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Claude V. Palisca

[Vincentio, Vincenzio]

(b S Maria a Monte, Tuscany, probably in the late 1520s; d Florence, bur. July 2, 1591). Italian theorist, composer, lutenist, singer and teacher. He was the leader of the movement to revive through monody the ancient Greek ideal of the union of music and poetry.

Galilei was probably born later than his traditionally accepted date of birth of about 1520. As a youth he studied the lute. It was probably his playing that attracted the attention of Giovanni de' Bardi, his principal patron, who facilitated his theoretical studies with Zarlino in Venice, probably about 1563. By that time he had settled in Pisa, where in 1562 he married a member of a local noble family. The scientist Galileo (who was born in 1564) was the first of his six or seven children; another was the lutenist Michelagnolo Galilei (b 18 Dec 1575; d 3 Jan 1631...


Carolyn Gianturco

revised by Teresa M. Gialdroni


(b Mantua, Dec 4, 1929; d Mantua, Feb 24, 2006). Italian musicologist. He studied the piano with Nunzio Montanari at Parma Conservatory and composition with Renato Dionisi and Franco Margola at Milan Conservatory, taking diplomas in both subjects (1950–1957); he also took the degree in literature at the University of Bologna (1952) with a dissertation on Baudelaire e la musica and studied musical palaeography at the University of Parma (diploma 1957). He lectured in music history at the conservatories of Padua (1957), Bolzano (1962) and Parma (1966), and took up an appointment at the University of Parma (1966, when he took the libera docenza), becoming head of the musicology institute (1970) and professor of music history (1976). His intimate knowledge of Mantua resulted in several important contributions to the music history of that city, including new research on Monteverdi and Isabella d’Este. In addition, he was concerned with the Italian musical theatre in general (Mazzocchi, Verdi, 18th-century opera, etc.). Gallico’s belief was in musicological research not as an end in itself but as a means towards the active revival of early music. This could be seen in his activities both as a performer—as director of his chamber group Nuovo Concerto Italiano and organizer of theatrical performances at the Teatro Olimpico of Sabbioneta—and as an editor. He prepared several editions of Renaissance and Baroque music, and is a member of the editorial committees of the series Monumenti Musicali Italiani and the journal ...


(b Edinburgh, Feb 28, 1930). Scottish musicologist. He studied at the RAM from 1950 to 1954, taking organ lessons from C.H. Trevor. From 1954 to 1957 he was on the music staff of Clifton College, Bristol, while there gaining the FRCO in 1956 (with the Harding and F.J. Read prizes) and the BMus in 1957. From 1957 to 1966 he was director of music at Loretto School, near Edinburgh; he then became lecturer in music and organist at Glasgow University and in 1970 senior lecturer. In 1975 he became professor of music at Sheffield University, and was dean of the faculty of arts from 1988 to 1990. He retired in 1993. In 1969 he was awarded the Edinburgh DMus for a dissertation on the music of Balakirev. Garden’s studies have been almost exclusively in the field of Russian music, his preoccupation having begun as early as his period at the RAM. He was given much encouragement by Gerald Abraham and Jack Westrup. He was active as an organist and choir trainer, and published choral and chamber music....


Martin Ruhnke

revised by Dale Allen Scott

(b Colditz, Saxony, c1590; d Zeitz, Sept 4, 1636). German music theorist and teacher. From 1609 he attended the Thomasschule, Leipzig, under Sethus Calvisius. About 1613 he became Kantor at Rochlitz, near his birthplace, and in 1618 at Zeitz. He is known by a school textbook, Musica nova, Newe Singekunst, so wol nach der alten Solmisation, als newen Bobisation und Bebisation (Leipzig, 1626/R). It begins with traditional elementary rules, but as early as the first theoretical part, solmization is contrasted with the new seven-step systems of bocedization (described by Calvisius) and bebization (after Hitzler), through which the difficulties of mutation could be avoided. The treatment of organ tabulation is also unusual for a school textbook. As the second, practical part Gengenbach published a self-contained collection of practice examples graded from the simple to the difficult. In the third part, which became a pattern for numerous appendixes in later school treatises, he explained Greek, Latin and Italian musical terms; he relied here on the third volume of Michael Praetorius's ...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Fresno, CA, March 19, 1948). American music educator and scholar. He received a degree in psychology and music from the University of California at Berkeley (BA 1970). He studied music psychology at California State University, Fresno (MA 1972) and music education at Florida State University (PhD 1976). He joined the music faculty at the University of Texas at Austin in 1976, where he remained until 2002, serving as head of the music education division and director of graduate studies for the School of Music. In 2002 he returned to Florida State University as the director of the Center for Music Research (CMR) and the Lewis V. Pankaskie Professor of Music. He teaches courses and conducts research in the perception, cognition, and psychoacoustics of music. Geringer’s publications appear in leading international and national research journals in music education, therapy, and psychology. He serves on a number of editorial boards and regularly presents research at professional meetings, including the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) and the International Society for Music Education. Geringer received the Distinguished Alumni Citation from Florida State University in ...


