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Daniel Zager

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Cambridge, MA, Oct 18, 1908; d Key West, FL, Dec 18, 1966). American writer. He learned to play drums before attending Harvard University as an undergraduate (BS 1931) and law student (1932–4), then studied medieval English literature at Yale University (PhD 1942); at graduate school he was a founder of the United Hot Clubs of America, a jazz appreciation society. While pursuing a career as a professor in English literature at several universities he served as a columnist on jazz for Variety and Saturday Review, contributed to Down Beat, Record Changer, Esquire, Harper’s, and Life, and edited articles on jazz for Musical America. In 1950 he received a Guggenheim Fellowship to begin work on The Story of Jazz (1956), a historical survey that became widely used. He developed a course on jazz at New York University in 1950 and another at Hunter College, where he settled the following year. Stearns founded the ...


(b Brno, Nov 25, 1879; d New York, Nov 12, 1943). Austrian writer on music. From 1898 he lived in Vienna, where he studied law, philosophy and art history, taking a doctorate in law in 1904, and concurrently studying music theory with Hermann Grädener and Schoenberg. He became a critic and freelance writer on music in Vienna, and as a staunch champion of modern music played a leading part in the Ansorge-Verein, founded in 1903 for the propagation of new music. From 1921 to 1938 he was editor of and a major contributor to Musikblätter des Anbruch. In 1938 he emigrated by way of Switzerland, France and Portugal to the USA; for many years he wrote for daily newspapers (e.g. Neue Zürcher Zeitung) and periodicals (e.g. Musical America). He was a founder-member (1922) of the ISCM. His many biographical books on composers and performers (see ...


Karl-Ernst Bergunder


(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...


[Murbach, Hans]

(b Dürmenach, Alsace, April 23, 1873; d Olsberg, Westphalia, May 9, 1920). German writer on music. He studied musicology, literature and art history at the universities of Strasbourg and Berlin and his dissertation on Brentano’s fairy tales received the Grimm prize in 1895. For many years he was the chairman of the Deutscher Schriftstellerverband and fine arts editor of the magazine Der Türmer. He occasionally wrote under the pseudonym Hans Murbach.

An influential popularizer of the fine arts, especially music, Storck wrote widely read histories of music and German literature (Deutsche Literaturgeschichte, Stuttgart, 1898, 10/1926), and his guide to opera, Das Opernbuch, was reprinted until 1949. He advocated a broad range of practical reforms in German musical life, including open-air concerts, systematic singing instruction in schools, state examination and certification of music teachers, and municipal and state financing of public concerts. Storck’s activities as a popularizer were inspired by his conviction that the arts were vehicles of political and moral education, and he hoped that a revival of German musical life would help overcome political and social fragmentation in Imperial Germany. He therefore presented his proposed reforms under the rubric ‘Musikpolitik’ (musical politics), a term based on similar calls for a ‘Kunstpolitik’ (artistic politics) in pre-World War I Germany. Storck’s cultural politics were strongly nationalist, and his writings on art and music during World War I became increasingly marked by a chauvinism and an anti-Semitism that have significant affinities with later Nazi cultural attitudes. Though in ...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Edenbridge, June 22, 1866; d London, Feb 6, 1919). English music critic and musicologist . Educated at Oundle and Pembroke College, Cambridge, he entered the Department of Printed Books in the British Museum in 1889, and served there until his death. Although he never worked in the Music Room, he was encouraged in his research by Barclay Squire. A gifted amateur tenor, he acted as music critic of the Daily Graphic from 1898 to 1902 and contributed regularly to English and foreign journals. Though he was keenly interested in the new music of his time, he was also an ardent Handelian, an enthusiasm partly inspired by his friendship with Samuel Butler, whose literary executor he was, editing the posthumous novel The Way of all Flesh (1903) and several of his other books. Streatfeild’s book on Handel, though old-fashioned in some respects, is a balanced and penetrating study which is still valuable....


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Strasbourg, Nov 1, 1901; d Berlin, Aug 15, 1988). German music critic and musicologist. After attending secondary schools in Berlin, Ulm and Magdeburg, he studied the violin, piano and composition under private teachers and was self-taught in music theory and music history. From 1920 he made a living as a freelance composer and writer on music in Bremen, Hamburg, Vienna, Paris and Berlin. In 1923–4, with Joseph Rufer, he organized the Hamburg Neue Musik concerts, and in 1927–8 he directed the concerts of the Berlin November-Gruppe; at the same time he worked for various periodicals (e.g. Aufbruch, Auftakt, Melos and Modern Music) and newspapers. In Prague (1928–9) he was chief music critic of the Bohemia and he then succeeded A. Weissmann (1929) as music critic of the Berliner Zeitung am Mittag. He attended Schoenberg's course on musical analysis as an observer (...


