1793) and then in Frankfurt (1797). In 1801 he moved to Jena and entered the university there, eventually becoming a lecturer, but in 1806 he fled in the path of the advancing French forces and took up the editorship of the Bamberger Zeitung. He eventually moved to Nuremberg, where he became headmaster of a Gymnasium and married Marie von Tucher, with whom he had two sons. In 1816, Hegel accepted a professorship at the University of Heidelberg. Two years later, he moved to Berlin University, where he eventually died during a cholera epidemic....
revised by Pamela M. Potter
(b Hamburg-Altona, Dec 9, 1883; d Hamburg, March 31, 1963). German musicologist. He began his career as a bassoonist. In 1915 he became assistant in the phonetics laboratory for African and South Sea languages at the University of Hamburg. After taking a doctorate in psychology at Kiel (1920), and completing his Habilitation in Hamburg (1931), he founded the department of research into comparative musicology at the Colonial Institute of Hamburg University, which he directed until his retirement in 1949. He became successively lecturer (1931), reader and research fellow (1935). In 1945 he founded the Landesverband Hamburg der Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer. In addition to his writings on music, psychology and phonetics, he wrote ten volumes of lyric poetry and gave some 300 radio talks.
In the Colonial Institute his association with Carl Meinhof, an expert in African studies, and the phonetician Panconcelli Calzia developed his own interest in African studies, theory of tone and sound, and phonetics. His early scientific articles concerned biological factors involved in music, including motor components and the relationship between bearing and attitude on the one hand and production and reproduction of music on the other. His theory of homogeneity is founded on the works of Ellis, Rutz, Sievers and Bekking. His papers are in the Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek in Hamburg (...
(b Plánice, nr Klatovy, March 24, 1886; d Prague, May 18, 1945). Czech musicologist. After studying history and geography at Prague University he spent a year (1906–7) in Berlin, where he studied musicology under Wolf, Kretzschmar and Stumpf. On his return he took the doctorate under Hostinský in 1908 with a dissertation on Benda and Rousseau. At first he taught history and geography in Prague but in 1919 he moved to Brno, where, continuing with his schoolteaching, he also began lecturing (1921) at the newly established university. In 1926 he became reader and in 1931 professor of musicology. During World War II he was imprisoned by the Nazis and died of typhus caught in the concentration camp of Terezín.
Helfert’s earliest important work dealt with the musical life centred on the Questenberg castle in Jaroměřice, a country town in south-western Moravia, and in particular with its best-known Kapellmeister, František Míča. His Jaroměřice research was able to throw fresh light on two perennial concerns of Czech musicology: the emigration of Czech musicians and the Czech share in the origin of Classical sonata form. He returned to these questions in a later book on Benda (...
James F. Bell
revised by Clive Greated
(b Potsdam, Aug 31, 1821; d Berlin, Sept 8, 1894). German scientist. He studied medicine at the Friedrich-Wilhelm Institut, Berlin, obtaining the doctorate in 1842. He also studied mathematics, physics and philosophy, and attended lectures at Berlin University. After service as an army surgeon, in 1848 he obtained a post in physiology and pathology at Königsberg University. Later he held a number of professorships: of anatomy and physiology at Bonn University (1855), of physiology at Heidelberg (1858), and of physics at Berlin (1871); in 1887 he became the founding director of the first institute of pure scientific research, the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, Berlin. Helmholtz was an intellectual giant. His research covered such diverse topics as nerve impulses, colour blindness, vortex motion in the theory of fluids, and various aspects of electricity; he invented the ophthalmoscope; he created physiological optics and was a dominant figure in the area of acoustics....
(b Oldenburg, May 4, 1776; d Göttingen 14 ,, Aug). German philosopher, psychologist, educational theorist, aesthetician and musician. By the age of eight, Herbart had begun to study the piano, violin, cello and harp. His first appearances as pianist and cellist in private concerts date from 1787, by which time he had composed a number of short vocal works under the supervision of Karl Meineke, the organist at St Lamberti, Oldenburg. In 1794 he entered the University of Jena as a philosophy student of J.G. Fichte, but soon rejected many of his teacher's views. During his three-year stay in Jena he set Schiller's Würde der Frauen to music and composed a series of keyboard sonatas (now lost). After working as a tutor at Interlaken in Switzerland (1797–1800), where Pestalozzi had a profound effect on his own later theories of education, Herbart settled in Göttingen, receiving his doctorate at the university there in ...
Anna Amalie Abert
(b Chur, Switzerland, Jan 27, 1877; d Leipzig, July 9, 1934). German musicologist and critic. From 1896 to 1898 he was a student at the Stuttgart Conservatory; subsequently he attended the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst and studied at Munich University. From 1899 to 1902 he was a pupil of Kretzschmar at the University of Leipzig, and took the doctorate in 1903 with a dissertation on the instrumental music of Monteverdi’s Orfeo and the Venetian opera sinfonia. From that time on he worked principally as a music critic, for the Signale für die musikalische Welt (1902–5), the Leipziger Volkszeitung (1905–12) and the Leipziger Zeitung (1912–18). In addition he was editor of the Zeitschrift der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft (1904–14) and the Zeitschrift für Musik (1921–9).