David Hiley

revised by Jean Gribenski

(b Strasbourg, Oct 26, 1866; d Allenwiller, Feb 15, 1956). French musicologist. He studied singing, the violin and music theory at Strasbourg Conservatory, and music history (with Jacobsthal) and theology at the University of Strasbourg; later singing teachers included Julius Stockhausen in Frankfurt (from 1890) and Romaine Bussine and Charles Bordes in Paris (from 1892). After serving as assistant professor to Stockhausen (1895) he was appointed his successor. He sang bass solos in important performances of the choir of St Guillaume, Strasbourg (1888–1906), and drew on this practical experience in his singing method Kleine Sängerfibel. He took the doctorate at the German University of Strasbourg in 1910 with a dissertation on the French art of singing in the 17th century.

Throughout this period Gérold continued his studies in composition, music history and Romance philology. He lectured on music at the University of Basle (...


Milton Sutter

revised by Patrizia Radicchi

(b Milan, Nov 4, 1762; d Borgotaro, nr Parma, June 4, 1819). Italian theorist, music historian, teacher and organist. Although he had studied music as a child (playing such instruments as the harpsichord, psaltery, archlute, violin and organ), he prepared for a career as an engineer. These studies ended in 1781 with the death of his father. After the failure of his commercial business in 1789 he became maestro di cappella at the Chiesa Matrice in Borgotaro, where he remained until his death. In this post he composed vocal and instrumental sacred music, directed the amateur orchestra, organized music for the salons of noble families (who provided him with pupils), was active as a teacher and gave public performances on the organ. Among his more successful students were Pietro Giovanni Parolini, from Pontremoli, and Francesco Canetti, formerly maestro di cappella at Brescia Cathedral. The high regard in which he was held in contemporary musical circles can be taken from his correspondence or from reports of his travels in northern Italy. There is no doubt that it is largely due to him that the town of Borgotaro saw the construction of a powerful and original organ (described in detail in ...


Anne-Marie Riessauw and Jean Hargot

(b Huysse, nr Oudenaarde, July 31, 1828; d Brussels, Dec 24, 1908). Belgian musicologist, teacher and composer. He first studied music with the organist J.-B. Christiaens, a relative, and gave early evidence of an exceptional gift. At the age of 13 he entered the Ghent Conservatory to study the piano with De Somere and harmony with Mengal. Two years later he became a piano teacher himself; subsequently he was the organist at the Jesuit college in Ghent. In 1847 his Flemish cantata België won first prize in a competition organized by the Société des Beaux-Arts de Gand, and in the same year his cantata Le roi Lear won him the Belgian Prix de Rome. Because of his age he was permitted to postpone his foreign tour for two years, during which time he composed the operas Hugues de Zomerghem and La comédie à la ville. They were both published by the Gevaert family, who ran a music printing shop first in Huysse and later in Ghent. From ...


George J. Buelow

(b Burg auf Fehmarn, 1612; d Minden, Oct 20, 1682). German composer, theorist and teacher. In 1629 he fled from a plague in Burg (of which his father died) and moved to Brunswick to live with relatives. In 1631 he began to study both theoretical and practical music with Heinrich Grimm (who had himself studied with Michael Praetorius). After three years' study he became Kantor at Stadthagen. He remained there until 1642, when he was appointed a teacher at the Gymnasium, and also assistant Kantor, at nearby Minden. Six years later he was made Kantor, a position he held for the rest of his life.

Although he lived in relative obscurity, Gibelius was well known throughout Germany as a teacher, composer and particularly as a theorist. His treatises were referred to frequently by other writers on music theory well into the 18th century. As late as 1740 Mattheson could say of him: ‘I believe that thousands have gone to universities and spent many years there without becoming the equal of this man who had never attended one’. His significance for music historians is as an observer and teacher of German music theory. His five brief books are primarily instruction manuals for teaching singing in church schools. He was an erudite scholar who had read widely in most of the major treatises of antiquity as well as in those of the 16th and 17th centuries. He singled out Grimm, Lippius and Baryphonus as the most important writers to influence his own publications. In his ...


Sue Carole DeVale

(b New York, Feb 19, 1852; d Boston, March 18, 1933). American psychologist and ethnomusicologist. He studied at Williams College (AB 1872) and did postgraduate work as a Fellow in Logic at Johns Hopkins University (1881–2); he then attended the University of Berlin (1882), was a graduate student in psychology at Harvard (1883–5) and in 1886 studied at the University of Paris. He lectured at Princeton, Columbia and Harvard on the psychology of music (1890–92) and was assistant professor of psychology at Clark University (1892–3). He then became secretary of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts until his retirement in 1925.