William J. Gatens

(b Bridgwater, March 3, 1842; d London, Nov 1, 1923). English writer on psychological subjects with emphasis on the psychology of music. He was from a dissenting (Baptist) family, one of eight children of a merchant and colliery proprietor. After working in his father's business, he entered Regents Park College to read philosophy in preparation for the ministry. He obtained the BA in 1866, continued his studies at Göttingen and Halle, received the London University MA with gold medal in 1868, and was married the same year. In 1869 he became classics tutor at the Baptist College, Pontypool, leaving the following year to be a private tutor and assistant to the editor of the Fortnightly Review. Around this time Sully abandoned his earlier religious views. He contributed several articles to the Fortnightly Review, the Westminster Review and the Saturday Review. In 1871–2 he studied anatomy and physiology in Berlin. A nervous breakdown in the mid-1870s led to recuperative travel in Italy. He settled in Hampstead in ...


Katy Romanou

(b Tripolis, Arcadia, Greece, ?1880 (?1878/?1881); d Athens, Oct 13, 1959). Greek music historian, journalist, and director of Ethniki Lyriki Skini (‘National Opera’) (1946–53). He was a successful playwright and a man much more involved in the theatrical rather than the musical life of Athens. Nonetheless, his Istoria tis neoellinikis mousikis (‘History of Neohellenic Music’, Athens, 1919) marks a turning point in Greek music historiography, being the first to confine its narration to the Greek state’s time and space, attesting the repercussions of the modernisation of music education in the country. The history is divided into three periods, defined by the dates 1824, 1871, 1891, and 1919 (the two middle being the dates the Conservatory of Athens was founded and then reformed). He gives a lively description of the gradual introduction and assimilation of Western music into the Greek state. He starts with the first foreigners performing in Greece, continues with biographies of the first Greeks to be successful abroad (the composers Spyros Samaras and Napoleon Lambelet, the flutist Eurysthenes Gizas, and the pianist Timotheos Xanthopoulos), the first amateur Greek opera group, and its performances for the Greeks of the diaspora, and the first operas written by Greeks and on a Greek libretto (by Pavlos Carrer and Spyridon Xyndas)....


Anthony C. Baines

revised by Darryl Martin

(b London, 1664; d Spofforth, 1708). English writer on music . He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he matriculated in 1683, becoming a minor Fellow in 1689 and major Fellow in 1690. He played a leading role in the early promotion of Cambridge University Press. He was Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge from 1699 to 1704 when he moved to Spofforth, where he had a rectorship since 1700. He received his doctorate from Cambridge in 1705. His importance to music history derives from his manuscript GB-Och Music MS 1187 (formerly owned by Henry Aldrich) which provides copious information on instruments. The manuscript, which was probably written between 1690 and 1700, consists mainly of 250 numbered sheets on which are recorded details of instruments; much of the information was obtained first-hand from leading players and makers (including Gottfried Finger, John Banister (ii), James Paisible, John Shore and William Bull) and from Talbot’s examination and measurement of instruments provided by these men. Other pages record tunings and tablatures, or quotations from Praetorius, Mersenne and Kircher. The remainder of the manuscript, including sections on ancient Greek music, is in another hand....


Thomas S. Grey

(b Ober-Thomaswaldau, Silesia, Feb 19, 1830; d Berlin, Oct 27, 1907). German music scholar and critic . Initially trained as a schoolteacher, he turned to musical studies at the age of 26. Among his teachers in Berlin were the music theorist Siegfried Dehn and the critic and historian Adolph Kullak. Between 1858 and 1866 he worked as a music critic in Glogau (now Głogów), in Silesia. He then settled in Berlin where he developed a career as a music journalist, teacher, scholar and collector. His interests were divided between historical research and contemporary music. As one of the earliest modern scholars of lute tablature he acquired a notable collection of early manuscript and printed sources which he left to the Prussian Royal Library. This research led to a wider study of the history of notation, culminating in an unpublished monograph of 1901–3 and a variety of journal articles, some of them in the ...