Heuss’s lively intellect was turned both to questions of general criticism, whether of his own time or of earlier periods, and to more specific scholarly problems, which he pursued with characteristic vigour and enthusiasm. The starting-point for all his observations was the concept of music as something to be listened to, not merely seen on paper. This is understandable, since he was himself a composer. His general approach was a brilliant application of the interpretative analytical methods of his teacher Kretzschmar, and this often led him to arrive at highly idiosyncratic results on the basis of the most minute detail (e.g. the minor 2nd in Mozart’s G minor Symphony), so that the chief fascination of his conclusions consists not infrequently in the enthuthiasm with which they are propounded. As a composer he devoted himself principally to song, a genre with which he also felt close sympathy as a scholar. He played a prominent part in German musical life of the 1920s, and strongly opposed the modern school of the time. As president of the Verband deutscher Musikkritiker he concerned himself, in a wide variety of publications, with contemporary musical matters of every sort....
(b Ústí nad Orlicí, March 15, 1858; d Prague, Jan 14, 1939). Czech music historian. His grandfather, František Hnilička (1790–1848), and his father, Alois Hnilička (1826–1909), were distinguished local musicians. After graduating from Prague University in 1882 he worked as a lawyer but his interest in music led him to the study and collection of Czech music from the middle of the 18th century onwards. His pioneering work in this field, though now mostly superseded by later research, helped to save many minor Czech composers from oblivion. His studies of the area of Chrudimsko are one of the earliest attempts at documenting local music history in Czechoslovakia.‘Některé úvahy k studiu památek po starších mistrech českých’ [Some thoughts on studying the documents of early Czech masters], Smetana, 1 (1906), 111–16, 125–8, 137–41 ‘Dějiny hudby na Chrudimsku’ [The history of music in Chrudimsko], Chrudimsko a Nasavrcko...
Alec Hyatt King
revised by Joost van Gemert
(b Rotterdam, March 23, 1887; d Zürich, Nov 1, 1983). Dutch collector and bibliographer. While training as an engineer in Delft, he also received his early education in music from Anton B.H. Verhey, and in 1911 attended the Hoch Conservatory at Frankfurt where he studied harmony with Bernhard Sekles and composition with Ivan Knorr. From 1925 to 1934 Hoboken was a pupil of Heinrich Schenker in Vienna, and was much influenced by his ideas. It was Schenker who induced him to establish the famous Archiv für Photogramme musikalischer Meister-Handschriften (the ‘Meister-Archiv’) in the music department of the National Library in Vienna. It comprises a large quantity of photographic copies of the autographs of works by great composers, from Bach to Brahms. Its value to scholars has been much enhanced by the loss of some of the originals during World War II.
From 1919 onwards Hoboken began to build up systematically his private collection of first and early editions. The collection now ranges from Frescobaldi, Froberger, Purcell, and J.S. and C.P.E. Bach, through all the great names of Classical and Romantic music up to Brahms and also includes a wealth of early theory and literature. Conceived as a complement to the ‘Meister-Archiv’, it has been accessible to scholars as an invaluable source of textual information. The collection was acquired by the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek in ...
Deane L. Root
(b Indianapolis, IN, Aug 6, 1906; d Oakmont, PA, March 13, 2006). American archivist and music historian. He received a degree in English from Harvard University. In 1931 he became first curator of the collection of Fosteriana compiled by the pharmaceutical manufacturer Josiah Kirby Lilly, and he continued in the post after Lilly presented the holdings in ...
(b Fallersleben, nr Brunswick, April 2, 1798; d Schloss Corvey, nr Höxter, Jan 29, 1874). German philologist, poet and composer. He studied at the Gymnasium in Helmstedt and later in Brunswick and Göttingen (1816), and in 1819 matriculated at Bonn. Having formed a friendship with the Grimm brothers, he made important studies in German folksong near Bonn and in Dutch literature in Holland. In Breslau he became librarian (1823) and professor (1830), but was dismissed on political grounds in 1843 and banished from Prussia until 1848. After various wanderings and holding several posts, including a period in Weimar when he became a friend of Liszt, he was appointed librarian to Prince Lippe in Corvey (1860).
As a poet and philologist, Hoffmann had a significant impact on the musical life and scholarship of his day. His Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes bis auf Luthers Zeit...
revised by Gunter Hempel
(b Strehla, Jan 24, 1782; d Reudnitz, nr Leipzig, Sept 30, 1864). German music publisher and bibliographer. After learning the trade he opened a retail music business in Leipzig in 1807 and soon extended this to a music publishing firm, to which he added a musical hire service and later a commission business. He was a close friend and the principal publisher of Heinrich Marschner, and for a time he promoted Schumann and Mendelssohn, published works by Berlioz, Chopin, Czerny, Clara Schumann and Friedrich Wieck, and issued songs and ballads by Loewe. Studies, didactic works and tutors for the popular instruments of the day were a prominent part of his publishing programme.
In 1817 Whistling published his Handbuch der musikalischen Literatur and Hofmeister published its successive supplements from the second (1819) and went on to produce further catalogues dealing with musical practice and music literature in German-speaking countries (from ...
Israel J. Katz
(b Vienna, Feb 25, 1877; d Cambridge, Nov 28, 1935). Austrian scholar. His parental home was a focus of Viennese musical life (his mother was the singer and Brahms devotee Helene Magnus) and in early youth he studied harmony and counterpoint under Mandyczewski; by his late teens he was an accomplished pianist and composer. After studying natural sciences and philosophy at the universities of Heidelberg and Vienna (1895–9) he took the doctorate in chemistry in Vienna (1900) and then moved to Berlin, where, under the influence of Stumpf at the university, he became absorbed in the study of experimental psychology and musicology, particularly tone psychology. He was an assistant to Stumpf at the Psychological Institute (1905) until its archives became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, of which he was director from 1906 to 1933. In 1917 he was appointed professor at the university and in recognition of his achievements he was also given a lectureship without having to write a ...