Much of Gilman’s musical research was given impetus by Mary Hemenway, who commissioned an expedition to study the Pueblo Indians; in 1890 she entrusted the study of the songs to Gilman, who was the first to scientifically analyse Amerindian melodies through recordings. He held that the Amerindians had their own set of conscious norms for intervallic relationships and, in his article on Zuñi melodies (...


Yelena Vladimirovna Orlova

revised by Larisa Kazanskaya

(b Kiev, May 23, 1901; d Leningrad, April 4, 1978). Russian musicologist and historian. After taking private lessons with the conductor M.I. Chernyakhousky, he studied cello at the Baku Music School with V.S. Dobrokhotov and played in an orchestra (1916–18). From 1918 he studied musicology at the Institute for the History of the Arts in Petrograd with Asaf′yev, S.K. Bulich and Karatïgin and the cello and the viola da gamba with Yu.G. Van-Oren (1919–22); he also attended Glazunov’s ensemble class at the conservatory and completed a degree in history and philology at Petrograd University (1918–23).

From 1919 Ginzburg taught at music schools and colleges (including the Institute of Dramatic Arts, 1924–6), and he was appointed research fellow at the Institute for the History of the Arts in 1922, a post he retained until 1930. In 1925 he joined the faculty at the Leningrad Conservatory, where he was appointed senior lecturer in ...


Valentina Sandu-Dediu

(b Stroeşti, Vâlcea, Romania, Nov 11, 1914; d Bucharest, Romania, Dec 23, 2006). Romanian musicologist and professor. After majoring in music education at the Bucharest Conservatory (1935–41), he decided to study law at the University of Bucharest (1949–53). His two degrees proved useful during his outstanding service as Rector of the Bucharest Conservatory (1962–72), during which the institution reached its historic peak. Giuleanu’s managerial skills were later employed in the founding and running of the Faculty of Music within Spiru Haret University, where he served as Dean between 1991 and 2001.

Victor Giuleanu’s career as an educator (he taught music theory from 1954 onwards, and was a PhD supervisor at the National University of Music Bucharest after 1990) greatly influenced his musicological work. Through a critical approach that combines historiography, aesthetics, and analysis (in Byzantine Melody and Treatise on Musical Theory, and in his volumes on ...


Zdravko Blažeković

revised by Vilena Vrbanić

(b Split, Croatia, April 6, 1946). Croatian musicologist. He graduated in English and comparative literature from Zagreb University (1969) and in musicology from Ljubljana University (1973). He later studied with Koraljka Kos at Zagreb University (MA 1981) and with Andrej Rijavec at Ljubljana University, gaining the PhD in 1984 with a dissertation on problems of new music. He was awarded scholarships to study at the universities of Cologne, Berlin (with Carl Dahlhaus and Rudolf Stephan), and Freiburg (with H.H. Eggebrecht). He was artistic director of the Music Salon of Zagreb University (1969–86) and programme director of the Zagreb Biennale Festival (1973–91). He has taught at the Zagreb Academy of Music since 1986 and the Faculty of Organization and Informatics in Varaždin since 1996. He was on the executive committee of the European Conference of the Promoters of New Music (...


Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

[Schelling, Jan]

(b Glogau [now Głogów], ?c1445; d Kraków, Feb 11, 1507). Polish philosopher, astronomer and music theorist. After studying at Kraków University, he was a lecturer there for 40 years. During 1497–8 he lectured in mathematics in Vienna. He was one of the leading scholars in Kraków and Copernicus was probably among his pupils. A manuscript from the Krasiński Library, Warsaw, that included two treatises associated with Jan z Głogowa (MS 47) was destroyed during World War II. The treatises taken together were most probably a commentary on Johannes de Muris’s Musica speculativa. The manuscript, written during the period 1475–8, was owned by Jan z Głogowa and included his writings on astronomy. His commentary to Aristotle’s De anima, Quaestiones librorum de anima magistri 10 annis versaris (Kraków, 1501), presents some of the more standard views of medieval philosophy on the place of music among the mathematical disciplines....


Inna Barsova

revised by Yelena Dvoskina

(b Rostov-na-Donu, Feb 2, 1883; d Moscow, May 5, 1957). Russian composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied at the Rostov Technical Institute (1892–9) and began music lessons with O.O. Fritch before he left school. From 1901 to 1909 he studied composition with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory; in 1905 he was expelled for taking part in a revolutionary student strike, but he was allowed back in 1906. After graduating, and until 1923, he lived in the Rostov-na-Donu region and in Yekaterinodar, teaching, lecturing and taking a part in the direction and development of musical life. In the summers of 1912 and 1913 he worked in Meyerhold’s St Petersburg studio. He visited Germany and France (1911) and Palestine (1914 and 1921). From 1925 to 1936 he was professor of composition at the Moscow Conservatory, and from 1923 held a similar post at the Gnesin Academy, founded on the site of the music school by his sisters Yelena, Yevgeniya and Mariya. He was professor at the Leningrad Conservatory (...