Paula Morgan

(Filler )

(b New York, April 2, 1945). American musicologist and critic . He studied at Columbia University, taking the doctorate in 1975 with a dissertation on Russian opera in the 1860s. He taught at Columbia from 1973 until 1987, when he became professor at the University of California, Berkeley; he was named Class of 1955 Professor of Music in 1997. A wide-ranging scholar, Taruskin has written on the 15th-century chanson, the Early Music movement (of which he is a trenchant critic, seeing it more as an outcome of 20th-century taste than as truly re-creative), on theoretical aspects of Stravinsky and, above all, on Russian music, from the 18th century to the present. His writings, original, highly perceptive and frequently controversial, include articles dealing with views of Russian musical history and textual, technical and interpretative questions in the operas of Musorgsky and Prokofiev. Taruskin is also a vigorous, forthright critic, and is a regular contributor to the ...


Murray Campbell

(Alfred )

(b Hull, August 14, 1922; d March 7, 2002). English physicist, writer and lecturer on the physics of music. He studied physics at Queen Mary College, London (BSc 1942), and at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (PhD 1951, DSc 1959), where he was a lecturer then a reader in physics (1948–85). As professor and head of department of physics at University College, Cardiff (1965–83), he established the first electronic music studio in a British university (1970); he was visiting professor of experimental physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (1976–88), and became emeritus professor of physics at the University of Wales in 1983. He was elected an honorary fellow of the Institute of Acoustics (1985).

Though his major research activity was in the study of X-ray and optical diffraction, the important musical acoustics research group which he founded at Cardiff carried out pioneering holographic studies of the vibrational modes of stringed instrument bodies. In ...


Thomas J. Mathiesen

( fl first half of the 5th century ce ). Latin writer . He is thought by some to have been the prefect in Spain (399–400 ce) or the proconsul in Africa (410 ce) cited in the Codex Theodosius but now identified with Theodosius, praetorian prefect in Italy in 430 ce. He was the author of a treatise comparing Greek and Latin verbs (De verborum graeci et latini differentiis vel societatibus), a commentary on Cicero’s Somnium Scipionis and a Saturnalia, the last two of which were dedicated to his son, Fl. Macrobius Plotinus Eustathius, city prefect in about 461 ce. Together with the writings of Boethius, Martianus Capella, Cassiodorus and Isidore , Macrobius’s commentary helped preserve and communicate ancient science and Neoplatonic theory in the Middle Ages. The Somnium Scipionis, with its dramatic language, images of the harmony of the spheres and observations about the nature and ascent of the soul, provided Macrobius with an ideal basis for commentary on such subjects as the classification of dreams, Pythagoras’s discovery of musical consonance and Pythagorean number theory, the nature of virtue, distinctions between mortality and immortality, the Neoplatonic hypostases, movements of the celestial and planetary spheres and their harmonious sound, and the superiority of Plato’s view of the soul over Aristotle’s. Derived in large measure from Porphyry’s commentary on the ...


Nanna Schiødt

(b St Etienne, Oct 5, 1872; d Lorques, nr Varennes, April 7, 1938). French writer on Byzantine music. In 1891 he joined the Assumptionists and began to study Byzantine music, an interest developed during his long residence in the East. In 1900 he was ordained priest in Constantinople; thereafter he lived in Jerusalem, several Turkish and Bulgarian cities, Odessa (1907–11) and St Petersburg (1911–14). During World War I he worked as an army chaplain, returning to Turkey in 1920. He retired to France in 1922.

Thibaut was the first scholar to make a systematic investigation of Byzantine musical notation and to try to deduce the origin of Latin neumes from Constantinople. He divided Byzantine notation from the 11th to the 18th centuries into three phases: the first originated in Constantinople, the second in Jerusalem and the third was invented by Koukouzeles. His studies were based on manuscripts from all periods of which he edited an important collection. Together with J.B. Rebours he also edited several treatises on Byzantine musical theory, but he was unable to decipher the notation....


Katharine Ellis

[Roquet, Antoine Ernest ]

(b Nantes, Jan 23, 1827; d Paris, May 26, 1894). French writer on music . A merchant by trade, he took the opportunities offered by business journeys to England, Italy and Russia to accumulate an extensive music library which included early printed books and manuscripts. He became a contributor to the periodicals La France musicale and L’Art musical, later publishing his articles (and others) as pamphlets. He worked exclusively on the history of French music, basing his research firmly on primary sources and using an unusually transparent methodology which involved the critical evaluation of items of secondary material in annotated bibliographies. His work built upon that of Fétis in particular, correcting many of the inaccuracies in the Belgian scholar’s writings. Much of the strength of Thoinan’s work lies in his ability, amply demonstrated in his essay on Maugars, to see isolated historical events in a larger perspective.

La musique à Paris...