Zdravko Blažeković

(b Struga, Oct 30, 1937). Macedonian musicologist and composer. He studied music privately with Vlastimir Nikolovski in Skopje, and later took composition at the Ljubljana Academy of Music, at the same time studying philosophy and sociology at the philosophy faculty of the University of Skopje. He took the MA in composition with Lucijan Škerjanc in 1964. He worked as a radio producer in Skopje (1964) and taught theoretical studies at the Pedagogical Academy there (1966–85). He participated in the Darmstadt summer courses (1970, 1972), and studied composition in Munich with Günter Bialas, in Cologne with Stockhausen, and in Berlin with Frank Beyer (1973–4). He took the doctorate with Vladimir Mošin at the University of Skopje (1985) with a dissertation on music manuscripts from Ohrid and the oldest known Slavic-language triodion. In 1985 he became professor of musicology in the University’s music faculty. He received the 11 Oktombri award in ...


(b Basle, June 17, 1910; d Dresden, Oct 19, 1986). Swiss musicologist, active in East Germany. In Basle he studied music with Weingartner at the conservatory, and at the university he took musicology with Nef and Handschin, ethnology and philosophy; he also studied with Scherchen at Königsberg, and in Paris and Berlin. Later he was music critic of the Basle Nationalzeitung (1933–9) and Vorwärts (1945–9), and organized workers’ concerts and directed a workers’ choir. On moving to Berlin he became head of the music section of Berlin radio (1949–50) before being appointed lecturer in music history at the East Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1950–55). From 1955 to 1956 he lectured in China on European music, and on his return to Berlin he worked mainly as a freelance musicologist until his appointment as director of the Central Institute of Musicology (...


(b Odessa, Nov 8, 1917; d Hamburg, Aug 7, 1989). Ukrainian composer, musicologist and teacher. He began studying the violin with Stolyarsky, the teacher of Milstein and Oistrakh, and aged 13 entered the Moscow Conservatory where he studied the violin with Yampol′sky, conducting with Saradzhev and composition with Myaskovsky, graduating in 1936. Although a prolific composer, he is best known as the perpetrator of a hoax: he was the ‘discoverer’ of a Symphony no.21 in G minor, written ‘for the dedication of the Odessa Theatre, 1809’ by an actual historical figure, N.D. Ovsyaniko-Kulikovsky (1768–1846), a landowner who is known to have presented his serf orchestra at the Odessa Theatre in 1810. But Goldstein had actually written the work as a response to a critic who had claimed that Goldstein, having composed a piece on Ukrainian themes, could not ‘understand’ Ukrainian music because he was Jewish. So, as an elaborate and elegant riposte against racism, the work was faked (Dunayevsky supposedly provided a theme for the finale), deposited in the archives of the Odessa Conservatory and duly ‘discovered’ by Goldstein in ...


Mladen Marković

(b Belgrade, April 3, 1954). Serbian ethnomusicologist and composer. He studied ethnomusicology, composition, and singing at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Since 1979 he has taught ethnomusicology at the Department of Ethnomusicology. At the same faculty in 1987 he defended his doctoral thesis in ethnomusicology, entitled Folk Music of the Podrinje Region. For more than 20 years he has been the head of the department, and for over ten years visiting professor at the University of Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

His ethnomusicological work is based on remarkable fieldwork experience. As a researcher, he visited and explored traditional music in about 600 villages throughout Serbia, Montenegro (Boka Kotorska and seacoast regions), Bosnia and Herzegovina (northeastern and northwestern part), and Macedonia (northern part). Those explorations resulted in numerous studies, published both domestically and internationally. Most prominent are the study on specific forms of refrain in folk singing (...


Paula Morgan

(b Bielefeld, Nov 25, 1929). German musicologist. He studied musicology, philosophy and medieval Latin at the University of Heidelberg, where he worked with Georgiades and received the PhD in 1957. He began teaching at the University of Munich in 1958, where he completed the Habilitation in 1967 with a study of polyphonic lesson settings. In the same year he was a visiting professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara; he joined the faculty there in 1968 and was named professor of music in 1971. In 1973, he was appointed to the chair of musicology at the University of Munich. He became editor of the series Münchner Veröffentlichungen zur Musikgeschichte in 1977 and of the Münchner Editionen zur Musikgeschichte in 1979. He was appointed chairman of the music commission of the Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften in 1982 and member of the European Academy of Arts and Sciences in ...