Julie Anne Sadie

(b Paris, Jan 16, 1677; d Paris, Nov 26, 1762). French man of letters . He made his way at court as the mâitre d'hôtel to the Duchess of Burgundy. After her death in 1712 he sought the favour of Louis XIV and then Louis XV by drawing up plans for a monument in Paris: an 18-metre ‘Parnasse François’, surmounted by a statue of Apollo and surrounded by statues and medallions of the most distinguished poets and musicians of the Louis XIV era with the names of still others inscribed on scrolls. He devoted much of his time to the promotion of this grand projet, commissioning in 1708 a scale model in bronze sculpted by Louis Garnier, painted and engraved interpretations and medallions together with a series of supporting literature that he wrote himself. The first volume to appear was the Description du Parnasse François (1727), which included seven biographical entries on musicians that he rewrote for the greatly augmented ...


(b Yasnaya Polyana, Sept 9, 1828; d Astapovo, Nov 20, 1910). Russian novelist, dramatist, philosopher and social critic. He was a fair amateur pianist, and, though he had no serious musical training, music played an important part in his emotional and intellectual life and figures prominently in many of his novels. Some music moved Tolstoy profoundly and even had a powerful physical effect on him. Partly, no doubt, for these subjective reasons, he believed music to be a ‘terrible power’ for good or, more often, evil, making men act against their wills and destroying their moral judgment. This idea finds its most extreme expression in his novel Kraytserova sonata (‘The Kreutzer Sonata’, 1889). His attempts to formulate a philosophy of art, including music, reached their most finished form in Chto takoye iskusstvo? (‘What is Art?’, 1898), a polemical work in which ethics and aesthetics are mingled and which was designed to challenge accepted ideas. It was partly censored in Russia but appeared unabridged in Aylmer Maude’s English translation, which Tolstoy wished to be considered the only authorized text....


Luminita Florea

[Friar of Bristol]

(bur. Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369). Franciscan friar. He was warden of the Franciscan convent at Norwich, regent-master of the Oxford Franciscans in 1351 and the 23rd provincial minister of the Friars Minor in England c1360–69. He was buried at the Poor Clares nunnery at Bruisyard. Bale and Tanner credited Tunstede with the authorship of the Quatuor principalia musice ( GB-Ob Digby 90; CoussemakerS, iv, 200–298). Tanner referred to a copy of the Quatuor principalia found in the manuscript Gb-Ob Bodley 515 and equated this text (as Anthony Wood had done before him) with De musica continua et discreta cum diagrammatibus. The Quatuor principalia was subsequently regarded as the work of an anonymous Franciscan from Bristol, but is in fact by John. Tunstede wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Meteorica and on Albion, a description by Richard Wallingford, Abbot of St Albans, of an astronomical instrument invented in 1326.

J. Bale...


Philip Downs

(b Twickenham, Jan 8, 1735; d Colchester, Aug 6, 1804). English clergyman and amateur musician. As the eldest son, Twining was intended to enter the tea business founded by his grandfather, but his distaste for business and aptitude for scholarship took him to Cambridge University in 1755. There he became acquainted with the poet Thomas Gray, who modified his antiquarian tastes in music and made him aware of Pergolesi and the moderns. As a result of his classical studies Twining was vastly knowledgeable about ancient music, and he helped extensively in the preparation of the first volume of Charles Burney's History (1776), which would have had a completely different complexion without Twining's input in planning and content. It is possible that Burney might never have written beyond the first volume without the encouragement of Twining, whose humour and common sense enabled him to help Burney through deep depressions experienced during the writing. He refused Burney permission to mention the debt owed to him. An equal diffidence inhibited his desire to publish his own work. His translation of Aristotle's ...


John Warrack and James Deaville

(b Wurzen, nr Leipzig, Feb 15, 1822; d Dresden, Jan 3, 1853). German theorist, critic and composer. The illegitimate son of King Friedrich August II of Saxony, he studied with Friedrich Schneider in Dessau (1837–40) and joined the Dresden orchestra as a violinist in 1841. Although he was initially hostile to Wagner, study of Tannhäuser and of the essay on Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (1846) turned him into one of the earliest, most loyal and most articulate of Wagner's defenders. His ‘great seriousness and his quiet but unusually firm character’ attracted the attention of Wagner, who also wrote in his autobiography that Uhlig ‘had grasped with clear understanding and perfect agreement those very tendencies of mine which many musicians of apparently wider culture than his own regarded with almost despairing horror, as being dangerous to the orthodox practice of their art’. He remained a close friend of Wagner, whose correspondence with him is filled with enlightening personal and professional details (Uhlig's letters to Wagner have not survived). With Uhlig's untimely death to consumption in ...